Browsing by Subject "Muscle"

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  • Vaughan, Danielle; Mitchell, Robert; Kretz, Oliver; Chambers, David; Lalowski, Maciej; Amthor, Helge; Ritvos, Olli; Pasternack, Arja; Matsakas, Antonios; Vaiyapuri, Sakthivel; Huber, Tobias B.; Denecke, Bernd; Mukherjee, Abir; Widera, Darius; Patel, Ketan (2021)
    Activin/myostatin signalling acts to induce skeletal muscle atrophy in adult mammals by inhibiting protein synthesis as well as promoting protein and organelle turnover. Numerous strategies have been successfully developed to attenuate the signalling properties of these molecules, which result in augmenting muscle growth. However, these molecules, in particular activin, play major roles in tissue homeostasis in numerous organs of the mammalian body. We have recently shown that although the attenuation of activin/myostatin results in robust muscle growth, it also has a detrimental impact on the testis. Here, we aimed to discover the long-term consequences of a brief period of exposure to muscle growth-promoting molecules in the testis. We demonstrate that muscle hypertrophy promoted by a soluble activin type IIB ligand trap (sActRIIB) is a short-lived phenomenon. In stark contrast, short-term treatment with sActRIIB results in immediate impact on the testis, which persists after the sessions of the intervention. Gene array analysis identified an expansion in aberrant gene expression over time in the testis, initiated by a brief exposure to muscle growth-promoting molecules. The impact on the testis results in decreased organ size as well as quantitative and qualitative impact on sperm. Finally, we have used a drug-repurposing strategy to exploit the gene expression data to identify a compound - N-6-methyladenosine - that may protect the testis from the impact of the muscle growth-promoting regime. This work indicates the potential long-term harmful effects of strategies aimed at promoting muscle growth by attenuating activin/myostatin signalling. Furthermore, we have identified a molecule that could, in the future, be used to overcome the detrimental impact of sActRIIB treatment on the testis.
  • Lensu, S.; Pekkala, S.P.; Mäkinen, A.; Karstunen, N.; Turpeinen, A.T.; Hulmi, J.J.; Silvennoinen, M.M.; Ma, H.; Kujala, U.M.; Karvinen, S.; Koch, L.G.; Britton, S.L.; Kainulainen, H. (2019)
    Background Physical activity and dietary intake of dairy products are associated with improved metabolic health. Dairy products are rich with branched chain amino acids that are essential for energy production. To gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the benefit of the sub-chronic effects of running and intake of milk protein supplements, we studied Low Capacity Runner rats (LCR), a rodent exercise model with risk for metabolic disorders. We especially focused on the role of Sirtuins, energy level dependent proteins that affect many cellular metabolic processes. Methods Forty-seven adult LCR female rats sedentary or running voluntarily in wheels were fed normal chow and given supplements of either whey or milk protein drink (PD)-supplemented water, or water only for 21 weeks. Physiological responses were measured in vivo. Blood lipids were determined from serum. Mitochondrial markers and Sirtuins (Sirt1-7) including downstream targets were measured in plantaris muscle by western blotting. Results For the first 10 weeks whey-drinking rats ran about 50% less compared to other groups; still, in all runners glucose tolerance improved and triglycerides decreased. Generally, running induced a ∼six-fold increase in running capacity and a ∼8% decrease in % body fat. Together with running, protein supplements increased the relative lean mass of the total body weight by ∼11%. In comparison with sedentary controls, running and whey increased HDL (21%) and whey, with or without running, lowered LDL (−34%). Running increased mitochondrial biogenesis and Sirtuins 3 and 4. When combined with exercise, both whey and milk protein drink induced about a 4-fold increase in Sirt3, compared to runners drinking water only, and about a 2-fold increase compared to the respective sedentary group. Protein supplements, with or without running, enhanced the phosphorylation level of the acetyl-coA-carboxylase, suggesting increased fat oxidation. Both supplemented diets increased Sirt5 and Sirt7 without an additional effect from exercise. Running diminished and PD supplement increased Sirt6. Conclusion We demonstrate in rats new sub-chronic effects of milk proteins on metabolism that involve Sirtuins and their downstream targets in skeletal muscle. The results show that running and milk proteins act on reducing the risk factors of metabolic disorders and suggest that the underlying mechanisms may involve Sirtuins. Notably, we found that milk protein supplements have some favorable effects on metabolism even without running.
