Browsing by Subject "NECK-CANCER"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 20
  • Matovic, Jelena; Järvinen, Juulia; Bland, Helena C.; Sokka, Iris K.; Imlimthan, Surachet; Ferrando, Ruth Mateu; Huttunen, Kristiina M.; Timonen, Juri; Peräniemi, Sirpa; Aitio, Olli; Airaksinen, Anu J.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Johansson, Mikael P.; Rautio, Jarkko; Ekholm, Filip S. (2020)
    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for cancer is on the rise worldwide due to recent developments of in-hospital neutron accelerators which are expected to revolutionize patient treatments. There is an urgent need for improved boron delivery agents, and herein we have focused on studying the biochemical foundations upon which a successful GLUT1-targeting strategy to BNCT could be based. By combining synthesis and molecular modeling with affinity and cytotoxicity studies, we unravel the mechanisms behind the considerable potential of appropriately designed glucoconjugates as boron delivery agents for BNCT. In addition to addressing the biochemical premises of the approach in detail, we report on a hit glucoconjugate which displays good cytocompatibility, aqueous solubility, high transporter affinity, and, crucially, an exceptional boron delivery capacity in the in vitro assessment thereby pointing toward the significant potential embedded in this approach.
  • Mäkinen, Anna; Mäkitie, Antti; Meurman, Jukka H. (2021)
    Background: Previous studies have shown an increased prevalence of candidiasis in patients receiving radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. However, little is known of the effect the different cancer treatment modalities have on the oral Candida status. Objective and hypothesis: The objective of this study was to investigate the change in salivary Candida status of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients undergoing cancer treatment. The hypothesis was that cancer treatments change the oral microbial environment favouring an increase in the prevalence of more pathogenic non-albicans Candida (NAC). Methods: We collected paraffin-stimulated saliva from 44 OSCC patients before surgery and after a minimum of 19 months of follow-up. Chromagar, Bichro-Dupli-test and API ID 32 C were used for identification of different Candida species and results were analysed statistically. Results: At both timepoints, 75% of samples were Candida positive with C. albicans being the most common yeast. NAC strains were present in 16% of the pre-operative samples and 14% of the follow-up samples. The NAC species found were C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, C. guilliermondii (preoperatively only) and C. glabrata (at follow-up only). In 73% of the cases, the salivary Candida status remained unchanged. There was an 18% increase in the prevalence of candidiasis. However, the different treatment modalities did not statistically significantly affect the Candida status of the patients. Conclusion: The intraindividual prevalence of salivary Candida among OSCC patients seems to be stable and different treatment modalities have little to no effect on the salivary Candida status. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
  • Gregoire, Vincent; Evans, Mererid; Quynh-Thu Le; Bourhis, Jean; Budach, Volker; Chen, Amy; Eisbruch, Abraham; Feng, Mei; Giralt, Jordi; Gupta, Tejpal; Hamoir, Marc; Helito, Juliana K.; Hu, Chaosu; Hunter, Keith; Johansen, Jorgen; Kaanders, Johannes; Laskar, Sarbani Ghosh; Lee, Anne; Maingon, Philippe; Mäkitie, Antti; Micciche, Francesco; Nicolai, Piero; O'Sullivan, Brian; Poitevin, Adela; Porceddu, Sandro; Skiadowski, Krzysztof; Tribius, Silke; Waldron, John; Wee, Joseph; Yao, Min; Yom, Sue S.; Zimmermann, Frank; Grau, Cai (2018)
    Purpose: Few studies have reported large inter-observer variations in target volume selection and delineation in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Consensus guidelines have been published for the neck nodes (see Gregoire et al., 2003, 2014), but such recommendations are lacking for primary tumour delineation. For the latter, two main schools of thoughts are prevailing, one based on geometric expansion of the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) as promoted by DAHANCA, and the other one based on anatomical expansion of the GTV using compartmentalization of head and neck anatomy. Method: For each anatomic location within the larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx and oral cavity, and for each T-stage, the DAHANCA proposal has been comprehensively reviewed and edited to include anatomic knowledge into the geometric Clinical Target Volume (CTV) delineation concept. A first proposal was put forward by the leading authors of this publication (VG and CG) and discussed with opinion leaders in head and neck radiation oncology from Europe, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, North America and South America to reach a worldwide consensus. Results: This consensus proposes two CTVs for the primary tumour, the so called CTV-P1 and CVT-P2, corresponding to a high and lower tumour burden, and which should be associated with a high and a lower dose prescription, respectively. Conclusion: Implementation of these guidelines in the daily practice of radiation oncology should contribute to reduce treatment variations from clinicians to clinicians, facilitate the conduct of multi institutional clinical trials, and contribute to improved care of patients with head and neck carcinoma. