Browsing by Subject "Mobility"

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  • Nagatsu, Michiru; Raymond, Prof. Christopher; Tuomisto, Hanna; Ruotsalainen, Laura; Soininen, Niko; Thoren, Henrik; Stojanovic, Milutin; Horcea-Milcu, Andra-Ioana; Lehtinen, Sanna; Mazac, Rachel; Lamuela Orta, Carlos; Korpelainen, Noora-Helena P; Vainio, Annukka; Toivanen, Reetta; McPhearson, Timon (2022)
    Sustainability transformations call forth new forms and systems of knowledge across society. However, few tools and processes exist for promoting dialogue among different interests and normative stances in knowledge co-creation. In this article, we build on the notion of thought collectives to argue that understanding and moderating normative tensions are necessary if sustainability science is to provide successful solutions. Drawing on an analysis of the normative tensions between rival high-tech and low-tech thought collectives in the mobility and food production sectors, we discuss three strategic approaches: applying common evaluative frameworks, building contextual convergence and embracing complexity. We argue that these strategies indicate a need to distinguish different kinds of reflexivity in managing tensions among thought collectives. As a practical conclusion, we establish sets of reflexive questions to help sustainability scientists deploy the knowledge management strategies discussed.
  • Järv, Olle; Tenkanen, Henrikki Toivo Olavi; Salonen, Maria Pauliina; Ahas, Rein; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina (2018)
    The concept of accessibility- the potential of opportunities for interaction- binds together the key physical components of urban structure: people, transport and social activity locations. Most often these components are dynamic in nature and hence the accessibility landscape changes in space and time based on people's mobilities and the temporality of the transport network and activity locations (e.g. services). Person-based accessibility approaches have been successful in incorporating time and space in the analyses and models. Still, the more broadly applied location-based accessibility modelling approaches have, on the other hand, often been static/atemporal in their nature. Here, we present a conceptual framework of dynamic location-based accessibility modelling that captures the dynamic temporality of all three accessibility components. Furthermore, we empirically test the proposed framework using novel data sources and tools. We demonstrate the impact of temporal aspects in accessibility modelling with two examples: by investigating food accessibility and its spatial equity. Our case study demonstrates how the conventional static location-based accessibility models tend to overestimate the access of people to potential opportunities. The proposed framework is universally applicable beyond the urban context, from local to global scale and on different temporal scales and multimodal transport systems. It also bridges the gap between location-based accessibility and person-based accessibility research.
  • Laakso, Senja (2017)
    Despite recent political and scientific interest in experiments, there is little research on participants' experiences of experimentation. This article focuses on an experiment during which eleven participants gave up ownership of their cars, and in return, received free travel cards to local buses for six months. The experiment is analysed from two perspectives. Firstly, the impact of the experiment on carbon emissions of the participants' everyday mobility is estimated based on weekly mobility surveillances and travel card data. Secondly, the practice theoretical approach is used to study the change in participants' mobility routines. The results indicate that the processes of de- and re-routinisation depend on multiple structural and individual factors reinforcing each other. Although carbon emissions of everyday mobility were reduced because of the experiment, there was variation in how the new routines were (or were not) acquired among the participants. The article suggests that, when analysed from the practice perspective, experiments might work as tools for mutual learning on how to make local public transportation more attractive among residents. Attention should also be paid to reducing the need for driving in the first place, as well as to providing more support and services for car-free living. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Korpela, Mari (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2014)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences ; 15
    An increasing number of Western families lead a lifestyle whereby they spend half of the year in Goa, India, and the rest in the parents’ countries of origin. Such people can be defined as lifestyle migrants. In this article, I discuss the phenomenon in terms of cosmopolitanism. I ask whether lifestyle migrant children in Goa (3 to 12-year-olds) are growing up in a cosmopolitan way. I show that the parents say that for their children their lifestyle is a great advantage: their transnationally mobile life makes the children sociable and cosmopolitan. The views and practices of children and young adults who have grown up in Goa, however, show that although they appear cosmopolitan in some respects, in other respects they do not, and deeming them cosmopolitan depends on how we define the term. The lifestyle migrant children and young people do not necessarily reach out across cultural differences but their horizons are not narrowly national either. I argue that lifestyle migrant children in Goa are multilingual, sociable and flexible in adapting to life in different places but that their engagement with the Indian other is limited. Therefore, they are cosmopolitan, but it is cosmopolitanism on limited, Western terms.
  • Tallavaara, Miikka; Pesonen, Petro (2020)
    High-quality palaeoenvironmental proxies and well-preserved archaeological record make Fennoscandia as an excellent area for the studies of long-term human-environment interaction in high-latitude settings. Here, we use palaeoenvironmental data and temporal frequency distributions of 754 shoreline dated hunter-gatherer sites to analyse the relationship between environmental changes and hunter-gatherer population dynamics, mobility, social organisation, and conflicts in the Baltic Sea coast of western Finland. Our results suggest, firstly, that hunter-gatherer population dynamics were strongly influenced by changes in the productivity of terrestrial and marine environments. Secondly, the degree of residential mobility, as indicated by the frequency of house pit sites, was correlated with population size. Thirdly, large villages and large co-residential units were tightly associated with the highest population size and their frequency dropped sharply when population size started to decrease. Fourthly, intensity of conflicts, as indicated by frequency of defensive structures, was the highest slightly after the highest population sizes, when environmental productivity had started to decline. Increased conflicts were probably caused by the imbalance between human population and its resources. Lastly, dramatic population crash (76% within 200 years) occurred just after the intensity peak in conflicts. The crash was partly density dependent (conflicts) and partly density independent phenomenon as it coincided with the onset of the Late Holocene acceleration in the cooling trend in climate. Continuing decline in the environmental productivity during the Late Holocene did not allow hunter-gatherer population to recover from the collapse. All this highlights the importance of environmental forcing on hunter-gatherer populations in northern Europe.
