Browsing by Subject "NATIONWIDE"

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  • Grip, Olivia; Mani, Kevin; Altreuther, Martin; Goncalves, Frederico Bastos; Beiles, Barry; Cassar, Kevin; Davidovic, Lazar; Eldrup, Nikolaj; Lattmann, Thomas; Laxdal, Elin; Menyhei, Gabor; Setacci, Carlo; Settembre, Nicla; Thomson, Ian; Venermo, Maarit; Björck, Martin (2020)
    Objective: Popliteal artery aneurysm (PAA) is the second most common arterial aneurysm. Vascunet is an international collaboration of vascular registries. The aim was to study treatment and outcomes. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively registered population based data. Fourteen countries contributed data (Australia, Denmark, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Malta, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Serbia, Sweden, and Switzerland). Results: During 2012-2018, data from 10 764 PAA repairs were included. Mean values with between countries ranges in parenthesis are given. The incidence was 10.4 cases/million inhabitants/year (2.4-19.3). The mean age was 71.3 years (66.8-75.3). Most patients, 93.3%, were men and 40.0% were active smokers. The operations were elective in 73.2% (60.0%-85.7%). The mean pre-operative PAA diameter was 32.1 mm (27.3-38.3 mm). Open surgery dominated in both elective (79.5%) and acute (83.2%) cases. A medial surgical approach was used in 77.7%, and posterior in 22.3%. Vein grafts were used in 63.8%. Of the emergency procedures, 91% (n = 2 169, 20.2% of all) were for acute thrombosis and 9% for rupture (n = 236, 2.2% of all). Thrombosis patients had larger aneurysms, mean diameter 35.5 mm, and 46.3% were active smokers. Early amputation and death were higher after acute presentation than after elective surgery (5.0% vs. 0.7%; 1.9% vs. 0.5%). This pattern remained one year after surgery (8.5% vs. 1.0%; 6.1% vs. 1.4%). Elective open compared with endovascular surgery had similar one year amputation rates (1.2% vs. 0.2%; p = .095) but superior patency (84.0% vs. 78.4%; p = .005). Veins had higher patency and lower amputation rates, at one year compared with synthetic grafts (86.8% vs. 72.3%; 1.8% vs. 5.2%; both p <.001). The posterior open approach had a lower amputation rate (0.0% vs. 1.6%, p = .009) than the medial approach. Conclusion: Patients presenting with acute ischaemia had high risk of amputation. The frequent use of endovascular repair and prosthetic grafts should be reconsidered based on these results.
  • European Soc Human Genetics; European Council Legal Med; European Soc Cardiology Working; European Reference Network Rare; Assoc European Cardiovasc; Fellmann, Florence; van El, Carla G.; Sajantila, Antti (2019)
    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) accounts for 10-20% of total mortality, i.e., one in five individuals will eventually die suddenly. Given the substantial genetic component of SCD in younger cases, postmortem genetic testing may be particularly useful in elucidating etiological factors in the cause of death in this subset. The identification of genes responsible for inherited cardiac diseases have led to the organization of cardiogenetic consultations in many countries worldwide. Expert recommendations are available, emphasizing the importance of genetic testing and appropriate information provision of affected individuals, as well as their relatives. However, the context of postmortem genetic testing raises some particular ethical, legal, and practical (including economic or financial) challenges. The Public and Professional Policy Committee of the European Society of Human Genetics (ESHG), together with international experts, developed recommendations on management of SCD after a workshop sponsored by the Brocher Foundation and ESHG in November 2016. These recommendations have been endorsed by the ESHG Board, the European Council of Legal Medicine, the European Society of Cardiology working group on myocardial and pericardial diseases, the ERN GUARD-HEART, and the Association for European Cardiovascular Pathology. They emphasize the importance of increasing the proportion of both medical and medicolegal autopsies and educating the professionals. Multidisciplinary collaboration is of utmost importance. Public funding should be allocated to reach these goals and allow public health evaluation.
