Browsing by Subject "Morphology"

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  • Kauppinen, S.; Karhula, S. S.; Thevenot, J.; Ylitalo, T.; Rieppo, L.; Kestilä, I.; Haapea, M.; Hadjab, I.; Finnilä, M. A.; Quenneville, E.; Garon, M.; Gahunia, H. K.; Pritzker, K. P. H.; Buschmann, M. D.; Saarakkala, S.; Nieminen, H. J. (2019)
    Objective: Our aim is to establish methods for quantifying morphometric properties of calcified cartilage (CC) from micro-computed tomography (mu CT). Furthermore, we evaluated the feasibility of these methods in investigating relationships between osteoarthritis (OA), tidemark surface morphology and open subchondral channels (OSCCs). Method: Samples (n = 15) used in this study were harvested from human lateral tibial plateau (n = 8). Conventional roughness and parameters assessing local 3-dimensional (3D) surface variations were used to quantify the surface morphology of the CC. Subchondral channel properties (percentage, density, size) were also calculated. As a reference, histological sections were evaluated using Histopathological osteoarthritis grading (OARSI) and thickness of CC and subchondral bone (SCB) was quantified. Results: OARSI grade correlated with a decrease in local 3D variations of the tidemark surface (amount of different surface patterns (r(s) = -0.600, P = 0.018), entropy of patterns (EP) (r(s) = -0.648, P = 0.018), homogeneity index (HI) (r(s) = 0.555, P = 0.032)) and tidemark roughness (TMR) (r(s) = -0.579, P = 0.024). Amount of different patterns (ADP) and EP associated with channel area fraction (CAF) (r(p) = 0.876, P <0.0001; r(p) = 0.665, P = 0.007, respectively) and channel density (CD) (r(p) = 0.680, P = 0.011; r(p) = 0.582, P = 0.023, respectively). TMR was associated with CAF (r(p) = 0.926, P <0.0001) and average channel size (r(p) = 0.574, P = 0.025). CC topography differed statistically significantly in early OA vs healthy samples. Conclusion: We introduced a mu-CT image method to quantify 3D CC topography and perforations through CC. CC topography was associated with OARSI grade and OSCC properties; this suggests that the established methods can detect topographical changes in tidemark and CC perforations associated with OA. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Osteoarthritis Research Society International. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Kimppa, Lilli; Shtyrov, Yury; Hut, Suzanne C. A.; Hedlund, Laura; Leminen, Miika; Leminen, Alina (2019)
    Learning a new language requires the acquisition of morphological units that enable the fluent use of words in different grammatical contexts. While accumulating research has elucidated the neural processing of native morphology, much less is known about how second-language (L2) learners acquire and process morphology in their L2. To address this question, we presented native speakers as well as beginning and advanced learners of Finnish with spoken (1) derived words, (2) inflected words, (3) novel derivations (novel combinations of existing stem + suffix), and (4) pseudo-suffixed words (existing stem + pseudo-suffix) in a passive listening EEG experiment. An early (60 msec after suffix deviation point) positive ERP response showed no difference between inflections and derivations, suggesting similar early parsing of these complex words. At 130 msec, derivations elicited a lexical ERP pattern of full-form memory-trace activation, present in the L2 beginners and advanced speakers to different degrees, implying a shift from lexical processing to more dual parsing and lexical activation of the complex forms with increasing proficiency. Pseudo-suffixed words produced a syntactic pattern in a later, 170 240 msec time-window, exhibiting enhanced ERPs compared to well-formed inflections, indicating second-pass syntactic parsing. Overall, the L2 learners demonstrated a gradual effect of proficiency towards L1-like responses. Advanced L2 learners seem to have developed memory traces for derivations and their neurolinguistic system is capable of early automatic parsing. This suggests that advanced learners have already developed sensitivity to morphological information, while such knowledge is weak in beginners. Discrepancies in ERP dynamics and topographies indicate partially differing recruitment of the language network in L1 and L2. In beginners, response differences between existing and novel morphology were scarce, implying that representations for complex forms are not yet well-established. The results suggest successful development of brain mechanisms for automatic processing of L2 morphology, capable of gradually attaining L1-like functionality with increasing proficiency. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Verastegui Castro, Karla Lucia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Genetic selection of broilers has produced heavier birds that grow faster, with consequent change in morphology and allometry (relative growth) of their body parts. Wooden Breast (WB) is a defect of the breast muscle that affects meat quality. Its cause is unknown, but heavy weight and/or rapid growth rate seem to be predetermining factors. The aim of this work was to study the differences in morphology and relative growth (allometry) between WB affected and unaffected birds. Random groups of a total of 350 male chickens of 5 hybrids were slaughtered at 7 different ages. Morphometric measurements of heart, liver, intestine, breast muscle, girth, coracoid, clavicle, keel and leg bones were analysed with a statistical software. Affected birds presented higher body weight, heavier, longer and thicker breasts and heavier livers than unaffected birds. On the other hand, unaffected birds presented longer legs, heavier intestines and hearts. Keel length, coracoid length and clavicle length did not present any difference between both groups. The comparison of allometric curves of affected and unaffected birds showed differences in almost all body parts, but the heart and liver. Clavicle was the only body part that presented a slower growth rate in unaffected birds, all the other body parts showed a higher growth rate. The relationship between breast thickness and clavicle, coracoid and keel lengths, had a great effect on the presentation of WB. Affected birds presented changes in morphology and growth, very similar to the ones caused by genetic selection. Genetic selection of broilers is very complex and dynamic and it may be possible that WB has several causes. It seems that one of them is the lack of support of the breast muscle, due to an impaired growth of its bone structure.
  • Oja, S.; Komulainen, P.; Penttilä, A.; Nystedt, J.; Korhonen, M. (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Senescent cells are undesirable in cell therapy products due to reduced therapeutic activity and risk of aberrant cellular effects, and methods for assessing senescence are needed. Early-passage mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known to be small and spindle-shaped but become enlarged upon cell aging. Indeed, cell morphology is routinely evaluated during MSC production using subjective methods. We have therefore explored the possibility of utilizing automated imaging-based analysis of cell morphology in clinical cell manufacturing. Methods An imaging system was adopted for analyzing changes in cell morphology of bone marrow-derived MSCs during long-term culture. Cells taken from the cultures at the desired passages were plated at low density for imaging, representing morphological changes observed in the clinical-grade cultures. The manifestations of aging and onset of senescence were monitored by population doubling numbers, expression of p16INK4a and p21Cip1/Waf1, β-galactosidase activity, and telomeric terminal restriction fragment analysis. Results Cell area was the most statistically significant and practical parameter for describing morphological changes, correlating with biochemical senescence markers. MSCs from passages 1 (p1) and 3 (p3) were remarkably uniform in size, with cell areas between 1800 and 2500 μm2. At p5 the cells began to enlarge resulting in a 4.8-fold increase at p6–9 as compared to p1. The expression of p16INK4a and activity of β-galactosidase had a strong correlation with the increase in cell area, whereas the expression of p21Cip1/Waf1 reached its maximum at the onset of growth arrest and subsequently decreased. Mean telomere length shortened at an apparently constant rate during culture, from 8.2 ± 0.3 kbp at p1, reaching 6.08 ± 0.6 kbp at senescence. Conclusions Imaging analysis of cell morphology is a useful tool for evaluating aging in cell cultures throughout the lifespan of MSCs. Our findings suggest that imaging analysis can reproducibly detect aging-related changes in cell morphology in MSC cultures. These findings suggest that cell morphology is still a supreme measure of cell quality and may be utilized to develop new noninvasive imaging-based methods to screen and quantitate aging in clinical-grade cell cultures.