  • Tyrväinen, Helena (2017)
    Conceived in memory of late Professor of Musicology of Estonian Academy of Music Urve Lippus (1950–2015), to honour her contribution to music history research, the article analyses transcultural relations and the role of cultural capitals to the discipline at its early phase in the university context. The focus is on the early French contacts of the founder of the institutional Finnish musicology, University of Helsinki Professor Ilmari Krohn (1867–1960) and his pupils. The analysis of Krohn’s mobility, networking and interaction is based on his correspondence and documentation concerning his early congress journeys to London (1891) and to Paris (1900). Two French correspondents stand out for this early phase of his career as a musicologist: Julien Tiersot in the area of comparative research on traditional music, and Georges Houdard concerning Gregorian chant and neume notation. By World War I Krohn was quite well-read in French-language musicology. But Paris was for him also a stronghold for international networking more generally. Accomplished musicians, Krohn and his musicology students Armas Launis, Leevi Madetoja and Toivo Haapanen even had an artistic bond with French repertoires. My results contradict the claim that early Finnish musicology was an exclusive domain of German influences.
  • Koikkalainen, Saara (2019)
    Citizenship is defined in terms of national contexts, institutions, or practices. Apart from noting one’s membership in a certain polity, citizenship can be understood to have – at least – three meanings as follows: it can signify access, identification, and practice. This article examines these three dimensions based on the experiences of highly skilled Finns living in other European Union member states. Do they adopt the legal citizenship of the new country to gain access to legal and civic rights? Do they begin to identify with and assimilate to their new home country? Is citizenship played out in the everyday life as practice? The article concludes that thanks to European citizenship, all three interpretations are present at the same time.
  • Jokela, Markus (2021)
    Personality traits have been associated with differences in residential mobility, but details are lacking on the types of residential moves associated with personality differences. The present study pooled data from four prospective cohort studies from the United Kingdom (UK Household Longitudinal Survey, and British Household Panel Survey), Germany (Socioeconomic Panel Study), and Australia (Household, Income, and Labour Dynamics in Australia) to assess whether personality traits of the Five Factor Model are differently related to residential moves motivated by different reasons to move: employment, education, family, housing, and neighborhood (total n = 86,073). Openness to experience was associated with all moves but particularly with moves due to employment and education. Extraversion was associated with higher overall mobility, except for moves motivated by employment and education. Lower emotional stability predicted higher probability of moving due to neighborhood, housing, and family, while higher agreeableness was associated with lower probability of moving due to neighborhood and education. Adjusting for education, household income, marital status, employment status, number of children in the household, and housing tenure did not substantially change the associations. These results suggest that different personality traits may motivate different types of residential moves.
  • Tenkanen, Henrikki Toivo Olavi; Salonen, Maria; Lattu, Matti Petteri; Toivonen, Tuuli Kaarina (2015)
    Accessibility and transportation possibilities are key factors influencing societal conditions and land use patterns in rural areas. Thus, information on the spatial patterns of accessibility and transportation can be of paramount importance in understanding regional differences in development, human livelihood and land use patterns. Analysing spatio-temporal transportation patterns is particularly challenging in areas where everyday transportation is based on unscheduled public transportation and a naturally controlled seasonal transportation network, such as rivers. Here, our aim is to provide information on the seasonal dynamics of riverine transportation and its effects on accessibility patterns in Peruvian Amazonia. We analysed riverine transportation speeds using a low-cost GPS-based riverboat observation system. Spatio-temporal accessibility patterns were generalised from the GPS-observations that were classified according to seasons into the high water season, intermediate season and low water season. We show that navigation along the rivers has a clear seasonal and directional (upstream/downstream) variation, which varies with different types of rivers based on channel morphology. In addition, we conducted interviews with local people to study their perceptions of the seasonal changes in navigation and the accuracy of transportation schedules. As the travel distances in Peruvian Amazonia are generally long, seasonal and directional differences have clear impacts on the overall accessibility patterns in the area and on the livelihoods of riverine inhabitants. Furthermore, the lack of clearly scheduled transportation causes considerable uncertainty about transportation options for local communities. The baseline information of the seasonal and directional variation of riverine transportation and travel speeds provided by our work is usable in further accessibility and livelihood analyses for Peruvian Amazonia, but it may also be useful in other areas relying on riverine transportation.
  • Lahtinen, Maria; Arppe, Laura; Nowell, Geoff (2021)
    The strontium isotope composition of human tissues is widely used in archaeological mobility studies. However, little attention is paid to the relative contributions of terrestrial versus marine sources of strontium in these studies. There is some debate over the role of a solid diet versus drinking water as the most important source of strontium for the human body, with related possibilities of misinterpretation of the archaeological record if only strontium isotope compositions of the biosphere are studied. However, there is a third component, marine strontium, which is commonly not assumed to contribute towards the strontium isotope composition of archaeological skeletal remains, especially in locations that are not directly coastal. To illustrate the potentially obfuscating effects of mixed Sr sources in a human population, we present a case study of twelve individuals from the medieval Finnish site Iin Hamina with a known dietary history. Our study shows that marine consumption is a significant factor explaining the strontium isotope composition of the Iin Hamina human remains, with implication of erroneous conclusions about immigration without prior knowledge of diet composition. Thus, future studies should always incorporate a rigorous analysis of dietary history, with special regard to potential consumption of aquatic resources, when strontium isotope analysis is used as a method in the study of palaeomobility.