  • Cox, Melissa L; Evans, Jacquelyn M; Davis, Alexander G; Guo, Ling T; Levy, Jennifer R; Starr-Moss, Alison N; Salmela, Elina; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Campbell, Kevin P; Clark, Leigh A; Shelton, G. D (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited autosomal myopathies that preferentially affect voluntary muscles of the shoulders and hips. LGMD has been clinically described in several breeds of dogs, but the responsible mutations are unknown. The clinical presentation in dogs is characterized by marked muscle weakness and atrophy in the shoulder and hips during puppyhood. Methods Following clinical evaluation, the identification of the dystrophic histological phenotype on muscle histology, and demonstration of the absence of sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex by immunostaining, whole exome sequencing was performed on five Boston terriers: one affected dog and its three family members and one unrelated affected dog. Results Within sarcoglycan-δ (SGCD), a two base pair deletion segregating with LGMD in the family was discovered, and a deletion encompassing exons 7 and 8 was found in the unrelated dog. Both mutations are predicted to cause an absence of SGCD protein, confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The mutations are private to each family. Conclusions Here, we describe the first cases of canine LGMD characterized at the molecular level with the classification of LGMD2F.
  • Cox, Melissa L.; Evans, Jacquelyn M.; Davis, Alexander G.; Guo, Ling T.; Levy, Jennifer R.; Starr-Moss, Alison N.; Salmela, Elina; Hytonen, Marjo K.; Lohi, Hannes; Campbell, Kevin P.; Clark, Leigh Anne; Shelton, G. Diane (2017)
    Background: Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a heterogeneous group of inherited autosomal myopathies that preferentially affect voluntary muscles of the shoulders and hips. LGMD has been clinically described in several breeds of dogs, but the responsible mutations are unknown. The clinical presentation in dogs is characterized by marked muscle weakness and atrophy in the shoulder and hips during puppyhood. Methods: Following clinical evaluation, the identification of the dystrophic histological phenotype on muscle histology, and demonstration of the absence of sarcoglycan-sarcospan complex by immunostaining, whole exome sequencing was performed on five Boston terriers: one affected dog and its three family members and one unrelated affected dog. Results: Within sarcoglycan-delta (SGCD), a two base pair deletion segregating with LGMD in the family was discovered, and a deletion encompassing exons 7 and 8 was found in the unrelated dog. Both mutations are predicted to cause an absence of SGCD protein, confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The mutations are private to each family. Conclusions: Here, we describe the first cases of canine LGMD characterized at the molecular level with the classification of LGMD2F.
  • Mitchell, Robert; Mellows, Ben; Sheard, Jonathan; Antonioli, Manuela; Kretz, Oliver; Chambers, David; Zeuner, Marie-Theres; Tomkins, James E; Denecke, Bernd; Musante, Luca; Joch, Barbara; Debacq-Chainiaux, Florence; Holthofer, Harry; Ray, Steve; Huber, Tobias B; Dengjel, Joern; De Coppi, Paolo; Widera, Darius; Patel, Ketan (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The mechanisms underpinning the regenerative capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) were originally thought to reside in their ability to recognise damaged tissue and to differentiate into specific cell types that would replace defective cells. However, recent work has shown that molecules produced by MSCs (secretome), particularly those packaged in extracellular vesicles (EVs), rather than the cells themselves are responsible for tissue repair. Methods Here we have produced a secretome from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) that is free of exogenous molecules by incubation within a saline solution. Various in vitro models were used to evaluate the effects of the secretome on cellular processes that promote tissue regeneration. A cardiotoxin-induced skeletal muscle injury model was used to test the regenerative effects of the whole secretome or isolated extracellular vesicle fraction in vivo. This was followed by bioinformatic analysis of the components of the protein and miRNA content of the secretome and finally compared to a secretome generated from a secondary stem cell source. Results Here we have demonstrated that the secretome from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells shows robust effects on cellular processes that promote tissue regeneration. Furthermore, we show that the whole ADSC secretome is capable of enhancing the rate of skeletal muscle regeneration following acute damage. We assessed the efficacy of the total secretome compared with the extracellular vesicle fraction on a number of assays that inform on tissue regeneration and demonstrate that both fractions affect different aspects of the process in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro, in vivo, and bioinformatic results show that factors that promote regeneration are distributed both within extracellular vesicles and the soluble fraction of the secretome. Conclusions Taken together, our study implies that extracellular vesicles and soluble molecules within ADSC secretome act in a synergistic manner to promote muscle generation.