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Väyrynen, Otto; Piippo, Markku; Jämsä, Hannaleena; Väisänen, Tuomas; de Almeida, Carlos E. B.; Salo, Tuula; Missailidis, Sotiris; Risteli, Maija (2018)
    Chemoradiation is an established approach in the treatment of advanced oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), but therapy may cause severe side-effects due to signal interchanges between carcinoma and the tumour microenvironment (TME). In this study, we examined the potential use of our human 3D myoma disc and Myogel models in in vitro chemoradiation studies by analysing the effects of ionizing radiation (IR) and the combined effect of heparanase 1 (HPSE1) inhibitors and IR on OTSCC cell proliferation, invasion and MMP-2 and - 9 production. Finally, we analysed the long-term effects of IR by studying clones of previously irradiated and invaded HSC-3 cells. We found that in both human uterine leiomyoma-based extracellular matrix models IR inhibited the invasion of HSC-3 cells, but blocking HPSE1 activity combined with IR induced their invasion. Low doses of IR increased MMP expression and initiated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cells cultured on myoma discs. We conclude that myoma models offer consistent methods for testing human carcinoma cell invasion and phenotypic changes during chemoradiation treatment. In addition, we showed that IR had long-term effects on MMP-2 and - 9, which might elicit different HSC-3 invasion responses when cells were under the challenge of HPSE1 inhibitors and IR.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Halme, Elina; Irjala, Heikki; Saarilahti, Kauko; Koivunen, Petri; Pukkila, Matti; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Lindholm, Paula; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Vaittinen, Samuli; Ellonen, Anna; Tikanto, Jukka; Blomster, Henry; Laranne, Jussi; Grenman, Reidar; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo (2018)
    Background: Treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has changed, as the proportion of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related disease has increased. We evaluated nationwide information on its management and outcome during the treatment paradigm change period.Methods: We included all patients diagnosed and treated for OPSCC at the five Finnish university hospitals from 2000 to 2009. Patient records and pathology registries provided the clinicopathological data. p16 staining was performed on primary tumor samples of patients who had received treatment with curative intent.Results: A total of 674 patients were diagnosed and treated for OPSCC and the incidence increased along the study period. Of the evaluable tumors 58.5% were p16-positive and the number of p16-positive tumors increased along the years. The treatment was given with curative intent for 600 patients and it was completed in 564. Of them, 47.9% underwent primary surgery and 52.1% received definitive oncological treatment. Also, the treatment protocol changed towards a more oncological approach. Among patients treated with curative intent the five-year overall, disease-specific and disease-free survival rates were 60.1, 71.5 and 57.0%. In multivariate analysis, p16-positivity seemed to relate to reduced disease mortality in lateral and anterior-wall disease. Depending on primary tumor localization, also sex, classes T3-4, presence of regional metastasis and radiotherapy modality had an association with disease mortality.Conclusion: The incidence of p16-positive OPSCC and delivery of definitive oncological treatment increased in Finland during the study period. An improved survival outcome compared with the previous nationwide investigation was observed in this subset of patients.
  • Nieminen, Markus; Atula, Timo; Bäck, Leif; Mäkitie, Antti; Jouhi, Lauri; Aro, Katri (2020)
    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing. Patients with HPV-associated and HPV-unassociated OPSCC differ in many aspects, which may also impact their diagnostic and management timelines. This study aims at studying the patient, primary health care (PHC) and specialist-care (SC) delays and possible differences between these two patient groups in seeking medical care.
