Browsing by Subject "N2O"

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  • Morgan, Eric J.; Lavric, Jost V.; Arevalo-Martinez, Damian L.; Bange, Hermann W.; Steinhoff, Tobias; Seifert, Thomas; Heimann, Martin (2019)
    Ground-based atmospheric observations of CO2, delta(O-2/N-2), N2O, and CH4 were used to make estimates of the air-sea fluxes of these species from the Luderitz and Walvis Bay upwelling cells in the northern Benguela region, during upwelling events. Average flux densities (+/- 1 sigma) were 0:65 +/- 0:4 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for CO2, -5.1 +/- 2:5 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) for O-2 (as APO), 0:61 +/- 0:5 nmol m(-2) s(-1) for N2O, and 4:8 +/- 6:3 nmol m(-2)s(-1) for CH4. A comparison of our top-down (i.e., inferred from atmospheric anomalies) flux estimates with shipboard-based measurements showed that the two approaches agreed within +/- 55% on average, though the degree of agreement varied by species and was best for CO2. Since the top-down method overestimated the flux density relative to the shipboard-based approach for all species, we also present flux density estimates that have been tuned to best match the shipboard fluxes. During the study, upwelling events were sources of CO2, N2O, and CH4 to the atmosphere. N2O fluxes were fairly low, in accordance with previous work suggesting that the evasion of this gas from the Benguela is smaller than for other eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS). Conversely, CH4 release was quite high for the marine environment, a result that supports studies that indicated a large sedimentary source of CH4 in the Walvis Bay area. These results demonstrate the suitability of atmospheric time series for characterizing the temporal variability of upwelling events and their influence on the overall marine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the northern Benguela region.
  • Wilson, Samuel T.; Bange, Hermann W.; Arevalo-Martinez, Damian L.; Barnes, Jonathan; Borges, Alberto; Brown, Ian; Bullister, John L.; Burgos, Macarena; Capelle, David W.; Casso, Michael; de la Paz, Mercedes; Farias, Laura; Fenwick, Lindsay; Ferron, Sara; Garcia, Gerardo; Glockzin, Michael; Karl, David M.; Kock, Annette; Laperriere, Sarah; Law, Cliff S.; Manning, Cara C.; Marriner, Andrew; Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Pohlman, John W.; Rees, Andrew P.; Santoro, Alyson E.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Wisegarver, David P.; Zhang, Gui-Ling; Rehder, Gregor (2018)
    Large-scale climatic forcing is impacting oceanic biogeochemical cycles and is expected to influence the water-column distribution of trace gases, including methane and nitrous oxide. Our ability as a scientific community to evaluate changes in the water-column inventories of methane and nitrous oxide depends largely on our capacity to obtain robust and accurate concentration measurements that can be validated across different laboratory groups. This study represents the first formal international intercomparison of oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements whereby participating laboratories received batches of seawater samples from the subtropical Pacific Ocean and the Baltic Sea. Additionally, compressed gas standards from the same calibration scale were distributed to the majority of participating laboratories to improve the analytical accuracy of the gas measurements. The computations used by each laboratory to derive the dissolved gas concentrations were also evaluated for inconsistencies (e.g., pressure and temperature corrections, solubility constants). The results from the intercomparison and intercalibration provided invaluable insights into methane and nitrous oxide measurements. It was observed that analyses of seawater samples with the lowest concentrations of methane and nitrous oxide had the lowest precisions. In comparison, while the analytical precision for samples with the highest concentrations of trace gases was better, the variability between the different laboratories was higher: 36 % for methane and 27 % for nitrous oxide. In addition, the comparison of different batches of seawater samples with methane and nitrous oxide concentrations that ranged over an order of magnitude revealed the ramifications of different calibration procedures for each trace gas. Finally, this study builds upon the intercomparison results to develop recommendations for improving oceanic methane and nitrous oxide measurements, with the aim of precluding future analytical discrepancies between laboratories.
