Browsing by Subject "NANOFIBERS"

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  • Ainola, Mari; Tomaszewski, Waclaw; Ostrowska, Barbara; Wesolowska, Ewa; Wagner, H. Daniel; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Sillat, Tarvo; Peltola, Emilia; Konttinen, Yrjo T. (2016)
    The aim was to develop a hybrid three-dimensional-tissue engineering construct for chondrogenesis. The hypothesis was that they support chondrogenesis. A biodegradable, highly porous polycaprolactone-grate was produced by solid freeform fabrication. The polycaprolactone support was coated with a chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibre sheet produced by electrospinning. Transforming growth factor-3-induced chondrogenesis was followed using the following markers: sex determining region Y/-box 9, runt-related transcription factor 2 and collagen II and X in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, histology and immunostaining. A polycaprolactone-grate and an optimized chitosan/polyethylene oxide nanofibre sheet supported cellular aggregation, chondrogenesis and matrix formation. In tissue engineering constructs, the sheets were seeded first with mesenchymal stem cells and then piled up according to the lasagne principle. The advantages of such a construct are (1) the cells do not need to migrate to the tissue engineering construct and therefore pore size and interconnectivity problems are omitted and (2) the cell-tight nanofibre sheet and collagen-fibre network mimic a cell culture platform for mesenchymal stem cells/chondrocytes (preventing escape) and hinders in-growth of fibroblasts and fibrous scarring (preventing capture). This allows time for the slowly progressing, multiphase true cartilage regeneration.
  • Ding, Yaping; Li, Wei; W. Schubert, Dirk; R. Boccaccini , Aldo; A. Roether , Judith; Santos, Hélder A. (2021)
    Electrospun organic/inorganic hybrid scaffolds have been appealing in tissue regeneration owing to the integrated physicochemical and biological performances. However, the conventional electrospun scaffolds with non-woven structures usually failed to enable deep cell infiltration due to the densely stacked layers among the fibers. Herein, through self-assembly-driven electrospinning, a polyhydroxybutyrate/poly(e-caprolactone)/58S sol-gel bioactive glass (PHB/PCL/58S) hybrid scaffold with honeycomb-like structures was prepared by manipulating the solution composition and concentration during a one-step electrospinning process. The mechanisms enabling the formation of self-assembled honeycomb-like structures were investigated through comparative studies using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) between PHB/PCL/58S and PHB/PCL/sol-gel silica systems. The obtained honeycomb-like structure was built up from nanofibers with an average diameter of 370 nm and showed a bimodal distribution of pores: large polygonal pores up to hundreds of micrometers within the honeycomb-cells and irregular pores among the nanofibers ranging around few micrometers. The cell-materials interactions were further studied by culturing MG-63 osteoblast-like cells for 7 days. Cell viability, cell morphology and cell infiltration were comparatively investigated as well. While cells merely proliferated on the surface of non-woven structures, MG-63 cells showed extensive proliferation and deep infiltration up to 100-200 mu m into the honeycomb-like structure. Moreover, the cellular spatial organization was readily regulated by the honeycomb-like pattern as well. Overall, the newly obtained hybrid scaffold may integrate the enhanced osteogenicity originating from the bioactive components, and the improved cell-material interactions brought by the honeycomb-like structure, making the new scaffold a promising candidate for tissue regeneration.
  • Valoppi, Fabio; Lahtinen, Maarit; Bhattarai, Mamata; Kirjoranta, Satu; Juntti, Venla; Peltonen, Leena; Kilpeläinen, Petri O.; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2019)
    With the emerging bio-based technologies, the fractionation of complex biomass is essential to obtain value-added functional molecules for material, chemical, and energy production. The refining process of biomasses often requires the use of solvents and hazardous chemicals, whose removal after fractionation decreases the eco-compatibility of the process and increases the cost and time of the refinement. Softwood extracts obtained through the environmentally friendly pressurized hot water extraction are heterogeneous mixtures rich in hemicelluloses and lignin. Here we developed a simple, fast, organic solvent-free, and sustainable method to fractionate softwood extracts using centrifugal forces. The characteristics of each obtained fraction in terms of composition, macromolecular properties (particle size, molar mass, charge), interfacial activity, and stabilization capacity were highly dependent on the centrifugal force and time applied. The hemicellulose and lignin contents in the fractions were balanced by centrifugal forces to obtain functional emulsifiers that efficiently stabilized the oil/water interface. Through fractionation of softwood extracts, we also found that both the hemicelluloses and lignin particles are involved in emulsion interface formation and stabilization. Centrifugation is a scalable concept that can be feasibly and easily introduced into the biorefinery system and used to optimize the composition of biomass fractions for targeted purposes.
