Browsing by Subject "NATRIURETIC PEPTIDE"

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  • Cerlinskaite, Kamile; Javanainen, Tuija; Cinotti, Raphael; Mebazaa, Alexandre (2018)
    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening medical condition, where urgent diagnostic and treatment methods are of key importance. However, there are few evidence-based treatment methods. Interestingly, despite relatively similar ways of management of AHF throughout the globe, mid-term outcome in East Asia, including South Korea is more favorable than in Europe. Yet, most of the treatment methods are symptomatic. The cornerstone of AHF management is identifying precipitating factors and specific phenotype. Multidisciplinary approach is important in AHF, which can be caused or aggravated by both cardiac and non-cardiac causes. The main pathophysiological mechanism in AHF is congestion, both systemic and inside the organs (lung, kidney, or liver). Cardiac output is often preserved in AHF except in a few cases of advanced heart failure. This paper provides guidance on AHF management in a time-based approach. Treatment strategies, criteria for triage, admission to hospital and discharge are described.
  • Öhman, Jonas; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Karjalainen, Pasi; Lassus, Johan (2018)
    Background: It is unclear how to optimally monitor acute heart failure (AHF) patients. We evaluated the timely interplay of cardiac filling pressures, brain natriuretic peptides (BNPs), lung ultrasound (LUS) and symptoms during AHF treatment. Methods: We enrolled 60 patients who had been hospitalised for AHF. Patients were examined with a rapid cardiothoracic ultrasound (CaTUS) protocol, combining LUS and focused echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac filling pressures (i.e. medial E/e' and inferior vena cava index [IVCi]). CaTUS was done at 0, 12, 24 and 48 hours (3 hours) and on the day of discharge, alongside clinical evaluation and laboratory samples. Patients free of congestion (Blines or pleural fluid) on LUS at discharge were categorised as responders, whereas the rest were categorised as non-responders. Improvement in congestion parameters was evaluated separately in these groups. The effect of congestion parameters on prognosis was also analysed. Results: Responders experienced a significantly larger decline in E/e' (2.58 vs. 0.38, p=0.037) and dyspnoea visual analogue scale (1-10) score (7.68 vs. 3.57, p=0.007) during the first 12 hours of treatment, while IVCi and BNPs declined later without no such rapid initial decline. Among patients experiencing a >3 U decline in E/e' during the first 12 hours of treatment, 18/21 were to become responders (p Conclusion: E/e' seemed like the most useful congestion parameter for monitoring early treatment response, predicting prognostically beneficial resolution of pulmonary congestion.
  • Pauklin, Priit; Zilmer, Mihkel; Eha, Jaan; Tootsi, Kaspar; Kals, Mart; Kampus, Priit (2022)
    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia in clinical practice. The pathogenesis of AF is linked to inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress, which leads to fibrosis of the atria and progression of the disease. The purpose of this study was to define the role of several biomarkers of inflammation, fibrosis, and oxidative stress (OxS). We included 75 patients with paroxysmal/persistent AF, who were admitted for electrical cardioversion or pulmonary vein isolation (PVI). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), galectin-3 (Gal-3), myeloperoxidase (MPO), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) were measured before the procedures. We compared the results with those of 75 healthy age-, sex-, and blood pressure-matched individuals. The patients were followed up for 1 year after the intervention to establish the recurrence of AF and its association with the measured markers. Patients with AF had higher MPO (52.6 vs. 36.2 ng/ml, p < 0.001) and NT-proBNP (209.0 vs. 28.0 pg/ml, p < 0.001) compared to healthy subjects. Also, they showed significantly higher levels of hsCRP (1.5 vs. 1.1 mg/l, p=0.001) and Gal-3 (11.4 vs. 9.7 mg/l, p=0.003), while there was no difference found in oxLDL (71.5 vs. 71.7 U/l, p=0.449). MPO (OR=1.012, p=0.014), hsCRP (OR=1.265, p=0.026), and weight (OR=1.029, p=0.013) were independently associated with AF in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Patients with successful maintenance of sinus rhythm (SR) for one year had lower baseline MPO (40.5 vs. 84.3 ng/ml, p=0.005) and NT-proBNP (127.5 vs. 694.0 pg/ml, p < 0.001) compared to patients with recurrent AF episodes, but there was no difference in hsCRP, Gal-3, or oxLDL between them. MPO (OR=0.985, p=0.010) was independently associated with AF recurrence during the follow-up period when adjusted for cofounders. Patients with AF had increased markers of inflammation and fibrosis, while there was no increase detected in the OxS marker oxLDL. MPO was independently associated with AF in a multivariate model. Inflammatory and fibrotic mechanisms are important factors in electrical and structural remodelling progress in the atria of patients with AF.