  • Kulmala, Liisa; Peltokangas, Kenneth; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Pihlatie, Mari; Laurila, Tuomas; Liski, Jari; Lohila, Annalea (2022)
    Organic soil amendments such as manure, biochar and compost are among the most efficient and widely used methods to increase soil carbon sequestration in agricultural soils. Even though their benefits are well known, many wood-derived materials are not yet utilized in Nordic agriculture due to a lack of incentives and knowledge of their effects in the local climate. We studied greenhouse gas exchange, plant growth and soil properties of a clay soil cultivated with oat in southern Finland in an extremely dry year. Two years earlier, the field was treated with three ligneous soil amendments-lime-stabilized fiber from the pulp industry, willow biochar and spruce biochar-which we compared against fertilized and non-fertilized controls. We found that the soil amendments increased porosity and the mean soil water holding capacity, which was most noticeable in plots amended with spruce biochar. There was a trend indicating that the mean yield and overall biomass production were larger in plots with soil amendments; however, the difference to unamended control was seldom significant due to the high variance among replicates. Manual chamber measurements revealed that carbon dioxide and methane exchange rates were reduced most probably by the exceptionally hot and dry weather conditions, but no differences could be found between the amended and unamended treatments. The nitrous oxide emissions were significantly smaller from the vegetated soil amended with willow biochar compared with the unamended control. Emissions from non-vegetated soil, representing heterotrophic respiration, were similar but without significant differences between treatments. Overall, the studied soil amendments indicated positive climatic impact two years after their application, but further research is needed to conclusively characterize the specific effects of organic soil amendments on processes affecting greenhouse gas exchange and plant growth.
  • Wachiye, Sheila; Pellikka, Petri; Rinne, Janne; Heiskanen, Janne; Abwanda, Sheila; Merbold, Lutz (2022)
    Although grazing is the primary land use in the savanna lowland of southern Kenya, the effects of grazing on soil carbon dioxide flux (RS) remain unclear. A 12-month study was conducted from January to December 2020 on the effects of six grazing intensities sites (overgrazed (OG), heavily grazed (HG), moderately grazed (MG), moderately to lightly grazed (M-LG), lightly grazed (LG) and no grazing (NG)) on RS on. A camera trap was used to monitor the total number of animals at each site, indicating the grazing intensity. Weekly measurements of RS were taken using static greenhouse gas chambers along with simultaneous measurements of soil temperature (TS) and volumetric soil water content (WS) (depth of 5 cm). Mean RS at HG, MG, M-LG and LG sites was approximately 15–25% higher than at NG and OG sites (p < 0.001). Mean WS increased with decrease in grazing especially in the dry season, while TS increased with increase in grazing. We observed bimodal temporal variation in RS and WS due to two wet seasons in the year. Thus, variation in RS across the study period followed the changes in WS rather than those in TS. Mean values of RS in the wet seasons were significantly higher (> 45%) than those in the dry seasons, and WS accounted for 71% of the temporal variability in RS (p < 0.05). In addition, the enhanced vegetation index (EVI, interpreted as a proxy for vegetation cover) explained 60% of the variance of RS, and WS and EVI together explained 75%. EVI showed a negative relationship (p < 0.05) with animal intensity, indicating that more grazing reduced vegetation cover and, consequently, soil organic carbon and biomass. Soil bulk density was lower at less grazed sites. While RS variability was unaffected by total nitrogen content, pH, and texture, correspondence analysis demonstrated that the main factors influencing RS dynamics across the year under different grazing intensities were WS and vegetation cover. Our results contribute to closing the existing knowledge gap regarding the effects of grazing intensity on RS in East Africa savannas. Therefore, this information is of great importance in understanding carbon cycling in savanna grassland, as well as the identification of the potential consequences of increasing land pressure caused by rising livestock numbers, and will assist in the development of climate-smart livestock management in East Africa.
