Browsing by Subject "Mozambique"

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  • Korkalo, Liisa; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Heinonen, Arja E.; Freese, Riitta; Selvester, Kerry; Mutanen, Marja (2017)
    Purpose In low-income settings, dietary diversity scores (DDSs) often predict the micronutrient adequacy of diets, but little is known about whether they predict levels of biochemical indicators of micronutrient status. Methods In 2010, we studied two samples of non-pregnant 14-to 19-year-old girls in central Mozambique, the first in January-February ('hunger season'; n = 227) and the second in May-June (harvest season; n = 223). In this paper, we examined whether a low Women's Dietary Diversity Score (WDDS) predicts a low concentration of haemoglobin, serum ferritin, zinc, and folate, and plasma retinol in adolescent Mozambican girls. We constructed three scores: WDDS based on 24-h recalls, WDDS15g based on 24-h recall and employing a 15 g limit, and 7dWDDS based on 7-day food frequency questionnaires. Logistic regression models, stratified by season, were used to estimate the odds of having a low concentration of a status indicator ( Results In January-February, after adjusting for confounders, a low ( Conclusions Our data from Mozambique suggest that dietary diversity is associated with serum zinc, but this association seems to be limited to the hunger season.
  • Sutton, David (2003)
    Peacekeeping operations have grown in scope and frequency over the decades since the establishment of the Unite Nations (UN). In particular, the optimism attending the UN’s prospects of greater leadership in conflict resolution in a new season of openness following the end of the Cold War saw increasing UN involvement in varied and complex conflicts – many involving ethnic rivalries that have surfaced amid the turbulence of the formation of new states and the spread of democracy in the last decade. Unfortunately, few of these operations have been widely regarded as successful, and some have ended in absolute disaster. There is a continuing need to search for the factors which hinder success and to evaluate the compatibility of current peacekeeping methods and assumptions with conflicts in which those factors play a significant role. Thus, this paper begins by examining the design, function and doctrine of traditional peacekeeping missions, from which a definition of success is also established. The nature and particular difficulties of ethnicity and ethnic conflict are delineated and a key interaction between these and the current broad UN approach to conflict is explored. From this understanding, two UN missions – the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) and the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) – are compared to determine whether a substantial ethnic component to a conflict may in fact emerge as a significant hindrance to successful peacekeeping operations given current methods and assumptions. The conclusion drawn is that the success of UN peacekeeping missions, which are designed to facilitate negotiated settlements with the consent of the parties involved, is seriously challenged when the conflict in question is characterized by significant ethnic animosity. It is suggested that UN planners should therefore intervene in ethnic conflict more circumspectly, and that more serious consideration should be given to more robust measures if a peacekeeping mission is undertaken.
  • Kilpi, Lyydia (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The study explores how mineral resources are rendered governable through the EITI, a global multi-stakeholder governance mechanism focusing on transparency. The study focuses on Mozambique, a country with growing mining and petroleum sectors and low rankings on governance indices. Stakeholders views on extractive sector governance in Mozambique are analysed through the theoretical framework of governmentality. A governmentality approach focuses on how we govern and are governed, and the nexus between thought and governing. The data for this study consists of 20 interviews conducted in Maputo, Mozambique with government officials, civil society actors, representatives of extractive companies and development partners. The interview data was analysed by conducting a qualitative content analysis. The EITI is a governance mechanism within which governments, civil society actors and companies collaborate to publish and communicate information about the oil, gas and mining sectors. The role the EITI assigns to non-state and private actors and the value it places on liberal ideals show that the EITI reflects a neoliberal understanding of governance. Mozambique has implemented the EITI since 2009. This study demonstrates that in Mozambique, despite EITI implementation, the adoption of neoliberal governance is not complete. Actors deploy neoliberal and other techniques of governance selectively to further their agendas. The state remains a central hub for mineral resource governance, and different actors attempt to influence governance through the state apparatus. Transnational influences, such as development aid, steer the state towards adopting neoliberal governance. Civil society continues to have limited influence over mineral resource governance despite participation in the EITI. However, the adoption of neoliberal forms of governance may open up opportunities for civil society to influence governance.