  • Kanerva, Mikko; Matrenichev, Vsevolod; Layek, Rama; Takala, Timo M.; Laurikainen, Pekka; Sarlin, Essi; Elert, Anna Maria; Yudin, Vladimir; Seitsonen, Jani; Ruokolainen, Janne; Saris, Per (2020)
    The quantitative difference in the antibacterial response was measured for pine rosin and propolis against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12598. The activity was studied for fibrous networks that form entirely bio-based cellulose-acetate (CA) materials. The analysis considers the effects of bacterial input, additive dosage, solvent type, variation in preparation, as well as the effect of storage time. Based on the results, the electrospun network structure is dependent on the solvent and the concentration of rosin and propolis. Both rosin and propolis improved the cellulose acetate solution processability, yet they formed beads at high concentrations. Rosin and propolis created strong antibacterial properties when these material systems were immersed in the liquid for 24 h at room temperature. The response remained visible for a minimum of two months. The electrospun networks of water and DMAc solvent systems with 1 to 5 wt% rosin content were clearly more efficient (i.e., decrease of 4 to 6 logs in colony forming units per mL) than the propolis networks, even after two months. This efficiency is likely due to the high content of abietic acids present in the rosin, which is based on the Fourier transform infrared spectra. The results of the additional analysis and cell cultivation with dermal fibroblast cells indicated an impairing effect on skin tissue by the rosin at a 1 wt% concentration compared to the pure CA fibers.
  • Xia, Guanggai; Zhang, Hongbo; Cheng, Ruoyu; Wang, Hongcheng; Song, Ziliang; Deng, Lianfu; Huang, Xinyu; Santos, Helder A.; Cui, Wenguo (2018)
    The low radical surgery rate of pancreatic cancer leads to increased local recurrence and poor prognosis. Gemcitabine (GEM) is the preferred chemotherapeutic for pancreatic cancer. However, systemic chemotherapy with GEM has reached a bottleneck due to its serious side effects after frequent injections. In this study, GEM is successfully enwrapped into electrospun fibers via microsol electrospinning technology to form a stable core-shell fibrous structure. The GEM release rate can be adjusted by altering the thickness of the hyaluronan-sol inner fiber and the quantity of loaded GEM, and the release can be sustained for as long as three weeks. In vitro assays show that these electrospun fibers effectively inhibit pancreatic cancer cells and promote apoptosis. In vivo studies show that the fibrous membranes are better for inhibiting the growth of residual tumors than that of integrated tumors. Furthermore, immunohistochemistry results show that GEM-loaded fibers promote a higher cell apoptosis rate than does systemically injected GEM in residual tumors. In addition, the local delivery of GEM with fibers significantly reduces liver toxicity. In summary, a core-shell electrospun fiber for the controlled and localized delivery of GEM, which greatly improves the treatment of residual tumors and prevents pancreatic tumor recurrence, is developed.
  • Paajanen, Johanna; Lönnrot, Satu; Heikkilä, Mikko; Meinander, Kristoffer; Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Ainassaari, Kaisu; Ritala, Mikko; Koivula, Risto (2019)
    Both stable and radioactive antimony are common industrial pollutants. For antimonate (Sb(v)) removal from industrial waste water, we synthesized submicron zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) fibers by electroblowing and calcination of the as-electroblown fibers. The fibers are amorphous after calcination at 300 and 400 degrees C and their average diameter is 720 nm. The fibers calcined at 500 to 800 degrees C have an average diameter of 570 nm and their crystal structure transforms from tetragonal to monoclinic at the highest calcination temperatures. We investigated Sb(v) adsorption capacity of the synthesized ZrO2 fibers as a function of pH, adsorption isotherm at pH 6 and adsorption kinetics at pH 7. The tetragonal ZrO2 fibers calcined at 500 degrees C exhibited the best potential for Sb(v) remediation with Sb(v) uptake of 10 mg g(-1) at pH 2 and a maximum Sb(v) uptake of 8.6 mg g(-1) in the adsorption isotherm experiment. They also reached 30% of 7 days' Sb(v) uptake in only a minute. The adsorption kinetics followed the Elovich model.