  • Saarenheimo, Jatta; Rissanen, Antti J.; Arvola, Lauri; Nykänen, Hannu; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Tiirola, Marja (2015)
    We studied potential links between environmental factors, nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation, and genetic indicators of nitrite and N2O reducing bacteria in 12 boreal lakes. Denitrifying bacteria were investigated by quantifying genes encoding nitrite and N2O reductases (nirS/nirK and nosZ, respectively, including the two phylogenetically distinct clades nosZ(I) and nosZ(II)) in lake sediments. Summertime N2O accumulation and hypolimnetic nitrate concentrations were positively correlated both at the inter-lake scale and within a depth transect of an individual lake (Lake Vanajavesi). The variability in the individual nirS, nirK, nosZ(I), and nosZ(II) gene abundances was high (up to tenfold) among the lakes, which allowed us to study the expected links between the ecosystem's nir-vs-nos gene inventories and N2O accumulation. Inter-lake variation in N2O accumulation was indeed connected to the relative abundance of nitrite versus N2O reductase genes, i.e. the (nirS+nirK)/nosZ(I) gene ratio. In addition, the ratios of (nirS+ nirK)/nosZ(I) at the inter-lake scale and (nirS+ nirK)/nosZ(I+II) within Lake Vanajavesi correlated positively with nitrate availability. The results suggest that ambient nitrate concentration can be an important modulator of the N2O accumulation in lake ecosystems, either directly by increasing the overall rate of denitrification or indirectly by controlling the balance of nitrite versus N2O reductase carrying organisms.
  • Kabir, Kazi Md. Jahangir (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Plenty of CO2 is commonly emitted from cultivated peat soils and substantial N2O emissions have occasionally been measured from acid sulphate soils. The factors limiting the emission of CO2 and N2O from the different layers of organic acid sulphate soil in Pärnänsuo were studied by aerobic and anaerobic incubation experiments. Two topsoil peat layers (upper and lower) and two mineral soil layers (upper and lower) were investigated. An aerobic experiment was carried out to see the emission of CO2 and N2O after application of glucose and ammonium, at two different temperatures (5o and 20o C). The water content of the soils was adjusted to 60% water- filled pore space (WFPS). Anaerobic experiment was carried out to assess the denitrification potential of different layers and the effect of glucose and nitrate alone and in combination as at 20oC using the acetylene inhibition technique. The lower peat layer exhibited more CO2 emission comparing to upper peat in the aerobic experiment. Additionally, in both peat layers and upper mineral soil layer, CO2 emission was increased exceedingly after glucose application. In the anaerobic experiment, potential denitrification from the upper peat was significantly higher than from other soil layers. Besides, the soil layers responded differently to C and N application. N2O emission from the upper peat was limited by easily available C whether it was applied as glucose alone or, in the presence of nitrate. On the contrary, N2O emission from lower peat layer was limited by nitrate with or, without glucose, but not by glucose alone. Both upper and lower mineral soil denitrification was limited by nitrate without glucose or, in combined with glucose, and not by glucose alone. Nitrogen mineralization pattern was different in upper and lower peat. A very high amount of NO3- was found in the upper peat, while there was a high amount of NH4+ in lower peat. Both the NO3- and NH4+ showed an increasing trend in lower mineral comparing to upper mineral, depicting an exceedingly high amount of mineral N at deeper layers
  • Rannik, U.; Haapanala, S.; Shurpali, Narasinha; Mammarella, I.; Lind, Saara; Hyvönen, Niina; Peltola, O.; Zahniser, Mark; Martikainen, Pertti; Vesala, T. (2015)
    Four gas analysers capable of measuring nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration at a response time necessary for eddy covariance flux measurements were operated from spring until winter 2011 over a field cultivated with reed canary grass (RCG, Phalaris arundinacea, L.), a perennial bioenergy crop in eastern Finland. The instruments were TGA100A (Campbell Scientific Inc.), CW-TILDAS-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.), N2O / CO-23d (Los Gatos Research Inc.) and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (Aerodyne Research Inc.). The period with high emissions, lasting for about 2 weeks after fertilization in late May, was characterized by an up to 2 orders of magnitude higher emission, whereas during the rest of the campaign the N2O fluxes were small, from 0.01 to 1 nmol m−2 s−1. Two instruments, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, determined the N2O exchange with minor systematic difference throughout the campaign, when operated simultaneously. TGA100A produced the cumulatively highest N2O estimates (with 29% higher values during the period when