  • Delles, Christian; Rankin, Naomi J.; Boachie, Charles; McConnachie, Alex; Ford, Ian; Kangas, Antti; Soininen, Pasi; Trompet, Stella; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Zannad, Faiez; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki S.; Welsh, Paul; Wurtz, Peter; Sattar, Naveed (2018)
    Aims We investigated the association between quantified metabolite, lipid and lipoprotein measures and incident heart failure hospitalisation (HFH) in the elderly, and examined whether circulating metabolic measures improve HFH prediction.& para;& para;Methods and results Overall, 80 metabolic measures from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 5341; 182 HFH events during 2.7-year follow-up). We repeated the work in FINRISK 1997 (n = 7330; 133 HFH events during 5-year follow-up). In PROSPER, the circulating concentrations of 13 metabolic measures were found to be significantly different in those who were later hospitalised for heart failure after correction for multiple comparisons. These included creatinine, phenylalanine, glycoprotein acetyls, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and various high-density lipoprotein measures. In Cox models, two metabolites were associated with risk of HFH after adjustment for clinical risk factors and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP): phenylalanine [hazard ratio (HR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.53; P = 0.002] and acetate (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.98; P = 0.026). Both were retained in the final model after backward elimination. Compared to a model with established risk factors and NT-proBNP, this model did not improve the C-index but did improve the overall continuous net reclassification index (NRI 0.21; 95% CI 0.06-0.35; P = 0.007) due to improvement in classification of non-cases (NRI 0.14; 95% CI 0.12-0.17; P
  • Hijazi, Ziad; Lindahl, Bertil; Oldgren, Jonas; Andersson, Ulrika; Lindback, Johan; Granger, Christopher B.; Alexander, John H.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Hanna, Michael; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Hylek, Elaine M.; Lopes, Renato D.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Wallentin, Lars (2017)
    Background--Cardiac biomarkers are independent risk markers in atrial fibrillation, and the novel biomarker-based ABC stroke score (age, biomarkers, and clinical history of prior stroke) was recently shown to improve the prediction of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation. Our aim was to investigate the short-term variability of the cardiac biomarkers and evaluate whether the ABC stroke risk score provides a stable short- term risk estimate. Methods and Results--According to the study protocol, samples were obtained at entry and also at 2 months in 4796 patients with atrial fibrillation followed for a median of 1.8 years in the ARISTOTLE (Apixaban for Reduction in Stroke and Other Thromboembolic Events in Atrial Fibrillation) trial. Cardiac troponin I, cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide were measured with high-sensitivity immunoassays. Associations with outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression. C indices and calibration plots were used to evaluate the ABC stroke score at 2 months. The average changes in biomarker levels during 2 months were small ( median change cardiac troponin T +2.8%, troponin I +2.0%, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide +13.5%) and within-subject correlation was high ( all >= 0.82). Repeated measurement of cardiac biomarkers provided some incremental prognostic value for mortality but not for stroke when combined with clinical risk factors and baseline levels of the biomarkers. Based on 8702 person-years of follow-up and 96 stroke/systemic embolic events, the ABC stroke score at 2 months achieved a similar C index of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76) as compared with 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.75) at baseline. The ABC stroke score remained well calibrated using predefined risk classes. Conclusions--In patients with stable atrial fibrillation, the variability of the cardiac biomarkers and the biomarker- based ABC stroke score during 2 months are small. The prognostic information by the ABC stroke score remains consistent and well calibrated with similar good predictive performance if patients are retested after 2 months. Clinical Trial Registration --URL: Unique identifier: NCT00412984.
  • Sivunen, Johanna; Piirila, Paivi; Karlberg, Susann; Kajosaari, Merja; Valmari, Pekka; Kupari, Markku; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Jalanko, Hannu; Sovijarvi, Anssi R. A. (2020)
    Background Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare growth restriction disorder with multiple organ manifestations caused by genetic defects affecting the TRIM37 protein. A perimyocardial heart disease is the most serious manifestation. Many MUL children appear to suffer from airway obstruction related to infection or exercise, prompting use of inhaled therapies. Asthma medication is continued up to adolescence or even to adulthood due to persisting of symptoms. The pulmonary pathophysiology has previously not been evaluated in any MUL cohort. Methods Thirty three finnish MUL patients (median age 20 years) were investigated with several lung function tests: spirometry with bronchodilatation test, single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, single-breath lung volume measurements with helium dilution, and thoracic gas volume, airway resistance and specific conductance measurements with a body plethysmograph. As MUL typically affects body proportions, all variables were compared with reference values and with predicted values calculated from sitting height. Results Total lung capacity and forced vital capacity were markedly reduced (total lung capacity [TLC] and forced vital capacity [FVC], P <.001, 51%-63% of predicted) and also forced expiratory volume in the first second was reduced (FEV1; P <.001, 47%-57%). No signs of airway obstruction was seen (normal FEV1/FVC and specific airway conductance SGaw). Diffusing capacity (DLCO) was decreased (P <.001, 60%-67%) but when related to alveolar volume it was increased (DLCO/VA, P <.001, 130%-148%). Bronchodilatation suggesting active asthma (FEV1 change >= 12% and >= 200 mL) was found only in one patient. Conclusion MUL patients typically have volume restriction of the lungs, but function of the pulmonary tissue remains intact. Evidence of asthma in lung function testing at adult age is rare.