  • Chaichee, Sofia H. (2007)
    The purpose of the research is to further explain the complex nature of the current development policy initiative of human rights-based approach to development cooperation (HRBA). The questions, such as, why were the human rights incorporated into the Western development aid strategies and what do they stand for, are addressed. Moreover, the aim is to examine the development aid policy's possible beneficial effects on the Mozambican Muslim community. In the late 1980's, the former economic development cooperation policies underwent a shift towards development strategies of political conditionality. From that time onwards, development has been conceived as incorporating elements of 'social and political dimensions of poverty reduction', aside from solely focusing on economic variables. Presently, the development aid policies that were originally implemented under poverty reduction strategies have yet evolved and the new wave of including a softer approach to development policies can be further reinterpreted as the human rights-based policies to development (HRBA). Within the chapters of this research, policies by the entities of European Union, World Bank and UNDP describe the concept of HRBA in a different setting of words and with differing development objectives. However, the HRBA policies by the development agencies, albeit varied, base the normativity of the concept on the 'universality claim' of human rights and its legitimacy on the human rights laws. The research sets to point out, how the language employed by the development agencies for the policies of HRBA to development is vague and no clear-cut definition is offered to its name. The wide-ranging underpinnings on human rights and development, in addition to the concepts introduced by the development cooperation agencies, are by no means analogous and of corresponding thinking. Moreover, while conducting the research it became apparent that since human rights are based on ethical and moral values, they are rather contingent and contextual than universal and absolute. Thus, the policies of HRBA may only deliver so much of its claimed promise. This notion, especially, was examined through a closer exploration of human rights and development arguments within the framework of the Islamic community in Mozambique.
  • Katto, Jonna (2020)
    This article focuses on the sensory and affective dimension of food, cooking and eating in ex-combatants’ life narratives in northern Mozambique. It explores the polytemporality reflected in food memories, and the ways in which the past, present and future are connected in the present experience of remembering. For the ex-combatants, food is strongly linked to their memories of the liberation struggle (1964–74). Drawing on life history research with Ciyaawo-speaking ex-combatants in the north-western province of Niassa between 2012 and 2014, this article traces the changing ideas and meanings of food and eating in their life narratives from their childhood, through wartime to the period of ‘liberation’. After independence, most ex-combatants settled down as subsistence farmers with the expectation that ‘finally’ they would ‘eat well’. Yet, for many, their experience of independent Mozambique has been that of socio-economic and political marginalisation. While food is crucial to survival, this article looks at how food is so much more than just nutrition. In the ex-combatants’ memories, aesthetic aspects of food are closely intertwined with the revolutionary ideas of liberation and socio-economic justice. The meaning of food in the ex-combatants’ narratives, as the article argues, is shaped simultaneously and in complex ways through their personal aesthetic experiences and memories of food as well as the changing political aesthetics.