  • Hemminki, Kari; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Li, Xinjun (2021)
    Simple Summary Familial cancer can be defined through the occurrence of the same cancer in two or more family members. Hereditary cancer is a narrower definition of high-risk familial aggregation through identified predisposing genes. The absence of correlation between spouses for risk of most cancers, particularly those not related to tobacco smoking or solar exposure, suggests that familial cancers are mainly due to genetic causes. The aim of the present study was to define the frequency and increased risk for familial cancer. Data on 31 of the most common cancers were obtained from the Swedish Family-Cancer Database and familial relative risks (SIRs) were estimated between persons with or without family history of the same cancer in first-degree relatives. Practically all cancers showed a familial risk, with an SIR most commonly around two, or a doubling of the risk because of family history. Background: Familial cancer can be defined through the occurrence of the same cancer in two or more family members. We describe a nationwide landscape of familial cancer, including its frequency and the risk that it conveys, by using the largest family database in the world with complete family structures and medically confirmed cancers. Patients/methods: We employed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to estimate familial risks for concordant cancer among first-degree relatives using the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1958 through 2016. Results: Cancer risks in a 20-84 year old population conferred by affected parents or siblings were about two-fold compared to the risk for individuals with unaffected relatives. For small intestinal, testicular, thyroid and bone cancers and Hodgkin disease, risks were higher, five-to-eight-fold. Novel familial associations included adult bone, lip, pharyngeal, and connective tissue cancers. Familial cancers were found in 13.2% of families with cancer; for prostate cancer, the proportion was 26.4%. High-risk families accounted for 6.6% of all cancer families. Discussion/Conclusion: High-risk family history should be exceedingly considered for management, including targeted genetic testing. For the major proportion of familial clustering, where genetic testing may not be feasible, medical and behavioral intervention should be indicated for the patient and their family members, including screening recommendations and avoidance of carcinogenic exposure.
  • Carpen, Timo; Sorsa, Timo; Jouhi, Lauri; Tervahartiala, Taina; Haglund, Caj; Syrjänen, Stina; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mohamed, Hesham; Mäkitie, Antti; Hagström, Jaana; Mattila, Petri S. (2019)
    Background An emerging subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) is caused by HPV. HPV-positive OPSCC has a better prognosis than HPV-negative OPSCC, but other prognostic markers for these two different diseases are scarce. Our aim was to evaluate serum levels and tumor expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and to assess their prognostic role in HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC. Materials and methods A total of 90 consecutive OPSCC patients diagnosed and treated with curative intent at the Helsinki University Hospital between 2012 and 2016 were included. Serum samples were prospectively collected. An immunofluorometric assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum concentrations, respectively. HPV status of the tumors was determined using a combination of HPV-DNA genotyping and p16-INK4a immunohistochemistry. The endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results High TIMP-1 serum levels were strongly and independently associated with poorer OS (adjusted HR 14.7, 95% CI 1.8-117.4, p = 0.011) and DFS (adjusted HR 8.7, 95% CI 1.3-57.1, p = 0.024) among HPV-negative patients; this association was not observed in HPV-positive OPSCC. Although TIMP-1 was immunoexpressed in the majority of the tumor tissue samples, the level of immunoexpression was not associated with prognosis, nor did MMP-8 serum levels. Conclusion Our results indicate that serum TIMP-1 levels may serve as an independent prognostic marker for HPV-negative OPSCC patients.
  • Seppälä, Miia; Pohjola, Konsta; Laranne, Jussi; Rautiainen, Markus; Huhtala, Heini; Renkonen, Risto; Lemstrom, Karl; Paavonen, Timo; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna (2016)
    Tongue cancer has a poor prognosis due to its early metastasis via lymphatic vessels. The present study aimed at evaluating lymphatic vessel density, relative density of lymphatic vessel, and diameter of lymphatic vessels and its predictive role in tongue cancer. Paraffin-embedded tongue and lymph node specimens (n = 113) were stained immunohistochemically with a polyclonal antibody von Willebrand factor, recognizing blood and lymphatic endothelium and with a monoclonal antibody podoplanin, recognizing lymphatic endothelium. The relative density of lymphatic vessels was counted by dividing the mean number of lymphatic vessels per microscopic field (podoplanin) by the mean number of all vessels (vWf) per microscopic field. The high relative density of lymphatic vessels (aeyen80 %) was associated with poor prognosis in tongue cancer. The relative density of lymphatic vessels predicted poor prognosis in the group of primary tumor size T1-T2 and in the group of non-metastatic cancer. The lymphatic vessel density and diameter of lymphatic vessels were not associated with tongue cancer survival. The relative density of lymphatic vessels might have clinically relevant prognostic impact. Further studies with increased number of patients are needed.