all instruments were operational). QC-TILDAS-76-CS obtained 36% lower fluxes than CW-TILDAS-CS during the first period, including the emission episode, whereas the correspondence with other instruments during the rest of the campaign was good. The reasons for systematic differences were not identified, suggesting further need for detailed evaluation of instrument performance under field conditions with emphasis on stability, calibration and any other factors that can systematically affect the accuracy of flux measurements. The instrument CW-TILDAS-CS was characterized by the lowest noise level (with a standard deviation of around 0.12 ppb at 10 Hz sampling rate) as compared to N2O / CO-23d and QC-TILDAS-76-CS (around 0.50 ppb) and TGA100A (around 2 ppb). We identified that for all instruments except CW-TILDAS-CS the random error due to instrumental noise was an important source of uncertainty at the 30 min averaging level and the total stochastic error was frequently of the same magnitude as the fluxes when N2O exchange was small at the measurement site. Both instruments based on continuous-wave quantum cascade laser, CW-TILDAS-CS and N2O / CO-23d, were able to determine the same sample of low N2O fluxes with a high mutual coefficient of determination at the 30 min averaging level and with minor systematic difference over the observation period of several months. This enables us to conclude that the new-generation instrumentation is capable of measuring small N2O exchange with high precision and accuracy at sites with low fluxes.
  • Kortelainen, Pirkko; Larmola, Tuula; Rantakari, Miitta; Juutinen, Sari; Alm, Jukka; Martikainen, Pertti J. (2020)
    Abstract Estimates of regional and global freshwater N2O emissions have remained inaccurate due to scarce data and complexity of the multiple processes driving N2O fluxes the focus predominantly being on summer time measurements from emission hot spots, agricultural streams. Here we present four-season data of N2O concentrations in the water columns of randomly selected boreal lakes covering a large variation in latitude, lake type, area, depth, water chemistry and land use cover. Nitrate was the key driver for N2O dynamics, explaining as much as 78% of the variation of the seasonal mean N2O concentrations across all lakes. Nitrate concentrations varied among seasons being highest in winter and lowest in summer. Of the surface water samples 71% were oversaturated with N2O relative to the atmosphere. Largest oversaturation was measured in winter and lowest in summer stressing the importance to include full year N2O measurements in annual emission estimates. Including winter data resulted in four-fold annual N2O emission estimates compared to summer only measurements. Nutrient rich calcareous and large humic lakes had the highest annual N2O emissions. Our emission estimates for Finnish and boreal lakes are 0.6 Gg and 29 Gg N2O-N y-1, respectively. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) of N2O cannot be neglected in the boreal landscape, being 35% of that of diffusive CH4 emission in Finnish lakes.
  • Golubyatnikov, L. L.; Mammarella, I. (2018)
    The experimental data on methane fluxes into the atmosphere from Fennoscandian lakes is analyzed. The contribution made by the lake network of this northern region to the atmospheric methane budget is estimated as 320 +/- 23 KtCH(4) per year. From 16 to 37% of the annual methane emission from Fennoscandian lakes is carried out by methane produced during the ice cover period. The methane fluxe rate from studied lakes is estimated as 2.6 +/- 0.2 gCH(4)m(-2) yr(-1). Among lakes of the region, small lakes (area
  • Shurpali, Narasinha J.; Rannik, Ullar; Jokinen, Simo; Lind, Saara; Biasi, Christina; Mammarella, Ivan; Peltola, Olli; Pihlatie, Mari; Hyvonen, Niina; Raty, Mari; Haapanala, Sami; Zahniser, Mark; Virkajarvi, Perttu; Vesala, Timo; Martikainen, Pertti J. (2016)
    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas produced in soil and aquatic ecosystems. Its warming potential is 296 times higher than that of CO2. Most N2O emission measurements made so far are limited in temporal and spatial resolution causing uncertainties in the global N2O budget. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques provide an excellent tool for area-integrated, direct and continuous field measurements of N2O fluxes using the eddy covariance method. By employing this technique on an agricultural site with four laser-based analysers, we show here that N2O exchange exhibits contrasting diurnal behaviour depending upon soil nitrogen availability. When soil N was high due to fertilizer application, N2O emissions were higher during daytime than during the night. However, when soil N became limited, emissions were higher during the night than during the day. These reverse diurnal patterns supported by isotopic analyses may indicate a dominant role of plants on microbial processes associated with N2O exchange. This study highlights the potential of new technologies in improving estimates of global N2O sources.
