Browsing by Subject "Music"

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  • Kaartinen, Kati; Aaltonen, Sari (2019)
  • Luo, Jianchen (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Hermann Hesse was the most prominent German writer in the twentieth century. His writing was influenced by Eastern culture, especially the Chinese Philosophy. In Hesse’s later creation, Chinese Philosophy became one of the main sources for his inspiration, moreover, the canonical Taoist and Confucian texts appeared to be the precious primitive texts for Hesse’s appropriation. His final novel Das Glasperlenspiel, translated into The Glass Bead Game by Richard and Clara Winston, is a representative work that shows a crucial step in Hermann Hesse’s comprehension and presentation of ancient Chinese Philosophy from Taoist and Confucian perspectives. The thesis firstly analyzes Hesse’s encounter with Eastern culture and his digestion of Chinese Philosophy. He attained spiritual enlightenment in the wisdom of ancient Chinese philosophers in the Western context, hence Chinese Philosophy in Hesse’s perspective was not a school of philosophy as a whole, but a precise resource that was full of enlightened philosophical thoughts. Based on Hesse’s personal background, the specific appropriated elements of Chinese Philosophy are grounded in the textual analysis of The Glass Bead Game. Hesse was inspired by the doctrine of “music power” in Lü Buwei’s Spring and Autumn. He borrowed I Ching hexagrams to portray the oracular game played by the protagonist of the novel. The Taoist motifs of spiritual freedom and naturalness was borrowed as the fundamental themes throughout the novel. After examining the borrowings and recreations in Hesse’s novels, an investigation is conducted to discuss the reception of Hermann Hesse in China during 1988-2015. Even though Hesse’s novels were not prevailing among the general public, he was increasingly acknowledged and valued in the academic field in China.
  • Sarkamo, Teppo (2018)
    Music has the capacity to engage auditory, cognitive, motor, and emotional functions across cortical and subcortical brain regions and is relatively preserved in aging and dementia. Thus, music is a promising tool in the rehabilitation of aging-related neurological illnesses, such as stroke and Alzheimer disease. As the population ages and the incidence and prevalence of these illnesses rapidly increases, music-based interventions that are enjoyable and effective in the everyday care of the patients are needed. In addition to formal music therapy, musical leisure activities, such as music listening and singing, which patients can do on their own or with a caregiver, are a promising way to support psychological well-being during aging and in neurological rehabilitation. This review article provides an overview of current evidence on the cognitive, emotional, and neural effects of musical leisure activities both during normal aging and in the rehabilitation and care of stroke patients and people with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Newsome, Jennifer (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2016)
    This article provides a case study from the Centre for Aboriginal Studies in Music (CASM), a specialist education provider and unique Australian Indigenous cultural institution for applied research, working in support of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander musicians and music at the University of Adelaide. The case study describes the founding philosophy, theoretical underpinning, policy framework, guiding principles and practical methodology of the work of CASM, with insights into inherent challenges in maintaining an Indigenous “cultural space” within a mainstream institutional setting, and the central importance, in such a setting, of collaborative and community-engaged policies and practices in working effectively for and with Indigenous musicians and stakeholder communities.
  • Tulilaulu, Aurora; Nelimarkka, Matti; Paalasmaa, Joonas; Johnson, Daniel; Ventura, Dan; Myllys, Petri; Toivonen, Hannu (2018)
    Data musicalization is the process of automatically composing music based on given data, as an approach to perceptualizing information artistically. The aim of data musicalization is to evoke subjective experiences in relation to the information, rather than merely to convey unemotional information objectively. This paper is written as a tutorial for readers interested in data musicalization. We start by providing a systematic characterization of musicalization approaches, based on their inputs, methods and outputs. We then illustrate data musicalization techniques with examples from several applications: one that perceptualizes physical sleep data as music, several that artistically compose music inspired by the sleep data, one that musicalizes on-line chat conversations to provide a perceptualization of liveliness of a discussion, and one that uses musicalization in a game-like mobile application that allows its users to produce music. We additionally provide a number of electronic samples of music produced by the different musicalization applications.