  • Paajanen, Johanna; Weintraub, Saara; Lönnrot, Satu; Heikkilä, Mikko; Vehkamäki, Marko; Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Ritala, Mikko; Koivula, Risto (2021)
    Nanoscale SnO2 has many important properties ranging from sorption of metal ions to gas sensing. Using a novel electroblowing method followed by calcination, we synthesized SnO2 and composite SnO2/SiO2 submicron fibers with a Sn : Si molar ratio of 3 : 1. Different calcination temperatures and heating rates produced fibers with varying structures and morphologies. In all the fibers SnO2 was detected by XRD indicating the SnO2/SiO2 fibers to be composite instead of complete mixtures. We studied the Co2+ separation ability of the fibers, since Co-60 is a problematic contaminant in nuclear power plant wastewaters. Both SnO2 and SnO2/SiO2 fibers had an excellent Co2+ uptake with their highest uptake/K-d values being 99.82%/281 000 mL g(-1) and 99.79%/234 000 mL g(-1), respectively. Compared to the bare SnO2 fibers, the SiO2 component improved the elasticity and mechanical strength of the composite fibers which is advantageous in dynamic column operation.
  • Bakos, Laszlo Peter; Justh, Nora; da Costa, Ulisses Carlo Moura da Silva Bezerra; Laszlo, Krisztina; Labar, Janos Laszlo; Igricz, Tamas; Varga-Josepovits, Katalin; Pasierb, Pawel; Farm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Szilagyi, Imre Miklos (2020)
    TiO2 and ZnO single and multilayers were deposited on hydroxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes using atomic layer deposition. The bare carbon nanotubes and the resulting heterostructures were characterized by TG/DTA, Raman, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, TEM-EELS-SAED and low temperature nitrogen adsorption techniques, and their photocatalytic and gas sensing activities were also studied. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were uniformly covered with anatase TiO2 and wurtzite ZnO layers and with their combinations. In the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange, the most beneficial structures are those where ZnO is the external layer, both in the case of single and double oxide layer covered CNTs (CNT-ZnO and CNT-TiO2-ZnO). The samples with multilayer oxides (CNT-ZnO-TiO2 and CNT-TiO2-ZnO) have lower catalytic activity due to their larger average densities, and consequently lower surface areas, compared to single oxide layer coated CNTs (CNT-ZnO and CNT-TiO2). In contrast, in gas sensing it is advantageous to have TiO2 as the outer layer. Since ZnO has higher conductivity, its gas sensing signals are lower when reacting with NH3 gas. The double oxide layer samples have higher resistivity, and hence a larger gas sensing response than their single oxide layer counterparts.
  • Sattary, Mansoureh; Rafienia, Mohammad; Kazemi, Mohammad; Salehi, Hossein; Mahmoudzadeh, Mohammad (2019)
    Tissue engineering knowledge is a step towards the treatment of irreversible damages to human beings. In the present study, PCL/Gel, PCL/Gel/nHA, PCL/Gel/Vit D3 and PCL/Gel/nHA/Vit D3 (Polycaprolactone/Gelatin/Nanohydroxyapatite/Vitamin D3) composite scaffolds were successfully constructed using electrospinning method. The proliferation and differentiation of hADSCs into the bone phenotype were determined using MTT method, ALP activity, Von Kossa and Alizarin red staining, and qRT-PCR test. The simultaneous presence of nHA and vitamin D3 led to the increased activity of ALP in the early stages (on the 14th day) and increased mineralization in the late stages (on the 21st day) in differentiated hADSCs. Further, it was found that the use of nHA and vitamin D3 resulted in increased expression of BGLAP and COLL I and reduced expression of ALP and RUNX2 in hADSCs for 21 days. The results indicated that nHA and vitamin D3 have a synergistic effect on the osteogenic differentiation of hADSCs.