  • Oja, S.; Komulainen, P.; Penttilä, A.; Nystedt, J.; Korhonen, M. (2018)
    Background: Senescent cells are undesirable in cell therapy products due to reduced therapeutic activity and risk of aberrant cellular effects, and methods for assessing senescence are needed. Early-passage mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are known to be small and spindle-shaped but become enlarged upon cell aging. Indeed, cell morphology is routinely evaluated during MSC production using subjective methods. We have therefore explored the possibility of utilizing automated imaging-based analysis of cell morphology in clinical cell manufacturing. Methods: An imaging system was adopted for analyzing changes in cell morphology of bone marrow-derived MSCs during long-term culture. Cells taken from the cultures at the desired passages were plated at low density for imaging, representing morphological changes observed in the clinical-grade cultures. The manifestations of aging and onset of senescence were monitored by population doubling numbers, expression of p16(INK4)a and p21(Cip1/Waf1), beta-galactosidase activity, and telomeric terminal restriction fragment analysis. Results: Cell area was the most statistically significant and practical parameter for describing morphological changes, correlating with biochemical senescence markers. MSCs from passages 1 (p1) and 3 (p3) were remarkably uniform in size, with cell areas between 1800 and 2500 mu m(2). At p5 the cells began to enlarge resulting in a 4.8-fold increase at p6-9 as compared to p1. The expression of p16(INK4a) and activity of beta-galactosidase had a strong correlation with the increase in cell area, whereas the expression of p21(Cip1/Waf1) reached its maximum at the onset of growth arrest and subsequently decreased. Mean telomere length shortened at an apparently constant rate during culture, from 8.2 +/- 0.3 kbp at p1, reaching 6.08 +/- 0.6 kbp at senescence. Conclusions: Imaging analysis of cell morphology is a useful tool for evaluating aging in cell cultures throughout the lifespan of MSCs. Our findings suggest that imaging analysis can reproducibly detect aging-related changes in cell morphology in MSC cultures. These findings suggest that cell morphology is still a supreme measure of cell quality and may be utilized to develop new noninvasive imaging-based methods to screen and quantitate aging in clinical-grade cell cultures.
  • Huhtakangas, Justiina; Lehecka, Martin; Lehto, Hanna; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Niemela, Mika; Kivisaari, Riku (2017)
    Posterior communicating artery (PcomA) aneurysms are frequently encountered, but there are few publications on their morphology. A growing number of aneurysms are incidental findings, which makes evaluation of rupture risk important. Our goal was to identify morphological features and anatomical variants associated with PComA aneurysms and to assess parameters related to rupture. We studied CT angiographies of 391 consecutive patients treated between 2000 and 2014 at a single institution. We determined clinically important morphological parameters and performed univariate and multivariate analysis. There were a total of 413 PComA aneurysms: 258 (62%) were ruptured and 155 (38%) unruptured. Ruptured PComA aneurysms had the potential to cause severe bleeding with IVH and/or temporal ICH (n = 170, 66% of ruptured). The main types of PComA origin were classified as follows: (1) separate (32%), (2) side by side (21%) and (3) a joint neck with the aneurysm (6%). After the multivariate logistic regression, the morphological parameters related to PComA aneurysm rupture were an irregular aneurysm dome, neck diameter, and aspect ratio > 1.5. The most marked morphological features of the PComA aneurysms were: saccular nature (99%), infero-posterior dome orientation (42%), infrequency of large or giant aneurysms (4%), narrow neck compared to the aneurysm size, PComA originating directly from the aneurysm neck or the dome (28%), and fetal or dominant PComA on the side of the aneurysm (35%). There were location-related parameters that were more strongly associated with PComA aneurysm rupture than aneurysm size: an irregular aneurysm dome, larger diameter of the aneurysm neck and aspect ratio > 1.5.