  • Sarkamo, Teppo; Sihvonen, Aleksi J. (2018)
    During the last decades, there have been major advances in mapping the brain regions that underlie our ability to perceive, experience, and produce music and how musical training can shape the structure and function of the brain. This progress has fueled and renewed clinical interest towards uncovering the neural basis for the impaired or preserved processing of music in different neurological disorders and how music-based interventions can be used in their rehabilitation and care. This article reviews our contribution to and the state-of-the-art of this field. We will provide a short overview outlining the key brain networks that participate in the processing of music and singing in the healthy brain and then present recent findings on the following key music-related research topics in neurological disorders: (i) the neural architecture underlying deficient processing of music (amusia), (ii) the preservation of singing in aphasia and music-evoked emotions and memories in Alzheimer's disease, (iii) the mnemonic impact of songs as a verbal learning tool, and (iv) the cognitive, emotional, and neural efficacy of music-based interventions and activities in the rehabilitation and care of major ageing-related neurological illnesses (stroke, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease). (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Bogert, Brigitte; Numminen-Kontti, Taru; Gold, Benjamin; Sams, Mikko; Numminen, Jussi; Burunat, Iballa; Lampinen, Jouko; Brattico, Elvira (2016)
    Music is often used to regulate emotions and mood. Typically, music conveys and induces emotions even when one does not attend to them. Studies on the neural substrates of musical emotions have, however, only examined brain activity when subjects have focused on the emotional content of the music. Here we address with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) the neural processing of happy, sad, and fearful music with a paradigm in which 56 subjects were instructed to either classify the emotions (explicit condition) or pay attention to the number of instruments playing (implicit condition) in 4-s music clips. In the implicit vs. explicit condition, stimuli activated bilaterally the inferior parietal lobule, premotor cortex, caudate, and ventromedial frontal areas. The cortical dorsomedial prefrontal and occipital areas activated during explicit processing were those previously shown to be associated with the cognitive processing of music and emotion recognition and regulation. Moreover, happiness in music was associated with activity in the bilateral auditory cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and supplementary motor area, whereas the negative emotions of sadness and fear corresponded with activation of the left anterior cingulate and middle frontal gyrus and down-regulation of the orbitofrontal cortex. Our study demonstrates for the first time in healthy subjects the neural underpinnings of the implicit processing of brief musical emotions, particularly in frontoparietal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and striatal areas of the brain. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Torppa, Ritva; Faulkner, Andrew; Laasonen, Marja; Lipsanen, Jari; Sammler, Daniela (2020)
    Objectives: A major issue in the rehabilitation of children with cochlear implants (CIs) is unexplained variance in their language skills, where many of them lag behind children with normal hearing (NH). Here we assess links between generative language skills and the perception of prosodic stress, and with musical and parental activities in children with CIs and NH. Understanding these links is expected to guide future research and towards supporting language development in children with a CI. Method: 21 unilaterally and early-implanted children and 31 children with NH, aged 5 to 13, were classified as musically active or non-active by a questionnaire recording regularity of musical activities, in particular singing, and reading and other activities shared with parents. Perception of word and sentence stress, performance in word finding, verbal intelligence (WISC vocabulary) and phonological awareness (PA; production of rhymes) were measured in all children. Comparisons between children with a CI and NH were made against a sub-set of 21 of the children with NH who were matched to children with CIs by age, gender, socio-economic background and musical activity. Regression analyses, run separately for children with CIs and NH, assessed how much variance in each language task was shared with each of prosodic perception, the child’s own music activity, and activities with parents, including singing and reading. All statistical analyses were conducted both with and without control for age and maternal education. Results: Musically active children with CIs performed similarly to NH controls in all language tasks, while those who were not musically active performed more poorly. Only musically non-active children with CIs made more phonological and semantic errors in word finding than NH controls, and word finding correlated with other language skills. Regression analysis results for word finding and VIQ were similar for children with CIs and NH. These language skills shared considerable variance with the perception of prosodic stress and musical activities. When age and maternal education were controlled for, strong links remained between perception of prosodic stress and VIQ (shared variance: CI, 32%/NH, 16%) and between musical activities and word finding (shared variance: CI, 53%/NH, 20%). Links were always stronger for children with CIs, for whom better phonological awareness was also linked to improved stress perception and more musical activity, and parental activities altogether shared significantly variance with word finding and VIQ. Conclusions: For children with CIs and NH, better perception of prosodic stress and musical activities with singing are associated with improved generative language skills. Additionally, for children with CIs, parental singing has a stronger positive association to word finding and VIQ than parental reading. These results cannot address causality, but they suggest that good perception of prosodic stress, musical activities involving singing, and parental singing and reading may all be beneficial for word finding and other generative language skills in implanted children.