  • Randen-Brady, Reija; Carpen, Timo; Jouhi, Lauri; Syrjänen, Stina; Haglund, Caj; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Remes, Satu; Mäkitie, Antti; Mattila, Petri S.; Silen, Suvi; Hagström, Jaana (2019)
    Current human papillomavirus (HPV) detection methods in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) have varying sensitivity and specificity. We aimed to compare different HPV-detection methods against the test used in clinical practice, ie, p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to evaluate whether another HPV-detection test additional to p16 IHC would be worthwhile in OPSCC specimens. The study cohort comprised 357 consecutive OPSCC patients during two time periods: 2000-2009 and 2012-2016. From tumor tissue slides, HPV mRNA via in situ hybridization (ISH), HPV DNA via ISH and HPV DNA via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were detected. The results of these methods were compared with p16 IHC results. Additionally, clinicopathological factors were compared with the methods studied. The sensitivity of HPV mRNA ISH, HPV DNA ISH and HPV DNA PCR were 93.4%, 86.3%, and 83.5%, respectively. The corresponding specificity was 92.4%, 95.3%, and 89.1%, respectively. The negative predictive value for p16 IHC was highest (89.0%) when using mRNA ISH, and followed by DNA ISH (83.5%). ISH for high-risk HPV E6/E7 mRNA was found to be a highly specific and sensitive method for detecting HPV in OPSCC. As p16 protein may be overexpressed due to HPV-independent mechanisms, all p16 IHC positive OPSCCs should be considered for retesting using mRNA ISH in order to verify transcriptionally active HPV. This is especially critical when considering de-escalated treatment approaches for patients with HPV-positive tumors and still maintaining favorable outcomes for this subgroup of patients. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Koskinen, Anni I.; Hemminki, Otto; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Kari (2022)
    Background Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx encompass a heterogeneous group of cancers for which known risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection but their influence is site-specific with HPV mainly influencing oropharyngeal cancer. Their incidence and survival rates are not well known over extended periods of time. Patients/methods Data were obtained for Finnish (FI) and Swedish (SE) patients from the Nordcan database recently updated through 2019. Age-adjusted incidence trends (FI from 1953, SE from 1960) and relative survival rates for years 1970 through 2019 were calculated. Results We observed a prominent increase in oral and oropharyngeal cancers in FI and SE men and women but the trend for oral cancer was interrupted for SE men in 1985 and possibly also for FI and SE women in 2015. The trend changes in male and female oral cancer was confirmed in data for Denmark and Norway. Relative survival for these cancers has improved overall but they differed for one cluster of oral, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal cancers with 60-70% 5-year survival in the last period and hypopharyngeal cancer with 25% male survival. In all these cancers, survival for old patients was unfavorable. Discussion/conclusion We hypothesize that reduction in smoking prevalence helped to stop the increase in oral cancer especially in men. As the prevalence of smoking is decreasing, HPV is becoming a dominant risk factor, particularly for the increasing oropharyngeal cancer. Prevention needs to emphasize sexual hygiene and HPV vaccination.