  • Unruptured Aneurysms SAH CDE; Hackenberg, Katharina A. M.; Algra, Ale; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Frosen, Juhana; Hasan, David; Juvela, Seppo; Langer, David; Meyers, Philip; Morita, Akio (2019)
    IntroductionVariability in usage and definition of data characteristics in previous cohort studies on unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) complicated pooling and proper interpretation of these data. The aim of the National Institute of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke UIA and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) Common Data Elements (CDE) Project was to provide a common structure for data collection in future research on UIA and SAH.MethodsThis paper describes the development and summarization of the recommendations of the working groups (WGs) on UIAs, which consisted of an international and multidisciplinary panel of cerebrovascular specialists on research and treatment of UIAs. Consensus recommendations were developed by review of previously published CDEs for other neurological diseases and the literature on UIAs. Recommendations for CDEs were classified by priority into Core,' SupplementalHighly Recommended,' Supplemental,' and Exploratory.'ResultsNinety-one CDEs were compiled; 69 were newly created and 22 were existing CDEs. The CDEs were assigned to eight subcategories and were classified as Core (8), SupplementalHighly Recommended (23), Supplemental (25), and Exploratory (35) elements. Additionally, the WG developed and agreed on a classification for aneurysm morphology.ConclusionThe proposed CDEs have been distilled from a broad pool of characteristics, measures, or outcomes. The usage of these CDEs will facilitate pooling of data from cohort studies or clinical trials on patients with UIAs.
  • Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost Andre Maria; Hablützel, Pascal Istvan; Vanhove, Maarten Pieterjan Maria; Koblmüller, Stephan; Snoeks, Jos (2018)
    BackgroundSpecies delineation is particularly challenging in taxa with substantial intra-specific variation. In systematic studies of fishes, meristics and linear measurements that describe shape are often used to delineate species. Yet, little is known about the taxonomic value of these two types of morphological characteristics. Here, we used Tropheus (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the southern subbasin of Lake Tanganyika to test which of these types of characters best matched genetic lineages that could represent species in this group of stenotypic rock-dwelling cichlids. We further investigated intra-population variation in morphology. By linking this to a proxy of a population's age, we could assess the evolutionary stability of different kinds of morphological markers.ResultsMorphological data was collected from 570 specimens originating from 86 localities. An AFLP approach revealed the presence of five lineages in the southern subbasin: T. moorii, T. brichardi, T. sp. maculatus', T. sp. Mpimbwe' and T. sp. red', which we consider to represent distinct species. Although both types of morphological data supported this classification, a comparison of P-ST-values that describe inter-population morphological differentiation, revealed a better correspondence between the taxon delineation based on AFLP data and the patterns revealed by an analysis of meristics than between the AFLP-based taxon delineation and the patterns revealed by an analysis of shape. However, classifying southern populations of Tropheus was inherently difficult as they contained a large amount of clinal variation, both in genetic and in morphological data, and both within and among species. A scenario is put forward to explain the current-day distribution of the species and colour varieties and the observed clinal variation across the subbasin's shoreline. Additionally, we observed that variation in shape was larger in populations from shallow shores whereas populations from steep shores were more variable in meristics. This difference is explained in terms of the different timescales at which small and large scale lake level fluctuations affected populations of littoral cichlids at steep and shallow shores.ConclusionsOur results showed meristics to be more evolutionary stable, and of higher taxonomic value for species delimitation in Tropheus, than linear measurements that describe shape. These results should be taken into account when interpreting morphological differences between populations of highly stenotypic species, such as littoral cichlids from the Great East African Lakes.