  • Jakkli, Meera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Neural Oscillations at large-scale local and global neural synchrony levels can be detected at the scalp using electroencephalography. This neural activity presents itself in a varied range of frequencies referred to as ‘Brain Waves’. These frequency bands have cognitive significance and have been implicated in several neural functions due to its important role in communicating with functionally-similar but spatially-distinct brain regions. Frontal Asymmetry is the difference in activity between the right and left hemispheres in frontal areas of the brain recorded via EEG and is seen to be a strong indicator of emotional states. Specifically, approach and withdrawal motivation which have been associated with positive and negative emotions respectively. Using a combination of behavioural and physiological methods in measuring preference and responses gives us an accurate representation of the participant responses. In this study, three tests were conducted during a continuous EEG recording. Test 1: The implication of inducing a positive mood before the onset of stimulus line-up and the extent of its effect on emotions and alpha asymmetry is not extensively studied. In this test, we employed the use of an instrumental soundscape for one experimental group before beginning the stimulus presentation to test this effect against a ‘silent’ control group. Test 2: This test aims to compare the participants’ physiological measures (EEG) and behavioural self-reports to audio advertisement stimuli consisting of different categories of music: ‘Brand music’ vs. ‘Campaign’ music or ‘No music’ Controls. Test 3: There is ambiguity in research regarding how frontal alpha asymmetry as measured by EEG and self-report preferences might change with changing the format of the advertisement to: only Audio, Audiovisual and Silent videos. There has been contradictory evidence regarding the impact of music on an individual’s emotions and consequent memory and decision-making. This thesis delves into these questions through the post-study behavioural test and simple binary choice paradigm that measure the above-mentioned in relation with the stimuli presented to participants. Our results did not show a significant difference in frontal asymmetry in the stimulus presentation across the three tests conducted during EEG recording. The behavioural data however indicated significant preference in behavioural self-report ratings for Brand Music- associated stimuli in Test 2 and for Audiovisual advertisement stimuli in Test 3. Results also revealed a significant correlation between ratings given to a stimulus and post-study memorability. The final binary choice paradigm test indicated higher preference to products related to stimulus presentation (‘advertised’ brand) vs similar products not related to the presented stimulus (‘non-advertised’ brand). We anticipate that these results will further help us understand and predict general preferences that can help companies, government policy-makers and the general public be more aware and better equipped to manage their valuable resources of money, time, attention and memory.
