Browsing by Subject "NATAL DISPERSAL"

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  • Kotrschal, Alexander; Lievens, Eva J. P.; Dahlbom, Josefin; Bundsen, Andreas; Semenova, Svetlana; Sundvik, Maria; Maklakov, Alexei A.; Winberg, Svante; Panula, Pertti; Kolm, Niclas (2014)
  • Herrero, Annika; Klutsch, Cornelya F. C.; Holmala, Katja; Maduna, Simo N.; Kopatz, Alexander; Eiken, Hans Geir; Hagen, Snorre B. (2021)
    Conservation and management of large carnivores requires knowledge of female and male dispersal. Such information is crucial to evaluate the population's status and thus management actions. This knowledge is challenging to obtain, often incomplete and contradictory at times. The size of the target population and the methods applied can bias the results. Also, population history and biological or environmental influences can affect dispersal on different scales within a study area. We have genotyped Eurasian lynx (180 males and 102 females, collected 2003-2017) continuously distributed in southern Finland (similar to 23,000 km(2)) using 21 short tandem repeats (STR) loci and compared statistical genetic tests to infer local and sex-specific dispersal patterns within and across genetic clusters as well as geographic regions. We tested for sex-specific substructure with individual-based Bayesian assignment tests and spatial autocorrelation analyses. Differences between the sexes in genetic differentiation, relatedness, inbreeding, and diversity were analysed using population-based AMOVA, F-statistics, and assignment indices. Our results showed two different genetic clusters that were spatially structured for females but admixed for males. Similarly, spatial autocorrelation and relatedness was significantly higher in females than males. However, we found weaker sex-specific patterns for the Eurasian lynx when the data were separated in three geographical regions than when divided in the two genetic clusters. Overall, our results suggest male-biased dispersal and female philopatry for the Eurasian lynx in Southern Finland. The female genetic structuring increased from west to east within our study area. In addition, detection of male-biased dispersal was dependent on analytical methods utilized, on whether subtle underlying genetic structuring was considered or not, and the choice of population delineation. Conclusively, we suggest using multiple genetic approaches to study sex-biased dispersal in a continuously distributed species in which population delineation is difficult.
  • Sumasgutner, Petra; Terraube, Julien; Coulon, Aurélie; Villers, Alexandre; Chakarov, Nayden; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Korpimäki, Erkki (2019)
    Selecting high-quality habitat and the optimal time to reproduce can increase individual fitness and is a strong evolutionary factor shaping animal populations. However, few studies have investigated the interplay between land cover heterogeneity, limitation in food resources, individual quality and spatial variation in fitness parameters. Here, we explore how individuals of different quality respond to possible mismatches between a cue for prey availability (land cover heterogeneity) and the actual fluctuating prey abundance.
  • Gyllenberg, Mats; Kisdi, Eva; Weigang, Helene C. (2016)
    Empirical studies of dispersal indicate that decisions to immigrate are patch-type dependent; yet theoretical models usually ignore this fact. Here, we investigate the evolution of patch-type dependent immigration of a population inhabiting and dispersing in a heterogeneous landscape, which is structured by patches of low and high reward. We model the decision to immigrate in detail from a mechanistic underpinning. With the methods of adaptive dynamics, we derive both analytical and numerical results for the evolution of immigration when life-history traits are patch-type dependent. The model exhibits evolutionary branching in a wide parameter range and the subsequent coevolution can lead to a stable coexistence of a generalist, settling in patches of any type, and a specialist that only immigrates into patches of high reward. We find that individuals always settle in the patches of high reward, in which survival until maturation, relative fecundity and emigration probability are high. We investigate how the probability to immigrate into patches of low reward changes with model parameters. For example, we show that immigration into patches of low reward increases when the emigration probability in these patches increases. Further, immigration into patches of low reward decreases when the patches of high reward become less safe during the dispersal season. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Selonen, Vesa; Remm, Jaanus; Hanski, Ilpo K.; Henttonen, Heikki; Huitu, Otso; Jokinen, Maarit; Korpimäki, Erkki; Makela, Antero; Sulkava, Risto; Wistbacka, Ralf (2019)
    Climatic conditions, trophic links between species and dispersal may induce spatial synchrony in population fluctuations. Spatial synchrony increases the extinction risk of populations and, thus, it is important to understand how synchrony-inducing mechanisms affect populations already threatened by habitat loss and climate change. For many species, it is unclear how population fluctuations vary over time and space, and what factors potentially drive this variation. In this study, we focus on factors determining population fluctuations and spatial synchrony in the Siberian flying squirrel, Pteromys volans, using long-term monitoring data from 16 Finnish populations located 2-400 km apart. We found an indication of synchronous population dynamics on a large scale in flying squirrels. However, the synchrony was not found to be clearly related to distance between study sites because the populations seemed to be strongly affected by small-scale local factors. The regularity of population fluctuations varied over time. The fluctuations were linked to changes in winter precipitation, which has previously been linked to the reproductive success of flying squirrels. Food abundance (tree mast) and predator abundance were not related to population fluctuations in this study. We conclude that spatial synchrony was not unequivocally related to distance in flying squirrels, as has been observed in earlier studies for more abundant rodent species. Our study also emphasises the role of climate in population fluctuations and the synchrony of the species.
  • Kisdi, Eva; Weigang, Helene C.; Gyllenberg, Mats (2020)
    Local adaptation and habitat choice are two key factors that control the distribution and diversification of species. Here we model habitat choice mechanistically as the outcome of dispersal with nonrandom immigration. We consider a structured metapopulation with a continuous distribution of patch types and determine the evolutionarily stable immigration strategy as the function linking patch type to the probability of settling in the patch on encounter. We uncover a novel mechanism whereby coexisting strains that only slightly differ in their local adaptation trait can evolve substantially different immigration strategies. In turn, different habitat use selects for divergent adaptations in the two strains. We propose that the joint evolution of immigration and local adaptation can facilitate diversification and discuss our results in the light of niche conservatism versus niche expansion.
  • Pakkala, Timo; Tiainen, Juha; Kouki, Jari (2017)
    Cavity-nesting birds can save time and energy by reusing old cavities. We studied cavity reuse and its connections to nesting success and timing in the three-toed woodpecker Picoides tridactylus in a 170-km(2) area in southern Finland during 1987-2015. The data include 520 nest trees, 645 nest cavities and 833 nestings in 86 territory sites, including 211 cases of cavity reuse. Twenty-five percent of nestings was in previously used cavities. Twenty-eight percent of cavities and 25% of nest trees were used more than once. Reuse improved nesting success and facilitated early nesting in the year following first nesting. Reuse of nest trees with several cavities was observed in 15% of nest trees, and 62% of reused cavities were in those multi-cavity trees. Cavity reuse and multi-cavity trees were most abundant in long-term territories with stable habitats. In boreal forests, cavity and tree reuse can be an important adaptation allowing efficient nesting during a short breeding season.