  • Lu, Changyi; Kotze, D. Johan; Setälä, Heikki M. (2022)
    Purpose Although plant functional type can modulate soils and their processes in natural, nitrogen (N)-limited ecosystems, little is known about their ability to influence soil N dynamics in urban ecosystems that have high excess N input. We investigated whether i) plant functional type effects on soil N dynamics in urban parks follow the same pattern as those in undisturbed natural/semi-natural forests, and ii) park age influences plant functional type effects on soil N dynamics under boreal climate. Methods We selected 13 urban parks of varying ages (young: 10 to 15, old: > 70 years), and 5 undisturbed natural/semi-natural forests (> 80 years) in southern Finland. In these parks and forests, we measured soil total N concentration, availability of inorganic N, nitrous oxide (N2O) flux and earthworm biomass under three plant functional types (evergreen tree, deciduous tree, lawn). Results Our results showed that plant functional type influenced N dynamics also in urban greenspace soils, which may relate to the clear effect of plant functional type on earthworm biomass. Evergreen trees tended to have the highest ability to foster N accumulation and reduce N2O emissions in urban parks. Moreover, with increasing park age, N accumulation increased under trees but decreased under lawns, further emphasising the role of vegetation in affecting soil N dynamics in urban greenspaces. Conclusions Our results show that, similar to natural/semi-natural forests, plant functional type, irrespective of park age, can influence soil N dynamics in urban parks.
  • Laine, Merjo Piia Päivikki; Rütting, Tobias; Alakukku, Laura Elina; Palojärvi, Ansa; Strömmer, Rauni Hannele (2018)
    No-till is considered an agricultural practice beneficial for the environment as soil erosion is decreased compared to ploughed soils. For on overall evaluation of the benefits and disadvantages of this crop production method, understanding the soil nutrient cycle is also of importance. The study was designed to obtain information about gross soil nitrogen (N) process rates in boreal no-tilled and mouldboard ploughed spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) fields after autumn harvesting. In situ soil gross N transformation process rates were quantified for the 5 cm topsoil in 9 days' incubation experiment using N-15 pool dilution and tracing techniques and a numerical N-15 tracing model. Gross N mineralization into ammonium (NH4+) and NH4+ immobilization were the most important N transformation processes in the soils. The gross mineralization rate was 14% and NH4+ immobilization rate 64% higher in no-till than in ploughing. Regardless of the faster mineralization, the gross rate of NH4+ oxidation into nitrate (NO3-) in no-till was one order of magnitude lower compared the ploughing. The results indicate that the no-tilled soils have the potential to decrease the risk for NO3- leaching due to slower NH4+ oxidation.