  • Van Steenberge, Maarten; Raeymaekers, Joost A M; Hablützel, Pascal I; Vanhove, Maarten P M; Koblmüller, Stephan; Snoeks, Jos (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Species delineation is particularly challenging in taxa with substantial intra-specific variation. In systematic studies of fishes, meristics and linear measurements that describe shape are often used to delineate species. Yet, little is known about the taxonomic value of these two types of morphological characteristics. Here, we used Tropheus (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the southern subbasin of Lake Tanganyika to test which of these types of characters best matched genetic lineages that could represent species in this group of stenotypic rock-dwelling cichlids. We further investigated intra-population variation in morphology. By linking this to a proxy of a population’s age, we could assess the evolutionary stability of different kinds of morphological markers. Results Morphological data was collected from 570 specimens originating from 86 localities. An AFLP approach revealed the presence of five lineages in the southern subbasin: T. moorii, T. brichardi, T. sp. ‘maculatus’, T. sp. ‘Mpimbwe’ and T. sp. ‘red’, which we consider to represent distinct species. Although both types of morphological data supported this classification, a comparison of PST-values that describe inter-population morphological differentiation, revealed a better correspondence between the taxon delineation based on AFLP data and the patterns revealed by an analysis of meristics than between the AFLP-based taxon delineation and the patterns revealed by an analysis of shape. However, classifying southern populations of Tropheus was inherently difficult as they contained a large amount of clinal variation, both in genetic and in morphological data, and both within and among species. A scenario is put forward to explain the current-day distribution of the species and colour varieties and the observed clinal variation across the subbasin’s shoreline. Additionally, we observed that variation in shape was larger in populations from shallow shores whereas populations from steep shores were more variable in meristics. This difference is explained in terms of the different timescales at which small and large scale lake level fluctuations affected populations of littoral cichlids at steep and shallow shores. Conclusions Our results showed meristics to be more evolutionary stable, and of higher taxonomic value for species delimitation in Tropheus, than linear measurements that describe shape. These results should be taken into account when interpreting morphological differences between populations of highly stenotypic species, such as littoral cichlids from the Great East African Lakes.
  • Heikkila, Maria; Mutanen, Marko; Wahlberg, Niklas; Sihvonen, Pasi; Kaila, Lauri (2015)
    Background: Ditrysia comprise close to 99 % of all butterflies and moths. The evolutionary relationships among the ditrysian superfamilies have received considerable attention in phylogenetic studies based on DNA and transcriptomic data, but the deepest divergences remain for large parts unresolved or contradictory. To obtain complementary insight into the evolutionary history of the clade, and to test previous hypotheses on the subdivision of Ditrysia based on morphology, we examine the morphology of larvae, pupae and adult males and females of 318 taxa representing nearly all ditrysian superfamilies and families. We present the most comprehensive morphological dataset on Ditrysia to date, consisting of over 500 morphological characters. The data are analyzed alone and combined with sequence data (one mitochondrial and seven nuclear protein-coding gene regions, sequenced from 422 taxa). The full dataset consists of 473 exemplar species. Analyses are performed using maximum likelihood methods, and parsimony methods for the morphological dataset. We explore whether combining morphological data and DNA-data can stabilize taxa that are unstable in phylogenetic studies based on genetic data only. Results: Morphological characters are found phylogenetically informative in resolving apical nodes (superfamilies and families), but characters serving as evidence of relatedness of larger assemblages are few. Results include the recovery of a monophyletic Tineoidea, Sesioidea and Cossoidea, and a stable position for some unstable taxa (e.g. Epipyropidae, Cyclotornidae, Urodoidea + Schreckensteinioidea). Several such taxa, however, remain unstable even though morphological characters indicate a position in the tree (e.g. Immidae). Evidence supporting affinities between clades are suggested, e.g. a novel larval synapomorphy for Tineidae. We also propose the synonymy of Tineodidae with Alucitidae, syn. nov. Conclusions: The large morphological dataset provides information on the diversity and distribution of morphological traits in Ditrysia, and can be used in future research on the evolution of these traits, in identification keys and in identification of fossil Lepidoptera. The "backbone" of the phylogeny for Ditrysia remains largely unresolved. As previously proposed as an explanation for the scarcity of molecular signal in resolving the deeper nodes, this may be due to the rapid radiation of Ditrysia in the Cretaceous.