  • Luttinen, Arto; Kurhila, Matti; Puttonen, Riina; Whitehouse, Martin; Andersen, Tom (2022)
    New U-Pb ages for zircons constrain the duration of silicic magmatism and timing of coeval mafic magmatism across the main rift zone of the Karoo large igneous province in Mozambique. Our 190 +/- 2 Ma, 188.4 +/- 0.9 Ma, 181.7 +/- 1.0 Ma, 180 +/- 3 Ma, 178 +/- 2 Ma and 172 +/- 2 Ma ages support periodicity of Karoo magmatism previously inferred from 40Ar/39Ar age data. The - 190-188 Ma ages confirm early onset of magmatism and the - 182-178 Ma ages correlate the bimodal volcanic successions of the Lower Zambezi and the Movene Formation with widespread silicic magmatism across the rift zone. The - 172 Ma age corresponds to waning magmatic activity. The age range and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons indicate up to -9 Ma lifespan for the Jurassic silicic magma chambers and suggest that the -2700-400 Ma xenocrysts represent crustal sources of the host rocks. The available chronological data indicate that the -183 Ma main phase magmatism was largely confined within the main Karoo and Kalahari basins and that the preceding and subsequent phases were mainly associated with the Karoo rift zone. Judging from geochemical literature, different kinds of magmas were erupted during the successive magmatic phases. We calculate from published geochemical data that the mafic main phase magmas were relatively poor in CO2 and SO2 and the lava stacking patterns point to low eruption rates, which suggests that degassing of sedimentary wall-rocks of intrusions probably triggered the coeval Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction. In contrast, the mafic late phase magmas were rich in CO2 and SO2 and at least some of the lavas indicate high eruption rates. We propose that efficient degassing from widespread mafic magmatism and explosive eruption of over 30,000 km3 of silicic magmas in the Karoo rift zone linked the -182-178 Ma late phase magmatism with contemporaneous global biosphere crises. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of International Association for Gondwana Research. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
  • Hauta-alus, Helena (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Humans all over the world are selecting food items from a larger pool of potentially edible foods and are creating prohibitions and preferences for certain foods. These are called food beliefs and they are an important part of the local culture. Reasoning to them often lies in health or social respect. Many food beliefs still exist in Africa and pregnant and breastfeeding women and children are often the target of these beliefs. Under the suboptimal nutritional status or food insecurity the possible food beliefs might considerably affect the nutritional status and health of these vulnerable groups. Malnutrition is still a major problem in Africa and other developing countries. The aim of this thesis was to study whether and what types of food beliefs concerning pregnant and breastfeeding women can be found in the rural area of the Zambezia province, Mozambique. Furthermore, the aim was to evaluate their possible significance on nutritional status. Five group interviews in three villages and 10 individual interviews in two villages were done. Interviewees were women of 12 to 78 years of age and all together 27 women were interviewed. Interpretation, sensitivity of the topic and the inexperience of the interviewer caused challenges in conducting the interviews. Because of this the method was altered and changed from group interview to individual interview during the study. Food beliefs differed between villages and within villages but some common characteristics can be found. There are several food beliefs concerning pregnant and breastfeeding women in the study area. Pregnant women were advised not to eat protein rich foods such meat and fish but were recommended to eat vegetables, fruits and cereal foods during pregnancy. Eggs were both recommended and forbidden during pregnancy. In addition, there was an intentional habit for pregnant women to eat less cassava porridge or less food in general („eating down?). During breastfeeding nothing was forbidden in general but coconut and vegetables were recommended. Most of the reasonings were related to the health of a mother and a child. The reasonings can be divided into the following groups: enhances breast milk production, causes stomach pain, maintains fitness and prevents stomach growth, mother will be strong and healthy and she?ll get vitamins, the child?s appearance changes, child will be strong and healthy, child?s behaviour changes, causes miscarriage, causes easy or difficult delivery. Food beliefs were partly mixed with education from health authorities. Almost all women said that they do follow these beliefs. Few women expressed their concerns about following the beliefs on recommended foods since food availability makes it sometimes difficult. Food belief that forbids good protein sources from pregnant women can increase the risk of protein deficiency. Eating down increases the risk of having not enough energy during pregnancy. The recommended foods are mainly nutritious and likely promote health. It can be stated that when starting a research in a foreign culture, it is necessary to have a flexible research method. It is be very important that the method can be adjusted during the study. The conclusion of this thesis was that individual interviews would have been the most suitable method when studying food beliefs in this area. Individual interviews should have only one interviewer, interviewee and interpreter if needed. All should be the same sex and the age group. From the health and nutrition viewpoint it is vital to be aware of the food beliefs in the society under investigation and to study these specifically in the area because these can vary markedly even in the same village or community.