  • Börschel, Christin S.; Ohlrogge, Amelie H.; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Niiranen, Teemu; Havulinna, Aki S.; Palosaari, Tarja; Jousilahti, Pekka; Rienstra, Michiel; van der Harst, Pim; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Salomaa, Veikko; Schnabel, Renate B. (2021)
    Aims Classical cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF5), biomarkers, and common genetic variation have been suggested for risk assessment of atrial fibrillation (AF). To evaluate their clinical potential, we analysed their individual and combined ability of AF prediction. Methods and results In N=6945 individuals of the FINRISK 1997 cohort, we assessed the predictive value of CVRF, N-terminal pro Btype natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and 145 recently identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) combined in a developed polygenic risk score (PRS) for incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 17.8 years, n = 551 participants (7.9%) developed AF. In multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models, NT-proBNP [hazard ratio (HR) of log transformed values 4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.66-6.22; P Conclusion The PRS and the established biomarker NT-proBNP showed comparable predictive ability. Both provided incremental predictive value over standard clinical variables. Further improvements for the PRS are likely with the discovery of additional SNPs.
  • Kandolin, Riina M.; Wiefels, Christiane C.; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco; Chong, Aun-Yeong; Boland, Paul; Glineur, David; Sun, Louise; Beanlands, Rob S.; Mielniczuk, Lisa M. (2019)
    This review describes the current evidence and controversies for viability imaging to direct revascularization decisions and the impact on patient outcomes. Balancing procedural risks and possible benefit from revascularization is a key question in patients with heart failure of ischemic origin (IHF). Different stages of ischemia induce adaptive changes in myocardial metabolism and function. Viable but dysfunctional myocardium has the potential to recover after restoring blood flow. Modern imaging techniques demonstrate different aspects of viable myocardium; perfusion (single-photon emission computed tomography [SPECT], positron emission tomography [PET], cardiovascular magnetic resonance [CMR]), cell metabolism (PET), cell membrane integrity and mitochondrial function (201Tl and 99mTc-based SPECT), contractile reserve (stress echocardiography, CMR) and scar (CMR). Observational studies suggest that patients with IHF and significant viable myocardium may benefit from revascularization compared with medical treatment alone but that in patients without significant viability, revascularization appears to offer no survival benefit or could even worsen the outcome. This was not supported by 2 randomized trials (Surgical Treatment for Ischemic Heart Failure [STICH] and PET and Recovery Following Revascularization [PARR] -2) although post-hoc analyses suggest that benefit can be achieved if decisions had been strictly based on viability imaging recommendations. Based on current evidence, viability testing should not be the routine for all patients with IHF considered for revascularization but rather integrated with clinical data to guide decisions on revascularization of high-risk patients with comorbidities.
  • Brynildsen, Jon; Petäjä, Liisa; Pettilä, Ville; Nygård, Stale; Vaara, Suvi T.; Linko, Rita; Okkonen, Marjatta; Hagve, Tor-Arne; Soininen, Leena; Suojaranta-Ylinen, Raili; Lyngbakken, Magnus Nakrem; Omland, Torbjorn; Rosjo, Helge (2018)
    Background: European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation II (EuroSCORE II) is used for risk stratification before cardiac surgery, but whether N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) may add prognostic information to EuroSCORE II is not known. Methods: Preoperative (n = 640) and postoperative (n = 629) blood samples were available from cardiac surgical patients with 961-day follow-up (FINNAKI Heart study; cohort #1). The accuracy of a parsimonious risk model with NT-proBNP measurements was also tested in 90 patients with respiratory failure after cardiac surgery (FINNALI study; cohort #2). Results: Sixty-one patients (9.5%) died during follow-up in cohort #1. Preoperative NT-proBNP and hs-TnT concentrations correlated (rho = 0.58; p <0.001) and were higher in non-survivors compared to survivors: median 2027 (Q1-3 478-5387) vs. 373 (134-1354) ng/L [NT-proBNP] and 39 (16-191) vs. 13 (8-32) ng/L [hs-TnT]; p <0.001 for both. Preoperative NT-proBNP concentrations were associated with time to death after adjustment for EuroSCORE II (HR [lnNT-proBNP] 1.33 [95% CI 1.08-1.64]), p = 0.008 and reclassified patients on top of EuroSCORE II (net reclassification index 0.39 [95% CI 0.14-0.64], p = 0.003). Pre-and postoperative NT-proBNP concentrations were closely correlated (rho = 0.80, p <0.001) and postoperative NT-proBNP concentrations were also associated with long-term mortality after adjustment for EuroSCORE II. A parsimonious risk model that included age, creatinine clearance, chronic pulmonary disease, and NT-proBNP measurements provided comparable prognostic accuracy as EuroSCORE II in cohort #1 and #2 for risk of long-term mortality. hs-TnT measurements did not add to NT-proBNP measurements Conclusion: NT-proBNP measurements could improve and simplify risk prediction in cardiac surgical patients.