  • Venäläinen, Salla H.; Hartikainen, Helinä (2018)
    Treatment of acidic mining water (MW) with industrial minerals and alkaline chemicals requires utilisation of unrenewable raw materials and produces disposable inorganic sludges of no further use. We investigated the efficiency of bio-based anionic nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) to purify authentic MW high in metals and sulphate. In a short-term (10 min) adsorption experiment, highly acidic (pH 3.2) multi-metal process water was treated with anionic NFC gels differing in their consistency (1.1%, 1.4% and 1.8% wow) at three sorbent-to-solution ratios. To unravel the purification efficiency of the NFC gels, MW was treated stepwise with a set of fresh NFC gels in three sequential batches. Each treated solution was filtrated before pH measurement and analysis for the NFC-induced changes in the metal and sulphate concentrations. All NFC gels efficiently co-adsorbed metals and sulphate and decreased the acidity of MW. Depending on the dosage, a triplicated treatment with the NFC gels removed as much as 32-75% of metal cations and 34-75% of sulphate anions. The retention of metals highly exceeded the amount of carboxyl groups in the sorbent Thus, we concluded that, instead of electrostatic adsorption, the retention took place through formation of covalent metal-NFC complexes. The subsequent surplus in positive total charge formed on the NFC-surface, in turn, enabled electrostatic co-adsorption of sulphate anions. The mutual interactions between cellulose nanofibrils in the NFC gel weakened with decreasing consistency, which promoted the accessibility of the sorption sites. This improved the purification efficiency while decreasing the demand for cellulosic raw material. We concluded that anionic NFC could potentially serve as a multifunctional and resource-efficient purification agent in the treatment of acidic process waters of high ionic strength. Ideally, the elements retained could be liberated and recycled elsewhere. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Venäläinen, Salla H.; Hartikainen, Helinä (2017)
    We carried out an adsorption experiment to investigate the ability of anionic nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) to retain metal and SO42- ions from authentic highly acidic (pH 3.2) mining water. Anionic NFC gels of different consistencies (1.1%, 1.4-% and 1.8-% w/w) were allowed to react for 10 min with mining water, after which NFC-induced changes in the metal and SO42- concentrations of the mining water were determined. The sorption capacities of the NFC gels were calculated as the difference between the element concentrations in the untreated and NFC-treated mining water samples. All the NFCs efficiently co-adsorbed both metals and SO42-. The retention of metals was concluded to take place through formation of metal-ligand complexes. The reaction between the NFC ligand and the polyvalent cations renders the cellulose nanofibrils positively charged and, thus, able to retain SO42- electrostatically. Adsorption capacity of the NFC gels substantially increased upon decreasing DM content as a result of the dilution-induced weakening of the mutual interactions between individual cellulose nanofibrils. This outcome reveals that the dilution of the NFC gel not only increases its purification capacity but also reduces the demand for cellulosic raw material. These results suggest that anionic NFC made of renewable materials serves as an environmentally sound and multifunctional purification agent for acidic multimetal mining waters or AMDs of high ionic strength. Unlike industrial minerals traditionally used to precipitate valuable metals from acidic mining effluents before their permanent disposal from the material cycle, NFC neither requires mining of unrenewable raw materials nor produces inorganic sludges. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Amirsadeghi, Armin; Jafari, Arman; Hashemi, Seyyedeh-Sara; Kazemi, Aboozar; Ghasemi, Younes; Derakhshanfar, Amin; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Niknezhad, Seyyed Vahid (2021)
    Wound infection is considered a significant challenge in skin injuries. Sprayable antibacterial wound dressings are interesting alternatives to their traditional counterparts because of their facile preparation, ease-of-use, and the possibility of topical delivery of antibacterial materials. Herein, novel sprayable antibacterial dressings are formulated and reported. The dressings were developed by in-situ formation of Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using Persian gum (PG) as a carbohydrate polymer. Several tests were conducted to investigate the effect of polymer concentration on the sprayablity, biocompatibility, and antibacterial activity of the dressings (PG/Ag-NPs). Results showed that formulations up to 2 wt.% PG/Ag-NPs could be sprayed properly and form intact films. Antibacterial evaluations also showed biocidal activity of 1% PG/Ag-NPs against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Cytotoxicity and in vivo full-thickness wound healing evaluation confirmed that 1% PG/ Ag-NPs spray was safe and improved wound healing process. All the results confirmed the high potential of formulated sprayable dressings for wound repair.
  • Gholami, Peyman; Khataee, Alireza; Ritala, Mikko (2022)
    High-performance photocatalysts have considerable potential to address energy and environmental issues. In this study, dodecylbenzenesulfonate (DBS) modified ZnCuCo layered double hydroxide (DBS-ZnCuCo LDH) microspheres were synthesized through the facile template-free hydrothermal method. Subsequently, ZnCuCo mixedmetal oxides (MMOs) with morphological features of the DBS modified LDH, enhanced surface area, increased light absorption and effective charge separation were prepared by the calcination of the as-synthesized LDH at 650 degrees C. Structural, morphological, and photoelectrochemical properties of ZnCuCo and DBS-ZnCuCo LDHs and the corresponding MMOs (ZnCuCo MMO1 and ZnCuCo MMO2) were investigated. SEM and TEM images revealed that DBS-ZnCuCo LDH and ZnCuCo MMO2 possess 3D flower-like hierarchical morphologies with interlaced petal-like nanosheets. Although ZnCuCo LDH was inactive for photocatalytic H-2 production under visible light irradiation, ZnCuCo MMO2 exhibited a high H2 production rate (3700 mu mol g(-1) h(-1)), benefiting from the synergy of the ZnO, CuO, and Co3O4. Furthermore, 95% sulfamethazine (SMZ) degradation was obtained after 60 min of photocatalysis, which is considerably higher than the degradation efficiency of ZnCuCo LDH (24%) and ZnCuCo MMO1 (58%). Based on the photoelectrochemical tests, Z-scheme and double charge transfer mechanisms were proposed to explain the enhanced photocatalytic H-2 production and degradation of SMZ. Scavenging tests revealed that O-2(center dot-) radicals were the main reactive species in the photodegradation of SMZ. A possible degradation pathway was proposed based on the detection of intermediate products.