  • Ylinen, Elisa; Salmenlinna, Saara; Halkilahti, Jani; Jahnukainen, Timo; Korhonen, Linda; Virkkala, Tiia; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska; Nuutinen, Matti; Kataja, Janne; Arikoski, Pekka; Linkosalo, Laura; Bai, Xiangning; Matussek, Andreas; Jalanko, Hannu; Saxén, Harri (2020)
    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a multisystemic disease. In a nationwide study, we characterized the incidence, clinical course, and prognosis of HUS caused by Shiga toxin (Stx)–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains with emphasis on risk factors, disease severity, and long-term outcome.
  • Imperial Coll Longon; Lindgren, Antti; Burt, Sarah; Turner, Ellie Bragan; Meretoja, Atte; Lee, Jin-Moo; Hemmen, Thomas M.; Alberts, Mark; Lemmens, Robin; Vergouwen, Mervyn D. I.; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E. (2019)
    Background Inverse association between hospital case-volume and case-fatality has been observed for various nonsurgical interventions and surgical procedures. Aims To study the impact of hospital case-volume on outcome after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Methods We included aSAH patients who underwent aneurysm coiling or clipping from tertiary care medical centers across three continents using the Dr Foster Stroke GOAL database 2007-2014. Hospitals were categorized by annual case-volume (low volume: 70/year). Primary outcome was 14-day in-hospital case-fatality. We calculated proportions, and used multiple logistic regression to adjust for age, sex, differences in comorbidity or disease severity, aneurysm treatment modality, and hospital. Results We included 8525 patients (2363 treated in low volume hospitals, 3563 treated in intermediate volume hospitals, and 2599 in high-volume hospitals). Crude 14-day case-fatality for hospitals with low case-volume was 10.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.2-11.7%), for intermediate volume 7.0% (95% CI 6.2-7.9%; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.63 (95%CI 0.47-0.85)) and for high volume 5.4% (95% CI 4.6-6.3%; adjusted OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.33-0.74)). In patients with clipped aneurysms, adjusted OR for 14-day case-fatality was 0.46 (95% CI 0.30-0.71) for hospitals with intermediate case-volume and 0.42 (95% CI 0.25-0.72) with high case-volume. In patients with coiled aneurysms, adjusted OR was 0.77 (95% CI 0.55-1.07) for hospitals with intermediate case-volume and 0.56 (95% CI 0.36-0.87) with high case-volume. Conclusions Even within a subset of large, tertiary care centers, intermediate and high hospital case-volume is associated with lower case-fatality after aSAH regardless of treatment modality, supporting centralization to higher volume centers.
  • Behrendt, Christian-Alexander; Sigvant, Birgitta; Szeberin, Zoltan; Beiles, Barry; Eldrup, Nikolaj; Thomson, Ian A.; Venermo, Maarit; Altreuther, Martin; Menyhei, Gabor; Nordanstig, Joakim; Clarke, Mike; Riess, Henrik Christian; Björck, Martin; Debus, Eike Sebastian (2018)
    Objectives: To study international differences in incidence and practice patterns as well as time trends in lower limb amputations related to peripheral arterial disease and/or diabetes mellitus. Methods: Data on lower limb amputations during 2010-2014 were collected from population based administrative data from countries in Europe and Australasia participating in the VASCUNET collaboration. Amputation rates, time trends, in hospital or 30 day mortality and reimbursement systems were analysed. Results: Data from 12 countries covering 259 million inhabitants in 2014 were included. Individuals aged >= 65 years ranged from 12.9% (Slovakia) to 20.7% (Germany) and diabetes prevalence among amputees from 25.7% (Finland) to 74.3% (Slovakia). The mean incidence of major amputation varied between 7.2/100,000 (New Zealand) and 41.4/100,000 (Hungary), with an overall declining time trend with the exception of Slovakia, while minor amputations increased over time. The older age group (>= 65 years) was up to 4.9 times more likely to be amputated compared with those younger than 65 years. Reported