  • Nieminen, Mikko T.; Salaspuro, Mikko (2018)
    The resident microbiome plays a key role in exposure of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract mucosa to acetaldehyde (ACH), a carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol. Poor oral health is a significant risk factor for oral and esophageal carcinogenesis and is characterized by a dysbiotic microbiome. Dysbiosis leads to increased growth of opportunistic pathogens (such as Candida yeasts) and may cause an up to 100% increase in the local ACH production, which is further modified by organ-specific expression and gene polymorphisms of ethanol-metabolizing and ACH-metabolizing enzymes. A point mutation in the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene has randomized millions of alcohol consumers to markedly increased local ACH exposure via saliva and gastric juice, which is associated with a manifold risk for upper GI tract cancers. This human cancer model proves conclusively the causal relationship between ACH and upper GI tract carcinogenesis and provides novel possibilities for the quantitative assessment of ACH carcinogenicity in the human oropharynx. ACH formed from ethanol present in “non-alcoholic” beverages, fermented food, or added during food preparation forms a significant epidemiologic bias in cancer epidemiology. The same also concerns “free” ACH present in mutagenic concentrations in multiple beverages and foodstuffs. Local exposure to ACH is cumulative and can be reduced markedly both at the population and individual level. At best, a person would never consume tobacco, alcohol, or both. However, even smoking cessation and moderation of alcohol consumption are associated with a marked decrease in local ACH exposure and cancer risk, especially among established risk groups.
  • Int Head & Neck Sci Grp; Civantos, Francisco J.; Vermorken, Jan B.; Shah, Jatin P.; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Background Patients with metastases in the lymph nodes of the neck and no obvious primary tumor, neck cancer with unknown primary (NCUP), represent a management challenge. A majority of patients have metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although other histologies do occur. Methods We comprehensively reviewed the literature, compared available guidelines, and conferred with an international team of experts. Results Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and fine needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasound guidance increase accuracy of diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), determination of human papilloma virus (HPV) status, by p16 staining or by in situ hybridization (ISH), and next-generation gene sequencing can guide us regarding probable primary sites and tumor biology. Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) has been introduced for the early detection of subtle mucosal lesions. Direct laryngoscopy (DL) and tonsillectomy have long been procedures used in the search for a primary site. More recently, TransOral Robotic Surgery (TORS) or Transoral LASER Microsurgery (TLM) have been introduced for lingual tonsillectomy. Conclusions New technologies have been developed which can better detect, diagnose, and treat occult primary tumors. Decisions regarding therapy are based on the primary tumor site (if discovered) and N stage. Options include neck dissection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy, primary irradiation, or combined chemotherapy with irradiation. The preferred treatment of patients whose primary remains unidentified is controversial.
  • Korvala, Johanna; Jee, Kowan; Porkola, Emmi; Almangush, Alhadi; Mosakhani, Neda; Bitu, Carolina; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Zandonadi, Flavia S.; Meirelles, Gabriela V.; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula (2017)
    Complex molecular pathways regulate cancer invasion. This study overviewed proteins and microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) invasion. The human highly aggressive OTSCC cell line HSC-3 was examined in a 3D organotypic human leiomyoma model. Non-invasive and invasive cells were laser-captured and protein expression was analyzed using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and miRNA expression by microarray. In functional studies the 3D invasion assay was replicated after silencing candidate miRNAs, miR-498 and miR-940, in invasive OTSCC cell lines (HSC-3 and SCC-15). Cell migration, proliferation and viability were also studied in the silenced cells. In HSC-3 cells, 67 proteins and 53 miRNAs showed significant fold-changes between non-invasive vs. invasive cells. Pathway enrichment analyses allocated "Focal adhesion" and "ECM-receptor interaction" as most important for invasion. Significantly, in HSC-3 cells, miR-498 silencing decreased the invasion area and miR-940 silencing reduced invasion area and depth. Viability, proliferation and migration weren't significantly affected. In SCC-15 cells, down-regulation of miR-498 significantly reduced invasion and migration. This study shows HSC-3 specific miRNA and protein expression in invasion, and suggests that miR-498 and miR-940 affect invasion in vitro, the process being more influenced by mir-940 silencing in aggressive HSC-3 cells than in the less invasive SCC-15.