  • Nieminen, Heikki J.; Laidmae, Ivo; Salmi, Ari; Rauhala, Timo; Paulin, Tor; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Haeggström, Edward (2018)
    Electrospinning is commonly used to produce polymeric nanofibers. Potential applications for such fibers include novel drug delivery systems, tissue engineering scaffolds, and filters. Electrospinning, however, has shortcomings such as needle clogging and limited ability to control the fiber-properties in a non-chemical manner. This study reports on an orifice-less technique that employs high-intensity focused ultrasound, i.e. ultrasound-enhanced electrospinning. Ultrasound bursts were used to generate a liquid protrusion with a Taylor cone from the surface of a polymer solution of polyethylene oxide. When the polymer was charged with a high negative voltage, nanofibers jetted off from the tip of the protrusion landed on an electrically grounded target held at a constant distance from the tip. Controlling the ultrasound characteristics permitted physical modification of the nanofiber topography at will without using supplemental chemical intervention. Possible applications of tailor-made fibers generated by ultrasound-enhanced electrospinning include pharmaceutical controlled-release applications and biomedical scaffolds with spatial gradients in fiber thickness and mechanical properties.
  • Beaumont, Marco; Jusner, Paul; Gierlinger, Notburga; King, Alistair; Potthast, Antje; Rojas, Orlando J.; Rosenau, Thomas (2021)
    The remarkable efficiency of chemical reactions is the result of biological evolution, often involving confined water. Meanwhile, developments of bio-inspired systems, which exploit the potential of such water, have been so far rather complex and cumbersome. Here we show that surface-confined water, inherently present in widely abundant and renewable cellulosic fibres can be utilised as nanomedium to endow a singular chemical reactivity. Compared to surface acetylation in the dry state, confined water increases the reaction rate and efficiency by 8 times and 30%, respectively. Moreover, confined water enables control over chemical accessibility of selected hydroxyl groups through the extent of hydration, allowing regioselective reactions, a major challenge in cellulose modification. The reactions mediated by surface-confined water are sustainable and largely outperform those occurring in organic solvents in terms of efficiency and environmental compatibility. Our results demonstrate the unexploited potential of water bound to cellulosic nanostructures in surface esterifications, which can be extended to a wide range of other nanoporous polymeric structures and reactions. The efficiency of chemical reactions in biological systems is often connected to the properties of confined water, but the developments and applications of artificial mimicking systems are impeded by the complexity of the biological systems. Here, the authors show how surface bound water in nanoporous cellulosic fibers can increase the reaction rate of surface acetylation reactions and enable regioselectivity of the reaction
  • Holopainen, Jani; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Salmi, Leo D.; Ainassaari, Kaisu; Ritala, Mikko (2018)
    Electroblowing was used to prepare ZnO and aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO, 1–3 cation-% of Al) fibers. The as-blown fibers were calcined at 500 °C to obtain the target material. The average fiber diameters ranged from 240 ± 60 nm for ZnO fibers to 330 ± 80 nm for AZO with 3% Al. Smaller crystallite size was measured with the x-ray diffraction for the Al doped fibers. Electroblowing was found out be an effective method to increase the fiber productivity over electrospinning and other methods reported in literature to prepare AZO fibers as a high production rate of 0.32 g/h was achieved. The ZnO and AZO fibers could be converted to zeolitic imidazole framework-8 [ZIF-8, zinc(2-methylimidazolate)2] by a solvent free thermal treatment in an autoclave under 2-methylimidazole (HmIM) vapor at 150 and 200 °C while preserving the fibrous structure. The conversion process to ZIF-8 occurred faster at higher temperatures and on fibers with smaller crystallite size. Depending on the conversion treatment time either ZnO/ZIF-8 and AZO/ZIF-8 core/shell fibers or ZIF-8 fibers could be obtained. At best the prepared ZIF-8 fibers had a very high BET specific surface area of 1340 m2/g.