  • Muhammad, Sajjad; Lehecka, Martin; Huhtakangas, Justiina; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai; Niemelä, Mika; Hafez, Ahmad (2019)
    BackgroundNeurosurgeons are vulnerable to additional noise in their natural operating environment. Noise exposure is associated with reduced cognitive function, inability to concentrate, and nervousness. Mediation music provides an opportunity to create a calmer environment which may reduce stress during surgery.MethodsA pilot study was performed to find a suitable task, meditation music of surgeon's choice, and operation noise and to reach a certain level of training. For the main experiment, two neurosurgeons with different microsurgical experience used real operation noise and meditation music with delta waves as mediating music. Each surgeon performed 10 training bypasses (five with noise and five with music) with 16 stitches in each bypass. The total time to complete 16 stitches, a number of unachieved movements (N.U.Ms), length of thread consumed, and distribution of the stitches were quantified from the recorded videos and compared in both groups.ResultsA N.U.Ms were significantly reduced from 10938 with operation room (OR) noise to 38 +/- 13 (p
  • Virtala, P.; Huotilainen, M.; Partanen, E.; Tervaniemi, Mari (2014)
  • Pitkäniemi, Anni; Sihvonen, Aleksi; Särkämö, Teppo; Soinila, Seppo (2020)
  • Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Särkämö, Teppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Ripollés, Pablo; Münte, Thomas F.; Soinila, Seppo (2019)
    The ability to perceive and produce music is a quintessential element of human life, present in all known cultures. Modern functional neuroimaging has revealed that music listening activates a large-scale bilateral network of cortical and subcortical regions in the healthy brain. Even the most accurate structural studies do not reveal which brain areas are critical and causally linked to music processing. Such questions may be answered by analysing the effects of focal brain lesions in patients' ability to perceive music. In this sense, acquired amusia after stroke provides a unique opportunity to investigate the neural architectures crucial for normal music processing. Based on the first large-scale longitudinal studies on stroke-induced amusia using modern multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (Mn) techniques, such as advanced lesion-symptom mapping, grey and white matter morphometry, tractography and functional connectivity, we discuss neural structures critical for music processing, consider music processing in light of the dual-stream model in the right hemisphere, and propose a neural model for acquired amusia.
  • Välimäki, Susanna (International Semiotics Institute, 2005)
    Approaches to musical semiotics / editor Eero Tarasti
    This book develops psychoanalytic music criticism in the field of postmodern music analysis. It offers psychoanalytic listenings of various musics; from a Romantic symphony to alternative country music, from piano miniatures to TV-opera. The musical rhetoric of melancholy, uncanny, acoustic mirroring, alienation and other subjectivity mechanisms are tracked in the music of Chopin (Nocturne C minor Op. 48), k.d. lang (Constant Craving, Save me), Nordgren (Alex), Schubert (Der Lindenbaum), Sibelius (Kyllikki), and Tchaikovsky (Symphony No. 6, Pathétique). The book also outlines the history and current state of psychoanalytic music analysis and theorizes music as a site of subjectivity.
  • Tyrväinen, Helena (Euroopan kulttuurisäätiön Suomen osasto ry, 2008)
  • Liikanen, Hanna-Liisa (2020)
    Taiteen positiivisista vaikutuksista terveyteen ja hyvinvointiin saatiin WHO:n tuoreessa raportissa tuntuvaa vahvistusta. Taide voi myös kehittää terveydenhuollon ammattilaisten kliinisiä taitoja, kuten visuaalista diagnosointikykyä.
  • Jousmäki, Henna (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2014)
    COLLeGIUM: Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences 15
    This chapter shows that, although the geographical roots of Christian metal (CM) bands do play a role, not least for the audiences, the crossing of national borders in online settings is equally important both to the audience and to the bands themselves. A detailed look into the discourse and interaction around Finnish CM music on is the basis for considering social media sites, such as YouTube, as providing a space for translocal negotiation of and identification on the basis of religiosity, music, language and place.
  • Torppa, Ritva; Huotilainen, Minna (2019)
    This paper presents evidence for a strong connection between the development of speech and language skills and musical activities of children and adolescents with hearing impairment and/or cochlear implants. This conclusion is partially based on findings for typically hearing children and adolescents, showing better speech and language skills in children and adolescents with musical training, and importantly, showing increases of speech and language skills in children and adolescents taking part in musical training. Further, studies of hearing-impaired children show connections between musical skills, involvement in musical hobbies, and speech and language skills. Even though the field is still lacking large-scale randomised controlled trials on the effects of musical interventions on the speech and language skills of children and adolescents with hearing impairments and cochlear implants, the current evidence seems enough to urge speech therapists, music therapists, music teachers, parents, and children and adolescents with hearing impairments and/or cochlear implants to start using music for enhancing speech and language skills. For this reason, we give our recommendations on how to use music for language skill enhancement in this group.