  • Simonsen, Thomas J.; Wagner, David L.; Heikkilä, Maria (2019)
    We critically re-examine nine of the ten fossil specimens currently assigned to Hepialidae. Three fossils with impressions of wing veins and scales placed in the fossil genus Prohepialus Piton, 1940, and two mummified larvae that show apomorphic characters, have features that support placement in Hepialidae. The other four fossils that we evaluate, Prohepialus incertus Piton, 1940; Oiophassus nycterus Zhang, 1989; Protohepialus comstocki Pierce, 1945; and a fossil scale, lack definitive hepialid characters. One of these, Prohepialus incertus Piton, 1940, appears to represent a symphytan (Hymenoptera), and is excluded from Lepidoptera. The fossilized wings placed in Prohepialus by Jarzembowski display numerous features that indicate a proximate phylogenetic relationship to extant members of the hepialid genus Sthenopis Packard and related genera.
  • Kestilä, I.; Thevenot, J.; Finnilä, M. A.; Karhula, S. S.; Hadjab, I.; Kauppinen, S.; Garon, M.; Quenneville, E.; Haapea, M.; Rieppo, L.; Pritzker, K. P.; Buschmann, M. D.; Nieminen, H. J.; Saarakkala, S. (2018)
    Objective: The aims of this study were: to 1) develop a novel sample processing protocol to visualize human articular cartilage (AC) chondrons using micro-computed tomography (mu CT), 2) develop and validate an algorithm to quantify the chondron morphology in 3D, and 3) compare the differences in chondron morphology between intact and osteoarthritic AC. Method: The developed protocol is based on the dehydration of samples with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), followed by imaging with a desktop mCT. Chondron density and depth, as well as volume and sphericity, were calculated in 3D with a custom-made and validated algorithm employing semiautomatic chondron selection and segmentation. The quantitative parameters were analyzed at three AC depth zones (zone 1: 0-10%; zone 2: 10-40%; zone 3: 40-100%) and grouped by the OARSI histological grades (OARSI grades 0-1.0, n = 6; OARSI grades 3.0-3.5, n = 6). Results: After semi-automatic chondron selection and segmentation, 1510 chondrons were approved for 3D morphometric analyses. The chondrons especially in the deeper tissue (zones 2 and 3) were significantly larger (P Conclusion: We have developed a novel sample processing protocol for chondron imaging in 3D, as well as a high-throughput algorithm to semi-automatically quantify chondron/ chondrocyte 3D morphology in AC. Our results also suggest that 3D chondron morphology is affected by the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Osteoarthritis Research Society International. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Pyysalo, Jouna Olavi; Janhunen, Juha Antero (2018)
    Revisionist trilaryngealism, consisting of the hypotheses CC·C, *h1 h2 h3, and at least two different vowels PIE *e *o (and optionally PIE *a), has split the laryngeal theory into several mutually incompatible models. The models of EICHNER (1973, 1978, 1980, 1988) and MELCHERT (1987)/RIX (et al. 2001) are characterized by symmetrical, but opposed reconstructions for Hitt. a- (*h3e- vs. *h1o-) and Hitt. ḫa- (*h2e/o- vs. *h2/3e/o-). In KORTLANDT’s (2003–4) model the preservation of *h2 and *h3 is conditioned by the distributions of *e/o. Both laryngeals are allegedly retained before *e, but lost before *o in Old Anatolian. In addition, it is theoretically possible to define a variant of KORTLANDT’s model in which the distributions are reversed. The present paper focuses on KORTLANDT’s model in both its original and reversed form and demonstrates the internal inconsistency of this model, due to which it has to be discarded as a serious option for PIE reconstruction. This leaves us only the models of EICHNER and MELCHERT/RIX to compete with SZEMERÉNYI’s (1967, 1970, 1996) monolaryngealism for the solution of the PIE laryngeal/vowel problem.