mortality rates were lowest in Finland (6.3%) and highest in Hungary (20.3%). Countries with a fee for service reimbursement system had a lower incidence of major amputation compared with countries with a population based reimbursement system (14.3/100,000 versus 18.4/100,000, respectively, p <.001). Conclusions: This international audit showed large geographical differences in major amputation rates, by a factor of almost six, and an overall declining time trend during the 4 year observation of this study. Diabetes prevalence, age distribution, and mortality rates were also found to vary between countries. Despite limitations attributable to registry data, these findings are important, and warrant further research on how to improve limb salvage in different demographic settings. (C) 2018 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Sucksdorff, Minna; Brown, Alan S.; Chudal, Roshan; Surcel, Helja-Marja; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; Cheslack-Postava, Keely; Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre (2021)
    Objective: Recent evidence has highlighted the importance of vitamin D in the development of the central nervous system. Some studies have shown an association between maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy and offspring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms based on parent or teacher ratings. There are no previous studies on early pregnancy 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and the risk of diagnosed offspring ADHD. Our aim was to examine maternal 25(OH)D levels in early pregnancy and offspring ADHD. Method: In this nationwide population-based case-control study, 1,067 ADHD cases (born between 1998 and 1999 and diagnosed according to the International Classification of Diseases) and 1,067 matched controls were identified from Finnish registers. Maternal 25(OH)D levels were measured using quantitative immunoassay from maternal sera, collected during the first trimester and archived in the national biobank. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the association between maternal 25(OH)D and offspring ADHD. Results: There was a significant association between decreasing log-transformed maternal 25(OH)D levels and offspring ADHD both in the unadjusted analyses (odds ratio 1.65; 95% CI 1.33-2.05; p <.001) and in the analyses adjusting for maternal socioeconomic status and age (odds ratio 1.45; 95% CI 1.15-1.81; p = .002). Analyses by quintiles of maternal 25(OH)D levels in the lowest versus highest quintile revealed an adjusted odds ratio for offspring ADHD of 1.53 (95% CI 1.11-2.12; p = .010). Conclusion: This study demonstrated an association between low maternal 25(OH)D during pregnancy and an elevated risk for offspring ADHD. If replicated in independent samples, this finding may have significant public health implications.
  • Yanes, M; Santoni, G; Maret-Ouda, J; Markar, S; Ness-Jensen, E; Kauppila, J; Farkkila, M; Lynge, E; Pukkala, E; Tryggvadottir, L; Von Euler-Chelpin, M; Lagergren, J (2021)
  • Aaltonen, Kari I.; Isometsä, Erkki; Sund, Reijo; Pirkola, Sami (2019)
    Objective To examine longitudinally risk factors for suicide in depression, and gender differences in risk factors and suicide methods. Method We linked data from (i) The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, (ii) the Census Register of Statistics Finland, and (iii) Statistics Finland's register on causes of deaths. All 56 826 first-hospitalized patients (25 188 men, 31 638 women) in Finland in 1991-2011 with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder were followed up until death (2587 suicides) or end of the year 2014 (maximum 24 years). Results Clinical characteristics (severe depression adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.19 [95% CI 1.08-1.30]; psychotic depression AHR 1.45 [1.30-1.62]; and comorbid alcohol dependence AHR 1.26 [1.13-1.41]), male gender (AHR 2.07 [1.91-2.24]), higher socioeconomic status and living alone at first hospitalization were long-term predictors of suicide deaths. Highest risk was associated with previous suicide attempts (cumulative probability 15.4% [13.7-17.3%] in men, 8.5% [7.3-9.7%] in women). Gender differences in risk factors were modest, but in lethal methods prominent. Conclusion Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics at first hospitalization predict suicide in the long term. Inpatients with previous suicide attempts constitute a high-risk group. Despite some gender differences in risk factors, those in lethal methods may better explain gender disparity in risk.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2020)
