Browsing by Subject "NAB739"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-2 of 2
  • Vaara, Martti; Vaara, Timo; Kuka, Janis; Sevostjanovs, Eduards; Grinberga, Solveiga; Dambrova, Maija; Liepinsh, Edgars (2020)
    Extremely multiresistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae are emerging and spreading at a worrisome pace. Polymyxins are used as the last-resort therapy against such strains, in spite of their nephrotoxicity. We have previously shown that novel polymyxin derivatives NAB739 and NAB815 are less nephrotoxic in cynomolgus monkeys than polymyxin B and are therapeutic in murine Escherichia coli pyelonephritis at doses only one-tenth of that needed for polymyxin B. Here we evaluated whether the increased efficacy is due to increased excretion of NAB739 in urine. Mice were treated with NAB739 and polymyxin B four times subcutaneously at doses of 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg. In plasma, a clear dose-response relationship was observed. The linearity of C-max with the dose was 0.9987 for NAB739 and 0.975 for polymyxin B. After administration of NAB739 at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg, its plasma concentrations at all tested time points were above 0.5 mu g/mL while after administration at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg its plasma concentrations exceeded 1 mu g/mL. The C-max of NAB739 in plasma was up to 1.5-times higher after single (first) administration and up to two-times higher after the last administration when compared to polymyxin B. Polymyxin B was not detected in urine samples even when administered at 4 mg/kg. In contrast, the concentration of NAB739 in urine after single administration at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg was above 1 mu g/mL and after administration of 0.5 mg/kg its average urine concentration exceeded 2 mu g/mL. At the NAB739 dose of 4 mg/kg, the urinary concentrations were higher than 35 mu g/mL. These differences explain our previous finding that NAB739 is much more efficacious than polymyxin B in the therapy of murine E. coli pyelonephritis.
  • Tyrrell, Jonathan M.; Aboklaish, Ali F.; Walsh, Timothy R.; Vaara, Timo; Vaara, Martti (2019)
    The antibiotic crisis has reinstated polymyxins, once abandoned because of their toxicity. Now, preclinical studies have revealed better tolerated and more effective derivatives of polymyxins such as NAB739. Simultaneously, polymyxin-resistant (PMR) strains such as the mcr-1 strains have received lots of justified publicity, even though they are still very rare. Here we show that NAB739 sensitizes the PMR strains to rifampin, a classic "anti-Gram-positive" antibiotic excluded by the intact outer membrane (OM) permeability barrier, as well as to retapamulin, the surrogate of lefamulin, an antibiotic under development against Gram-positive bacteria. Polymyxin B was used as a comparator. The combination of NAB739 and rifampin was synergistic against ten out of eleven PMR strains of Escherichia coll. (Fractional Synergy Indices, FICs, 0.14-0.19) and that of NAB739 and retapamulin against all the tested eleven strains (FICs 0.19-0.25). Against PMR Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 7), the FICs were 0.13-0.27 for NAB739 + rifampin and 0.14-0.28 for NAB739 + retapamulin. Against Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 2), the combination of NAB739 and rifampin had the FIC of 0.09-0.19. Furthermore, NAB739 and meropenem were synergistic (FICs 0.25-0.50) against four out of five PMR strains that were simultaneously resistant to meropenem.