  • Wachiye, Sheila Aswani; Merbold, Lutz; Vesala, Timo; Rinne, Janne; Leitner, Sonja; Räsänen, Matti; Vuorinne, Ilja; Heiskanen, Janne; Pellikka, Petri (2021)
    Sisal (Agave sisalana) is a climate-resilient crop grown on large-scale farms in semi-arid areas. However, no studies have investigated soil greenhouse gas (GHGs: CO2, N2O and CH4) fluxes from these plantations and how they relate to other land cover types. We examined GHG fluxes (Fs) in a sisal chronosequence at Teita Sisal Estate in southern Kenya. The effects of stand age on Fs were examined using static GHG chambers and gas chromatography for a period of one year in seven stands: young stands aged 1-3 years, mature stands aged 7-8 years, and old stands aged 13-14 years. Adjacent bushland served as a control site representing the surrounding land use type. Mean CO2 fluxes were highest in the oldest stand (56 +/- 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and lowest in the 8-year old stand (38 +/- 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1)), which we attribute to difference in root respiration between the stand. All stands had 13-28% higher CO2 fluxes than bushland (32 +/- 3 mg C m(-2) h(-1)). CO2 fluxes in the wet season were about 70% higher than dry season across all sites. They were influenced by soil water content (W-S) and vegetation phenology. Mean N2O fluxes were very low (
  • Li, Guohua; Zhang, Sheng; Shi, Xiaohong; Zhan, Liyang; Zhao, Shengnan; Sun, Biao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhijun; Arvola, Lauri; Uusheimo, Sari; Tulonen, Tiina; Huotari, Jussi (Elsevier, 2022)
    Ecological Indicators
    Aquatic ecosystems are globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere, offsetting the terrestrial sinks. A one-year field study was carried out in a shallow eutrophic Lake Wuliangsuhai, Inner Mongolia (draining waters from one of the largest irrigation areas in China), to estimate diffusive GHG fluxes and their relative importance in global warming potential (GWP). Our results showed high spatiotemporal variation in dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations, while they did not differ significantly between the bottom and surface layers of the shallow waterbody. In general, GHG concentrations and diffusive fluxes were higher in the north part of the lake than in the south. GHG concentrations in the water under the ice were significantly higher than those during the open-water period. Spatial variability of GHG concentrations varied with the bathymetry of the lake. The location of study sites relative to the main inflow and abundance of submerged macrophytes were the main controlling factors of GHG concentrations, as indicated by the consistency of GHG concentrations at the sampling sites, particularly for N2O. The total diffusive GHG emission from Lake Wuliangsuhai was 76.9 ± 5.4 Gg CO2 equivalents yr−1, with CO2, CH4 and N2O contributing 16 %, 83 %, and 1 %, respectively. Overall, the results suggest that shallow lakes in mid-latitude arid areas with cold winters can be potentially important GHG sources. However, those lakes are insufficiently represented in the scientific literature, and therefore they deserve more research attention. Highlights • Greenhouse gases emissions from a shallow lake in semi-arid area were estimated. • Considerable spatiotemporal variation in dissolved CO2, CH4, and N2O concentrations. • Spatial variability of GHG was associated with lake bathymetry and abundance of macrophytes. • CH4 contributed 83% to the total emissions as CO2-equivalents. • Lakes are an important source of carbon to the atmosphere.
  • Li, Guohua; Zhang, Sheng; Shi, Xiaohong; Zhan, Liyang; Zhao, Shengnan; Sun, Biao; Liu, Yu; Tian, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhijun; Arvola, Lauri; Uusheimo, Sari; Tulonen, Tiina; Huotari, Jussi (2022)
    Aquatic ecosystems are globally significant sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) to the atmosphere, offsetting the terrestrial sinks. A one-year field study was carried out in a shallow eutrophic Lake Wuliangsuhai, Inner Mongolia (draining waters from one of the largest irrigation areas in China), to estimate diffusive GHG fluxes and their relative importance in global warming potential (GWP). Our results showed high spatiotemporal variation in dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations, while they did not differ significantly between the bottom and surface layers of the shallow waterbody. In general, GHG concentrations and diffusive fluxes were higher in the north part of the lake than in the south. GHG concentrations in the water under the ice were significantly higher than those during the open-water period. Spatial variability of GHG concentrations varied with the bathymetry of the lake. The location of study sites relative to the main inflow and abundance of submerged macrophytes were the main controlling factors of GHG concentrations, as indicated by the consistency of GHG concentrations at the sampling sites, particularly for N2O. The total diffusive GHG emission from Lake Wuliangsuhai was 76.9 ± 5.4 Gg CO2 equivalents yr−1, with CO2, CH4 and N2O contributing 16 %, 83 %, and 1 %, respectively. Overall, the results suggest that shallow lakes in mid-latitude arid areas with cold winters can be potentially important GHG sources. However, those lakes are insufficiently represented in the scientific literature, and therefore they deserve more research attention.
  • Jarvi, Leena; Nordbo, Annika; Rannik, Ullar; Haapanala, Sami; Riikonen, Anu; Mammarella, Ivan; Pihlatie, Mari; Vesala, Timo (2014)