    Background: Survival in malignant cutaneous melanoma has improved but increasing survival will result in an increased likelihood of the occurrence of second primary cancers (SPCs). SPCs may adversely interfere with survival. We quantified survival in patients with different types of SPCs, in comparison to known poor prognostic indicators of metastatic disease. Methods: Data for melanoma and any SPCs were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry for years 2003 through 2015, including clinical TNM classification. SPCs were grouped into three 'prognostic groups' based on 5-year relative survival of these cancers as first primary cancer. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and hazard ratios were estimated using Cox regression, adjusted for a number of variables and treating diagnosis of SPC as a time-dependent variable. Results: The total number of first melanoma patients was 28,716 followed by 3,202 (11.1%) SPCs, 1/3 of which had a second melanoma while 2/3 had other SPCs. Among men diagnosed at age over 70 years, who survived at least 10 years, 31.4% had SPC. HRs (95% CI) for survival increased systematically from the reference rate of 1.00 (no SPC) to 1.59 (1.35-1.87) with SPC of good prognosis (78.6% of SPCs) to 3.49 (2.58-4.72) of moderate prognosis (12.0%) and to 7.93 (5.50-11.44) of poor prognosis (9.4%). In patients without SPC, the HRs increased to 2.62 (2.02-3.39) with any nodal metastases and to 5.88 (4.57-7.57) with any distant metastases compared to patients without local or distant metastases. Conclusion: The data showed that SPCs are an increasingly common negative prognostic factor for melanoma. Future attempts to improve melanoma survival need to target SPCs.
  • Mustonen, Laura; Aho, Tommi; Harno, Hanna; Kalso, Eija (2020)
    Objectives: Static mechanical allodynia (SMA), i. e., pain caused by normally non-painful static pressure, is a prevalent manifestation of neuropathic pain (NP). Although SMA may significantly affect the patient's daily life, it is less well studied in the clinical context. We aimed to characterize SMA in women with chronic post-surgical NP (CPSNP) after breast cancer surgery. Our objective was to improve understanding of the clinical picture of this prevalent pain condition. This is a substudy of a previously published larger cohort of patients with intercostobrachial nerve injury after breast cancer surgery (Mustonen et al. Pain. 2019;160:246-56). Methods: We studied SMA in 132 patients with CPSNP after breast cancer surgery. The presence, location, and intensity of SMA were assessed at clinical sensory examination. The patients gave self-reports of pain with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI). We studied the association of SMA to type of surgery, oncological treatments, BMI, other pains, and psychological factors. General pain sensitivity was assessed by the cold pressor test. Results: SMA was prevalent (84%) in this cohort whereas other forms of allodynia were scarce (6%). Moderate-to-severe SMA was frequently observed even in patients who reported mild pain in BPI. Breast and the side of chest were the most common locations of SMA. SMA was associated with breast surgery type, but not with psychological factors. Severe SMA, but not self-reported pain, was associated with lower cold pain tolerance. Conclusions: SMA is prevalent in post-surgical NP after breast cancer surgery and it may represent a distinct NP phenotype. High intensities of SMA may signal the presence of central sensitization. Implications: SMA should be considered when examining and treating patients with post-surgical NP after breast cancer surgery.
