Browsing by Subject "Mixotrophy"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Paczkowska, Joanna; Rowe, O.F.; Figueroa, Daniela; Andersson, Agneta (2019)
    The influence of nutrient availability and light conditions on phytoplankton size-structure, nutritional strategy and production were studied in a phosphorus-poor estuary in the northern Baltic Sea receiving humic-rich river water. The relative biomass of mixotrophic nanophytoplankton peaked in spring when heterotrophic bacterial production was high, while autotrophic microphytoplankton had their maximum in summer when primary production displayed highest values. Limiting substance only showed small changes over time, and the day light was at saturating levels all through the study period. We also investigated if the phytoplankton taxonomic richness influences the production. Structured equation modelling indicated that an increase of the taxonomic richness during the warm summer combined with slightly higher phosphorus concentration lead to increased resource use efficiency, which in turn caused higher phytoplankton biomass and primary production. Our results suggest that climate warming would lead to higher primary production in northerly shallow coastal areas, which are influenced by humic-rich river run-off from un-disturbed terrestrial systems.
  • Peltomaa, Elina; Johnson, Matthew D. (2017)
    The marine ciliate Mesodinium rubrum is known to form large non-toxic red water blooms in estuarine and coastal upwelling regions worldwide. This ciliate relies predominantly upon photosynthesis by using plastids and other organelles it acquires from cryptophyte prey. Although M. rubrum is capable of ingesting different species of cryptophytes, mainly Teleaulax amphioxeia plastids have been detected from wild M. rubrum populations. These observations suggest that either M. rubrum is a selective feeder, or T. amphioxeia are taken up because of higher availability. To test these hypotheses, we determined whether the ciliate showed different grazing rates, growth responses, or plastid retention dynamics when offered Storeatula major, T. amphioxeia, T. acuta, or a mix. When M. rubrum was offered the cryptophyte S. major as prey, no evidence was found for ingestion. In contrast, M. rubrum grazed both Teleaulax spp. equally, was able to easily switch plastid type between them, and the ratio of each in the ciliate reflected the abundance of free-living prey in the culture. M. rubrum grew equally well when acclimated to each plastid type or when having mixed plastids. However, when offered single prey, T. amphioxeia could sustain higher M. rubrum growth rates (mu) over longer periods. Compared to other M. rubrum strains, this culture had higher grazing rates, greater ingestion requirements for reaching mu(max), and appeared to rely more on plastid sequestration than de novo division of cryptophyte organelles. Our results suggest that while M. rubrum may prefer Teleaulax-like cryptophytes, they do not select among the species used here.
  • Peltomaa, Elina T.; Taipale, Sami (2020)
    The uptake of dissolved organic compounds, that is, osmotrophy, has been shown to be an efficient nutritional strategy for algae. However, this mode of nutrition may affect the biochemical composition, for example, the fatty acid (FA) contents, of algal cells. This study focused on the osmotrophic assimilation of glucose and leucine by selected seven algal strains belonging to chlorophytes, chrysophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates and euglenoids. Our laboratory experiments with stable isotope labeling showed that osmotrophy occurred in four of the selected seven strains. However, only three of these produced long chain omega-3 FAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 omega 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 omega 3). High glucose content (5 mg L-1) affected negatively on the total FAs of Mallomonas kalinae and the total omega-3 FAs of Cryptomonas sp. Further, glucose assimilation explained 35% (negative effect) and leucine assimilation 48% (positive effect) of the variation of EPA, DHA and the FAs related to their synthesis in Cryptomonas sp. Moderate glucose concentration (2 mg L-1) was found to enhance the growth of Cryptomonas ozolinii, whereas low leucine (20 mu g L-1) enhanced the growth of M. kalinae. However, no systematic effect of osmotrophy on growth rates was detected. Our study shows that osmotrophic assimilation of algae is species and compound specific, and that the effects of the assimilated compounds on algal metabolism also varies depending on the species.
  • Majaneva, Markus; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Blomster, Jaanika (2022)
    Ciliophora is a phylum of unicellular eukaryotes that are common and have pivotal roles in aquatic environments. Sea ice is a marine habitat, which is composed of a matrix of solid ice and pockets of saline water in which Ciliophora thrive. Here, we used phylogenetic placement to identify Ciliophora 18S ribosomal RNA reads obtained from wintertime water and sea ice, and assigned functions to the reads based on this taxonomic information. Based on our results, sea-ice Ciliophora assemblages are poorer in taxonomic and functional richness than under-ice water and water-column assemblages. Ciliophora diversity stayed stable throughout the ice-covered season both in sea ice and in water, although the assemblages changed during the course of our sampling. Under-ice water and the water column were distinctly predominated by planktonic orders Choreotrichida and Oligotrichida, which led to significantly lower taxonomic and functional evenness in water than in sea ice. In addition to planktonic Ciliophora, assemblages in sea ice included a set of moderately abundant surface-oriented species. Omnivory (feeding on bacteria and unicellular eukaryotes) was the most common feeding type but was not as predominant in sea ice as in water. Sea ice included cytotrophic (feeding on unicellular eukaryotes), bacterivorous and parasitic Ciliophora in addition to the predominant omnivorous Ciliophora. Potentially mixotrophic Ciliophora predominated the water column and heterotrophic Ciliophora sea ice. Our results highlight sea ice as an environment that creates a set of variable habitats, which may be threatened by the diminishing extent of sea ice due to changing climate.