  • Jose, Katja (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    More than a half of the population in Southern Africa is young. In Mozambique, majority of the population lives in the rural area, gaining their livelihoods in subsistence farming. The growing urban population in the region is mainly occupied in the informal sector, where rights of the workers are not considered. This work is about young people and their opportunities to find employment and get settled in normal life. This work is based on interviews of young people from the poor neighborhood of Chamanculo in Maputo, Mozambique, and young people living in the streets in Nairobi, Kenya. Despite of differences between these two groups, they face similar challenges and prejudices. Also their dreams and strategies to reach these dreams do not differ much. The material is collected over a time span of over two years during monitoring trips to NGOs working for empowerment os marginalized youth. In addition to young people, material includes interviews with staff of NGOs working with marginalized youth, and representatives of respective government officers and school staff. Different from Western societies, being young is not considered a privilege in Southern Africa. Instead it’s a period in a life when possibilities for influencing and participating in social life are limited. Status of an adult is gained after establishing a family, and securing income that is enough to sustain oneself and his family. Especially young men are expected to be able to provide for their wife and the family. In a situation when access to decent jobs and income is limited, young people from difficult circumstances are easily stuck in a situation in which they do not have the option of becoming fully recognized adults. Weak educational background and connections to formal economy create obstacles for poor young people to integrate into formal society and labor force. In this work, the challenge of becoming adult is studied using concepts of child agency, agency, social navigation and capability. Agency of children and youth is a relatively new topic of studies, because decision-making has until recently been considered the responsibility of adults. However, recent studies show that children already in young age make decisions concerning their education, selection of future profession and entrance into vocational training. Young people make their decisions based on the information available for them about their societies, in this case especially about labor markets and income earning possibilities. Navigating in insecure environment requires continuous monitoring and keeping eyes open for any opportunity. Often youth in difficult situation have to consider both immediate survival and long term plans in the same time. Chances of young people from poor background are limited not only due to economic hardship, but also because of lacking social capital and networks. Possibility to choose between different options is often limited, and in many cases it’s necessary to accept any opportunity that turns up. Made choices are evaluated continuously; and corrective actions taken if a decision does not lead to a desirable outcome. Youth from poor neighborhood of Chamanaculo in Maputo tell that they search their models somewhere else, because the environment does not support education, and abuse of alcohol and drugs is common. In the same time, young people who have little formal education are in difficult position on the labor market, and those with less formal education end up in informal jobs. While informal sector is widespread. Even the poorest youth are usually aware of this, and employment in the formal sector is the ideal for most. Young people also dream of continuing their studies, and continuing to higher education after completing vocational training and earning some money. Costs related to formal education and lacking social capital prevent young people from poor families to pursue this dream. Especially young men who have grown up as street children face fear and discrimination. For youth from the margins of the society, placement on a training course is not enough, but they also need moral support and counseling to prepare them for the social life at workplace. When this support is available, they have all the possibilities to succeed, and most youth are employed after traineeship. Usually girls are more vulnerable than boys, and their opportunities in earning income are more limited than for young men. While young men from poor neighborhoods are easily labeled criminals, girls with the same background are often considered prone to prostitution. Selection of trades in vocational training is strongly gendered, and young women end up in professions that are less paid than male dominated ones.
  • Holvio, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Whereas primary school enrolment has grown to be nearly universal on a global scale, learning results have not kept up with the rapidly expanding systems. This is particularly true in Mozambique, where fourth-grade students lack basic skills of literacy and numeracy. Research has established that teacher quality has a large effect on student achievement. Out of the observable teacher characteristics, teacher content knowledge has most consistently been found to have a positive impact on student achievement. This study seeks to answer how large a causal impact teacher content knowledge has on student achievement in Mozambican primary schools. The data for this study come from a Service Delivery Indicator survey in Mozambique from 2014. They include assessments of fourth-grade students and their teachers in math and Portuguese, and are nationally representative. The empirical analysis exploits within-student across-subject variation. This allows to introduce not only student fixed effects, but also teacher fixed effects into the model, because all students in the sample are taught by a same teacher in both subjects, therefore strengthening the causal identification. First-differencing is then used to derive the estimable equation, which explains student achievement by teacher content knowledge only. The main results suggest that teacher content knowledge in math and Portuguese does not have a statistically significant impact on student achievement. However, further analyses show that there is considerable heterogeneity in the results. This is not unexpected, as Mozambique itself is a rather heterogenous country with large contrasts. Increasing teacher content knowledge by 1 SD increases student achievement by 0.14 SD among students with Portuguese as their first language, and by 0.13 SD among students in urban schools. Increasing the content knowledge of teachers whose knowledge is above the median also increases the achievement of students whose knowledge is above the median by over 0.12 SD. Based on the results, it is plausible that students’ poor knowledge of Portuguese is a fundamental problem for their learning, and something that should be prioritised. This could be done by improving language education at the earlier grades, or by expanding bilingual education, for instance. Because students with their knowledge below the median are unaffected by teacher content knowledge, this suggests that teaching is perhaps targeted to the more advanced students, and those who have already fallen behind benefit very little from it.