  • Juvela, Seppo; Korja, Miikka (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies have suggested that aneurysm morphology is a risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether various morphological indices of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) predict a future rupture. METHODS: A total of 142 patients with UIAs diagnosed between 1956 and 1978 were followed prospectively until SAH, death, or the last contact. Morphological UIA indices from standard angiographic projections were measured at baseline and adjusted inmulti-variable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for established risk factors for SAH. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 3064 person-years, 34 patients suffered from an aneurysm rupture. In multivariable analyses, aneurysm volume, volume-to-ostium area ratio, and the bottleneck factor separately as continuous variables predicted aneurysm rupture. All the morphological indices were higher (P <.01) after the rupture than before. In final multivariable analyses, current smoking (adjusted hazard ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.03-6.10, P = .044), location in the anterior communicating artery (4.28, 1.38-13.28, P = .012), age (inversely; 0.95 per year, 0.91-1.00, P = .043), and UIA diameter >= 7 mm at baseline (2.68, 1.16-6.21, P = .021) were independent risk factors for a future rupture. Aneurysm growth during the follow-up was associated with smoking (P <.05) and SAH (P <.001), but not with the aneurysm indices. CONCLUSION: Of the morphological indices, UIA volume seems to predict a future rupture. However, as volume correlates with the maximum diameter of the aneurysm, it seems to add little to the predictive value of the maximum diameter. Retrospective studies using indices that are measured after rupture are of little value in risk prediction.
  • Enroth, Johannes; Shevock, James; Ignatov, Michael (2018)
    Mawenzhangia thamnobryoides gen. et sp. nov. (Bryophyta, Lembophyllaceae) is described based on collections from Yunnan, China. It is known from the Niru River watershed and grows on boulders just above the high water zone but can also be seasonally inundated. According to ITS sequences it is closely related to Nogopterium gracile (Pterogonium g.), but can be distinguished by the loosely patent and elliptic vs. imbricate and ovate leaves; much longer, single costa; thinner-walled and less strongly prorate laminal cells; and much smaller group of alar cells. Mawenzhangia thamnobryoides is illustrated in line drawings and an identification key to Chinese genera of the Lembophyllaceae is provided.
  • Immonen, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims Sleep is needed to maintain brain homeostasis. Chronic insufficient sleep has been associated with elevated levels of inflammatory markers. Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain. As microglial morphology correlates with their functional state, the current study aimed to characterize microglial morphology after insufficient sleep and recovery sleep. We hypothesised that microglia adopt an activated state after insufficient sleep, indicated by a deramification of the branches and an enlargement of cell bodies compared with the controls. Methods We caused insufficient sleep with acute sleep deprivation by 9 h of gentle handling, and conducted sleep fragmentation for 14 days in mice. The tissue was collected after perfusing the animals with PFA. The brain tissue from ventral hippocampus was immunostained for microglia and imaged with a confocal microscope. Ramification and soma size were quantified by tracing the branches and segmenting the somas. Results Neither the acute sleep deprivation nor the chronic fragmented sleep did result in any differences in morphology compared with their control groups. Surprisingly, the soma size was significantly smaller following the recovery sleep after fragmented sleep compared with the controls. Conclusions Microglial morphology and thus function may not be affected by acute sleep deprivation and chronic fragmented sleep in ventral hippocampus. Microglial soma size was significantly smaller after recovery sleep following chronic fragmented sleep compared with the control. This could have been due to larger soma sizes in this control group compared with other controls. Further studies are needed.
  • Creutz, Mathias Johan Philip; Linden, Bo Krister Johan (Helsinki University of Technology, 2004)
    This document describes Hutmegs, the Helsinki University of Technology Morphological Evaluation Gold Standard package, which contains gold-standard morphological segmentations for 1.4 million Finnish and 120 000 English words. The Gold Standards comprise surface-string, or allomorph, segmentations of word forms, as well as deep-level, or morpheme, segmentations of the words.
