Browsing by Subject "Mucin"

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  • Chia, Loo Wee; Hornung, Bastian V. H.; Aalvink, Steven; Schaap, Peter J.; de Vos, Willem M.; Knol, Jan; Belzer, Clara (2018)
    Host glycans are paramount in regulating the symbiotic relationship between humans and their gut bacteria. The constant flux of host-secreted mucin at the mucosal layer creates a steady niche for bacterial colonization. Mucin degradation by keystone species subsequently shapes the microbial community. This study investigated the transcriptional response during mucin-driven trophic interaction between the specialised mucin-degrader Akkermansia muciniphila and a butyrogenic gut commensal Anaerostipes caccae. A. muciniphila monocultures and co-cultures with non-mucolytic A. caccae from the Lachnospiraceae family were grown anaerobically in minimal media supplemented with mucin. We analysed for growth, metabolites (HPLC analysis), microbial composition (quantitative reverse transcription PCR), and transcriptional response (RNA-seq). Mucin degradation by A. muciniphila supported the growth of A. caccae and concomitant butyrate production predominantly via the acetyl-CoA pathway. Differential expression analysis (DESeq 2) showed the presence of A. caccae induced changes in the A. muciniphila transcriptional response with increased expression of mucin degradation genes and reduced expression of ribosomal genes. Two putative operons that encode for uncharacterised proteins and an efflux system, and several two-component systems were also differentially regulated. This indicated A. muciniphila changed its transcriptional regulation in response to A. caccae. This study provides insight to understand the mucin-driven microbial ecology using metatranscriptomics. Our findings show that the expression of mucolytic enzymes by A. muciniphila increases upon the presence of a community member. This could indicate its role as a keystone species that supports the microbial community in the mucosal environment by increasing the availability of mucin sugars.
  • Stepanjuk, Artjom; Koel, Mariann; Pook, Martin; Saare, Merli; Jääger, Kersti; Peters, Maire; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Ingerpuu, Sulev; Salumets, Andres (2019)
    Research question: How does mucin MUC20 expression change during the menstrual cycle in different cell types of human endometrium? Design: Study involved examination of MUC20 expression in two previously published RNA-seq datasets in whole endometrial tissue (n = 10), sorted endometrial epithelial (n = 44) or stromal (n = 42) cell samples. RNA-Seq results were validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in whole tissue (n = 10), sorted epithelial (n = 17) and stromal (n = 17) cell samples. MUC20 protein localization and expression were analysed in human endometrium by immunohistochemical analysis of intact endometrial tissue (n = 6) and also Western blot of cultured stromal and epithelial cells (n = 2). Results: MUC20 is differentially expressed in the endometrium between the pre-receptive and receptive phases. We show that MUC20 is predominantly expressed by epithelial cells of the receptive endometrium, both at the mRNA (RNA-Seq, P = 0.005; qRT-PCR, P = 0.039) and protein levels (Western blot; immunohistochemistry, P = 0.029). Conclusion: Our results indicate MUC20 as a novel marker of mid-secretory endometrial biology. We propose a model of MUC20 function in the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)-activated mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) receptor signalling specifically in the receptive phase. Further investigations should reveal the precise function of MUC20 in human endometrium and the possible connection between MUC20 and HGF-activated MET receptor signalling. MUC20 could potentially be included in the list of endometrial receptivity markers after further clinical validation.
  • Fadista, Joao; Kraven, Luke M.; Karjalainen, Juha; Andrews, Shea J.; Geller, Frank; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Wain, Louise; Jenkins, R. Gisli; Feenstra, Bjarke (2021)
    Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease, characterized by progressive lung scarring. Severe COVID-19 is associated with substantial pneumonitis and has a number of shared major risk factors with IPF. This study aimed to determine the genetic correlation between IPF and severe COVID-19 and assess a potential causal role of genetically increased risk of IPF on COVID-19 severity. Methods: The genetic correlation between IPF and COVID-19 severity was estimated with linkage disequilib-rium (LD) score regression. We performed a Mendelian randomization (MR) study for IPF causality in COVID-19. Genetic variants associated with IPF susceptibility (P Findings: We detected a positive genetic correlation of IPF with COVID-19 severity (rg=0.31 [95% CI 0.04-0.57], P = 0.023). The MR estimates for severe COVID-19 did not reveal any genetic association (OR 1.05, [95% CI 0.92-1.20], P = 0.43). However, outlier analysis revealed that the IPF risk allele rs35705950 at MUC5B had a dif-ferent effect compared with the other variants. When rs35705950 was excluded, MR results provided evidence that genetically increased risk of IPF has a causal effect on COVID-19 severity (OR 1.21, [95% CI 1.06-1.38], P = 4.24 x 10(-3)). Furthermore, the IPF risk-allele at MUC5B showed an apparent protective effect against COVID-19 hospitalization only in older adults (OR 0.86, [95% CI 0.73-1.00], P = 2.99 x 10(-2)) . Interpretation: The strongest genetic determinant of IPF, rs35705950 at MUC5B, seems to confer protection against COVID-19, whereas the combined effect of all other IPF risk loci seem to confer risk of COVID-19 severity. The observed effect of rs35705950 could either be due to protective effects of mucin over-produc-tion on the airways or a consequence of selection bias due to (1) a patient group that is heavily enriched for the rs35705950 T undertaking strict self-isolation and/or (2) due to survival bias of the rs35705950 non-IPF risk allele carriers. Due to the diverse impact of IPF causal variants on SARS-CoV-2 infection, with a possible selection bias as an explanation, further investigation is needed to address this apparent paradox between variance at MUC5B and other IPF genetic risk factors. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
  • Willcox, Mark D. P.; Argueso, Pablo; Georgiev, Georgi A.; Holopainen, Juha M.; Laurie, Gordon W.; Millar, Tom J.; Papas, Eric B.; Rolland, Jannick P.; Schmidt, Tannin A.; Stahl, Ulrike; Suarez, Tatiana; Subbaraman, Lakshman N.; Ucakhan, Omur O.; Jones, Lyndon (2017)
    The members of the Tear Film Subcommittee reviewed the role of the tear film in dry eye disease (DED). The Subcommittee reviewed biophysical and biochemical aspects of tears and how these change in DED. Clinically, DED is characterized by loss of tear volume, more rapid breakup of the tear film and increased evaporation of tears from the ocular surface. The tear film is composed of many substances including lipids, proteins, mucins and electrolytes. All of these contribute to the integrity of the tear film but exactly how they interact is still an area of active research. Tear film osmolarity increases in DED. Changes to other components such as proteins and mucins can be used as biomarkers for DED. The Subcommittee recommended areas for future research to advance our understanding of the tear film and how this changes with DED. The final report was written after review by all Subcommittee members and the entire TFOS DEWS II membership. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.