  • Moon, Jocelyn (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2016)
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    This article investigates the growth of a small online learning community interested in matepe music, an mbira type traditionally played in Northeastern Zimbabwe and adjacent areas in Mozambique. I demonstrate how informal online learning has led to the development of participatory online spaces where new media and archival resources are shared and discussed. I put these activities in conversation with national arts policy and recent national and multinational online sustainability initiatives in order to highlight some of the advantages and insights that come from operating outside of a top-down framework. I aim to show the necessity of online and offline continuity by touching upon the ways in which online collaborative networks that are based on learning impact on-the-ground efforts of sustainability and repatriation.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H.; Korkalo, Liisa; Freese, Riitta; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja (2018)
    Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore whether dietary patterns (DP) are associated with nutritional status indicators among adolescent Mozambican girls. Design/Setting/Subjects: In this population-based cross-sectional study we used the FFQ data of 547 girls aged 14-19 years from Central Mozambique to derive dietary patterns by means of principal component analysis. We used two-level linear regression models to examine the associations between the DP and anthropometric and biochemical indicators of nutritional status. Results: We identified three DP: 'Urban bread and fats', 'Rural meat and vegetables' and 'Rural cassava and coconut'. The 'Urban bread and fats' DP was positively associated with BMI-for-age Z-score (BMIZ), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold (P for all <0.001) and blood Hb (P = 0.025). A negative association was observed between the 'Urban bread and fats' DP and serum folate (P <0.001). The 'Rural meat and vegetables' DP and the 'Rural cassava and coconut' DP were associated negatively with BMIZ, MUAC and triceps skinfold (P for all <0.05), but the 'Rural meat and vegetables' DP was associated positively with serum ferritin (P = 0.007). Conclusions: Urban and rural DP were associated with nutritional status indicators. In a low-resource setting, urban diets may promote body fat storage and blood Hb concentrations but compromise serum folate concentration. It is important to continue valuing the traditional, rural foods that are high in folate.
  • Katto, Jonna (Routledge, 2019)
    This book tells the history of the changing gendered landscapes of northern Mozambique from the perspective of women who fought in the armed struggle for national independence, diverting from the often-told narrative of women in nationalist wars that emphasizes a linear plot of liberation. Taking a novel approach in focusing on the body, senses, and landscape, Jonna Katto, through a study of the women ex-combatants’ lived landscapes, shows how their life trajectories unfold as nonlinear spatial histories. This brings into focus the women’s shifting and multilayered negotiations for personal space and belonging. This book explores the life memories of the now aging female ex-combatants in the province of Niassa in northern Mozambique, looking at how the female ex-combatants’ experiences of living in these northern landscapes have shaped their sense of socio-spatial belonging and attachment. It builds on the premise that individual embodied memory cannot be separated from social memory; personal lives are culturally shaped. Thus, the book does not only tell the history of a small and rather unique group of women but also speaks about wider cultural histories of body-landscape relations in northern Mozambique and especially changes in those relations. Enriching our understanding of the gendered history of the liberation struggle in Mozambique and informing broader discussions on gender and nationalism, this book will be of interest to students and scholars of African history, especially the colonial and postcolonial history of Lusophone Africa, as well as gender/women’s history and peace and conflict studies.