  • Leminen, Alina; Smolka, Eva; Duñabeitia, Jon A.; Pliatsikas, Christos (2019)
    There is considerable behavioral evidence that morphologically complex words such as ‘tax-able’ and ‘kiss-es’ are processed and represented combinatorially. In other words, they are decomposed into their constituents ‘tax’ and ‘-able’ during comprehension (reading or listening), and producing them might also involve on–the–spot combination of these constituents (especially for inflections). However, despite increasing amount of neurocognitive research, the neural mechanisms underlying these processes are still not fully understood. The purpose of this critical review is to offer a comprehensive overview on the state-of-the-art of the research on the neural mechanisms of morphological processing. In order to take into account all types of complex words, we include findings on inflected, derived, and compound words presented both visually and aurally. More specifically, we cover a wide range of electro- and magnetoencephalography (EEG and MEG, respectively) as well as structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging (s/fMRI) studies that focus on morphological processing. We present the findings with respect to the temporal course and localization of morphologically complex word processing. We summarize the observed findings, their interpretations with respect to current psycholinguistic models, and discuss methodological approaches as well as their possible limitations.
  • Purhonen, Jenna; Ovaskainen, Otso; Halme, Panu; Komonen, Atte; Huhtinen, Seppo; Kotiranta, Heikki; Laessoe, Thomas; Abrego, Nerea (2020)
    Tree species is one of the most important determinants of wood-inhabiting fungal community composition, yet its relationship with fungal reproductive and dispersal traits remains poorly understood. We studied fungal communities (total of 657 species) inhabiting broadleaved and coniferous dead wood (total of 192 logs) in 12 semi-natural boreal forests. We utilized a trait-based hierarchical joint species distribution model to examine how the relationship between dead wood quality and species occurrence correlates with reproductive and dispersal morphological traits. Broadleaved trees had higher species richness than conifers, due to discomycetoids and pyrenomycetoids specializing in them. Resupinate and pileate species were generally specialized in coniferous dead wood. Fungi inhabiting broadleaved trees had larger and more elongated spores than fungi in conifers. Spore size was larger and spore shape more spherical in species occupying large dead wood units. These results indicate the selective effect of dead wood quality, visible not only in species diversity, but also in reproductive and dispersal traits. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd and British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.
  • Flores, Jorge R.; Suárez, Guillermo M.; Hyvönen, Jaakko (2019)
    Morphological data has gained renewed attention and has been shown to be crucial in clarifying the phylogenetic relationship in a wide range of taxa. In the last decades, phylogenetic analyses of sequence-level data have radically modified the systematic schemes within bryophytes (early non-vascular land plants) and have revealed a widespread pattern of conflict with morphology-based classifications. Yet, a comprehensive evaluation of character conflict has not yet been performed in the context of combined matrices. In this study, we evaluate the impact of morphology on bryophyte phylogeny following a total-evidence approach across 10 published matrices. The analysed matrices span a wide range of bryophytes, taxonomic levels, gene sampling and number of morphological characters and taxa. Data conflict was addressed by measuring: (i) the topological congruence between individual partitions, (ii) changes in support values of the combined data relative to the molecular partition and (iii) clade stability. The association between these measures and the number of morphological characters per taxon (Nc/T ratio) and the proportion of non-fixed characters (i.e., inapplicable, polymorphic and missing data) was explored. In the individual partition analyses, the Nc/T ratio correlated positively with the topological congruence in six to seven datasets depending on the weighting scheme. The proportion of non-fixed cells had a minor influence on congruence between data partitions. The number of characters and proportion of non-fixed data varied significantly between morphological datasets that improved congruence between data types. This variation suggests that morphological datasets affect the results of combined analyses in different ways, depending on the taxa studied. Combined analyses revealed that, despite the low congruence values between partitions, integrating data types improves support values and stability. However, while non-fixed data had no negative effect on support values, stability was reduced as the proportion of non-fixed cells increased. Nc/T ratio was negatively associated with support values and it showed ambiguous responses in stability evaluations. Overall, the results indicate that adding morphology may contribute to the inference of phylogenetic relationships of bryophytes despite character conflict. Our findings suggest that merely comparing (a) morphology-based classifications with molecular phylogenies or (b) the outcome from individual data partitions can misestimate data conflict. These findings imply that analyses of combined data may provide conservative assessments of data conflict and, eventually, lead to an improved sampling of morphological characters in large-scale analyses of bryophytes.