  • Mroueh, R.; Haapaniemi, A.; Saarto, T.; Grönholm, L.; Grénman, R.; Salo, T.; Mäkitie, A. A. (2019)
    PurposeLate-stage OTSCC is associated with poor overall survival (OS). Non-curative treatment approach aims to improve quality of life and prolong survival of patients deemed incurable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the used non-curative treatment modalities for OTSSC and patient survival.MethodsAll patients diagnosed with OTSCC and treated with non-curative intent at the HUS Helsinki University Hospital (Helsinki, Finland) during the 12-year period of 2005-2016 were included. Survival analysis after the non-curative treatment decision was conducted using the Kaplan-Meier method in this population-based study.ResultsEighty-two patients were identified. A non-curative treatment decision was made at presentation without any previous treatment in 26 patients (7% of all patients diagnosed with OTSCC during the study period). Palliative radiotherapy was administered to 24% of all patients. The average survival time after the non-curative treatment decision was 3.7months (median 2 and range 0-26).ConclusionsDue to the short mean survival time after decision for treatment with non-curative intent, and the notable symptom burden in this patient population, a prompt initiation of all non-curative measures is warranted.
  • Vander Poorten, Vincent; Triantafyllou, Asterios; Skalova, Alena; Stenman, Göran; Bishop, Justin A.; Hauben, Esther; Hunt, Jennifer L.; Hellquist, Henrik; Feys, Simon; De Bree, Remco; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Quer, Miquel; Strojan, Primoz; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio (2018)
    Although relatively rare, polymorphous adenocarcinoma (PAC) is likely the second most common malignancy of the minor salivary glands (MiSG). The diagnosis is mainly based on an incisional biopsy. The optimal treatment comprises wide surgical excision, often with adjuvant radiotherapy. In general, PAC has a good prognosis. Previously, PAC was referred to as polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (PLGA), but the new WHO classification of salivary gland tumours has also included under the PAC subheading, the so-called cribriform adenocarcinoma of minor salivary glands (CAMSG). This approach raised controversy, predominantly because of possible differences in clinical behaviour. For example, PLGA (PAC, classical variant) only rarely metastasizes, whereas CAMSG often shows metastases to the neck lymph nodes. Given the controversy, this review reappraises the definition, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, genetics, treatment modalities, and prognosis of PAC of the salivary glands with a particular focus on contrasting differences with CAMSG.
  • Gomes-Silva, Wagner; Prado-Ribeiro, Ana Carolina; Brandao, Thais Bianca; Morais-Faria, Karina; de Castro Junior, Gilberto; Mak, Milena Perez; Lopes, Marcio Ajudarte; Rocha, Marcelo Marques; Salo, Tuula; Tjaderhane, Leo; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Santos-Silva, Alan Roger (2017)
    Recent evidence suggests that head-and-neck radiotherapy (HNRT) increases active forms of matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) in human tooth crowns, degrading the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) and leading to enamel delamination, which is a pivotal step in the formation of radiation-related caries (RRC). Additional participation of enzymatic degradation of organic matrix components in caries progression was attributed to MMP-20 in dentin. Therefore, the current study tested the hypothesis that MMP-20 is overexpressed in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin of post-HNRT patients, leading to detectable micromorphological changes to the enamel and dentin. Thirty-six teeth were studied, including 19 post-HNRT specimens and 17 nonirradiated controls. Optical light microscopy was used to investigate the micromorphological components of the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin. The samples were divided into 2 subgroups: nondemineralized ground sections (n = 20) and demineralized histological sections (n = 16). In addition, immunohistochemical analysis using the immunoperoxidase technique was conducted to semiquantitatively assess MMP-20 expression in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin. No apparent damage to the DEJ microstructure or other dentin-pulp complex components was observed and no statistically significant differences were detected in MMP-20 expression (p > 0.05) between the irradiated and control groups. This study rejected the hypothesis that MMP-20 is overexpressed in the DEJ, dentin-pulp complex components, and carious dentin of post-HNRT patients, leading to detectable micromorphological changes. Hence, direct effects of radiation may not be regarded as an independent factor to explain aggressive clinical patterns of RRC. (C) 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Saraswat, Mayank; Mäkitie, Antti; Tohmola, Tiialotta; Dickinson, Amy; Saraswat, Shruti; Joenväärä, Sakari; Renkonen, Suvi (2018)
    Purpose Experimental design There are no blood biomarkers to detect early-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prior to clinical signs. Most OSCC incidence is associated with significant morbidity and poor survival. The authors aimed to use mass-spectrometry (MS) technology to find specific N-glycopeptides potentially serving as serum biomarkers for preclinical OSCC screening. Serum samples from 14 patients treated for OSCC (stage I or stage IV) with 12 age- and sex-matched controls are collected. Quantitative label-free N-glycoproteomics is performed, with MS/MS analysis of the statistically significantly different N-glycopeptides. Results Conclusions and clinical relevance Combined with a database search using web-based software (GlycopeptideID), MS/MS provided detailed N-glycopeptide information, including glycosylation site, glycan composition, and proposed structures. Thirty-eight tryptic N-glycopeptides are identified, having 19 unique N-glycosylation sites representing 14 glycoproteins. OSCC patients, including stage I tumors, can be differentiated from healthy controls based on the expression levels of these glycoforms. N-glycopeptides of IgG1, IgG4, haptoglobin, and transferrin have statistically significant different abundances between cases and controls. The authors are the first to suggest specific N-glycopeptides to serve as potential serum biomarkers to detect preclinical OSCC in patients. These N-glycopeptides are the lead candidates for validation as future diagnostic modalities of OSCC as early as stage I.