  • Malham, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Virta, Lauri J.; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Wewer, Vibeke (2019)
    Background Recent studies report increased risks of both cancer and mortality in paediatric onset inflammatory bowel disease (pIBD) but the reproducibility of this is unknown. Aim To estimate the risk of cancer and mortality in the Danish and Finnish pIBD population in a 23-year period compared to the general population. Methods The pIBD population was defined as individuals registered in the national patient registries with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) or IBD-unclassified before their 18th birthday from 1992 to 2014. This cohort was cross referenced with the national cancer and mortality registries identifying all pIBD patients who subsequently developed cancer and/ or died and followed up to the end of 2014. Risk estimates are presented as standardised incidence ratios calculated based on incidence figures from the populations. Results Six thousand six hundred and eight-nine patients with pIBD were identified (median age at follow-up 22.3 years; median follow-up: 9.6 years [interquartile range: 4.8-16.0]). Seventy-two subsequently developed cancer and 65 died. The standardised incidence ratio of cancer in general was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.8-3.7) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8-3.4) in CD and UC, respectively. The standardised mortality ratios were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4-3.4) and 3.7 (95% CI: 2.7-5.0) in CD and UC, respectively. The leading causes for mortality were cancer, suicide and infections. Conclusions We found an increased risk of cancer and mortality in pIBD. This underlines the importance of cancer surveillance programs and assessment of mental health in the standard of care in adolescent pIBD patients.
  • Zheng, Guoqiao; Chattopadhyay, Subhayan; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, Kari (2021)
    Background: Favorable survival in malignant cutaneous melanoma (melanoma) has increased the likelihood of second primary cancer (SPC). We assess the influence of patient characteristics at diagnosis of first melanoma and the type of SPC (second melanoma and other SPC) on overall survival. Methods: We used the Swedish Cancer Registry data to assess overall survival in melanoma for the period 1990 to 2015. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated with Cox regression models by considering SPC diagnosis as a time-dependent variable. Results: A total of 46,726 patients were diagnosed with melanoma, and 15.3% of them developed SPC, among which, two thirds were other SPCs. Second melanomas were diagnosed early (31% during the first year) compared to non-melanoma SPCs (9.5%). Survival for women with second melanoma or other SPC (56 and 21% alive after 25 years of follow-up, respectively) exceeded the male rates (21 and 10%, respectively) but all these figures were lower than for females (60% alive) or males (48%) without SPC. Time dependent analysis showed vastly increased HRs for cancer types that are fatal also as first cancers, but SPC-specific HRs remained relatively uniform, irrespective of SPC diagnosed soon or late after first melanoma. In early-onset melanoma, SPC diagnosis after 10 years may not negatively influence overall survival. Conclusions: As the overall survival of patients with many types of SPCs is unfavorable, advice about health lifestyle should benefit smoking patients and early detection methods may be recommended for SPCs of the breast, prostate and colorectum.
  • Aavikko, Mervi; Kaasinen, Eevi; Andersson, Noora; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Sulo, Päivi; Donner, Iikki; Pihlajamaa, Päivi; Kuosmanen, Anna; Bramante, Simona; Katainen, Riku; Sipilä, Lauri J; Martin, Samantha; Arola, Johanna; Carpén, Olli; Heiskanen, Ilkka; Mecklin, Jukka-Pekka; Taipale, Jussi; Ristimäki, Ari; Lehti, Kaisa; Gucciardo, Erika; Katajisto, Pekka; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Vahteristo, Pia; Aaltonen, Lauri A. (2021)
    Many hereditary cancer syndromes are associated with an increased risk of small and large intestinal adenocarcinomas. However, conditions bearing a high risk to both adenocarcinomas and neuroendocrine tumors are yet to be described.We studied a family with 16 individuals in four generations affected by a wide spectrum of intestinal tumors, including hyperplastic polyps, adenomas, small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors, and colorectal and small intestinal adenocarcinomas.To assess the genetic susceptibility and understand the novel phenotype, we utilized multiple molecular methods, including whole genome sequencing, RNA sequencing, single cell sequencing, RNA in situ hybridization and organoid culture.We detected a heterozygous deletion at the cystic fibrosis locus (7q31.2) perfectly segregating with the intestinal tumor predisposition in the family. The deletion removes a topologically associating domain border between CFTR and WNT2, aberrantly activating WNT2 in the intestinal epithelium. These consequences suggest that the deletion predisposes to small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors and small and large intestinal adenocarcinomas, and reveals the broad tumorigenic effects of aberrant WNT activation in the human intestine.