  • Carpen, Timo; Saarilahti, Kauko; Haglund, Caj; Markkola, Antti; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Hagström, Jaana; Mattila, Petri; Mäkitie, Antti (2018)
    To investigate the impact of primary gross tumor volume (pGTV) and nodal gross tumor volume (nGTV) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) and the difference in their role between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative patients. The patient cohort consists of 91 OPSCC patients treated with definitive radiochemotherapy or radiotherapy using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). All patients had a minimum follow-up of 31 months. Volume measurements were made from computer tomography (CT) scans and HPV status was assessed by p16 immunohistochemistry. The end points were as follows: overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS) and locoregional control (LRC). pGTV was a significant independent prognostic factor for overall survival (OS; p0.020) in p16-negative patients. nGTV of p16-negative tumors had significant prognostic value in all end points in multivariate analyses. High-stage (III-IVc) p16-negative tumors were only associated with significantly poorer OS (p = 0.046) but not with poorer LRC or DFS when compared with the low-stage (I-II) tumors. nGTV of p16-positive tumors was an independent prognostic factor for DFS (p= 0.005) and LRC (p= 0.007) in multivariate analyses. pGTV may serve as an independent prognostic factor in p16-negative patients and nGTV may serve as an independent prognostic factor both in p16-positive and p16-negative patients treated with radiochemotherapy or radiotherapy using IMRT. Tumor volume may have an impact on selecting patients for de-escalation protocols in the future, both in p16-positive and p16-negative patients.
  • Karinen, Sini; Juurikka, Krista; Hujanen, Roosa; Wahbi, Wafa; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Svineng, Gunbjorg; Eklund, Kari K.; Salo, Tuula; Åström, Pirjo; Salem, Abdelhakim (2021)
    Lymphatic metastasis represents the main route of tumour cell dissemination in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Yet, there are no FDA-approved therapeutics targeting cancer-related lymphangiogenesis to date. The lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronic acid receptor 1 (LYVE-1), a specific lymphatic marker, is associated with poor survival in OSCC patients. In this study, we present a potential novel mechanism of lymphatic metastasis in OSCC—lymphatic mimicry (LM), a process whereby tumour cells form cytokeratin+/LYVE-1+, but podoplanin-negative, mosaic endothelial-like vessels. LM was detected in one-third (20/57; 35.08%) of randomly selected OSCC patients. The LM-positive patients had shorter overall survival (OS) compared to LM-negative group albeit not statistically significant. Highly-metastatic tumour cells formed distinct LM structures in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, the siRNA-mediated knockdown of LYVE-1 not only impaired tumour cell migration but also blunted their capacity to form LM-vessels in vitro and reduced tumour metastasis in vivo. Together, our findings uncovered, to our knowledge, a previously unknown expression and function of LYVE-1 in OSCC, whereby tumour cells could induce LM formation and promote lymphatic metastasis. Finally, more detailed studies on LM are warranted to better define this phenomenon in the future. These studies could benefit the development of targeted therapeutics for blocking tumour-related lymphangiogenesis.