Browsing by Subject "NEEDS"

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  • Tornivuori, Anna; Tuominen, Outi; Salantera, Sanna; Kosola, Silja (2020)
    Aims To define digital health services that have been studied among chronically ill adolescents and to describe e-health coaching elements that may have an impact on transition outcomes. Design Systematic review without meta-analysis. Data sources MEDLINE (Ovid), Pub Med, Scopus and CINAHL on 28 May 2018. Review methods Peer-reviewed articles published between January 2008-May 2018 were reviewed following the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Results Twelve randomized controlled trials were included. The interventions varied significantly in duration and content. E-coaching that included human and social support showed positive impact on transition outcomes. Digital health services incorporated into usual care provide efficient and accessible care. Conclusion E-coaching elements enable tailoring and personalization and present a tool for supporting and motivating chronically ill adolescents during transition of care. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of e-coaching elements. Impact Digital services are considered a means for increasing adolescents' motivation for self-care and for increasing their accessibility to health care. The coaching elements in digital services consist of a theoretical basis, human support, interactive means and social support. Included interventions varied in terms of duration, dose, content and design. Our results may serve the development of digital health services for adolescents in transition. E-coaching can be used to engage and motivate chronically ill adolescents to improve health behaviour and self-management during transition of care.
  • Holm, Marja; Björn, Piia Maria; Laine, Anu; Korhonen, Johan; Hannula, Markku S. (2020)
    This study investigated mathematics-related achievement emotions among Finnish adolescents (N = 1379) receiving special education support (SEdS) in self-contained and general mathematics classrooms and receiving no mathematics SEdS through multilevel modeling. Mathematics performance, gender, and classroom size were controlled for. Adolescents receiving SEdS in general classrooms reported less enjoyment and pride and more anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom than those receiving SEdS in self-contained classrooms and those receiving no SEdS. In contrast, adolescents receiving SEdS in self-contained classrooms reported more enjoyment and pride and less anger, anxiety, and hopelessness than those receiving no SEdS. Furthermore, adolescents receiving no SEdS reported more anxiety, hopelessness, and boredom in general classrooms when the proportion of classmates receiving SEdS was higher. We discuss the practical implications for developing SEdS in relation to achievement emotions.
  • Helminen, Vilja; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus (2022)
    Conservative political ideologies have been suggested to correlate with elevated sensitivity to threat. However, it is unclear whether the associations between threat sensitivity and political attitudes can be observed with clinical measures of mental health. We examined how anxiety disorders predicted attitudes on several political issues. Participants were 7253 individuals from the 1958 British Birth Cohort study. Symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder, phobia and panic were assessed in a clinical interview at age 44, and opinions about political issues were self-reported by the participants 6 years later. Anxiety symptoms were associated with higher concerns about economic inequality, preservation of the environment, distrust in politics and lower work ethic. No associations were observed with racist or authoritarian attitudes, or support for traditional family values. We also assessed how political attitudes at ages 33 and 42 predicted anxiety disorder symptoms at age 44, revealing a possible bidirectional association between concern for economic inequality and anxiety disorder symptoms. These findings do not support an association between conservative political attitudes and elevated threat sensitivity. Rather, elevated anxiety may increase concerns about social inequality and the environment.
  • Laiti, Minna; Pakarinen, Anni; Parisod, Heidi; Salanterä, Sanna; Sariola, Salla (2019)
    Aim: To describe the encounters with sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth in healthcare based on the existing research. Background: The development of sexual orientation and gender identity can create challenges in an SGM youth's life, and they may need support from health professionals. Heteronormativity has been recognised as a barrier to the identification of diversity in sexuality and gender, and no previous literature review has studied heteronormativity thoroughly. Methods: An integrative review following Whittemore and Knafl was conducted. A literature search was systematically undertaken in six databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Eric, and Academic Search Premier). Finally, 18 research articles were included. Data were analysed deductively with the theoretical framework from Stevi Jackson's (2006) article to understand the role of heteronormativity in the healthcare of SGM youth. Findings: The encounters with SGM youth consisted of two simultaneous themes. Heteronormative care included three elements: (1) the effect of heteronormativity on health professionals' competence to work with SGM youth, (2) false assumptions about SGM youth, and (3) the influence of heteronormativity on encounters with SGM youth. Diversity-affirming care included two elements: (4) the considerateness of health professionals towards SGM youth and (5) inclusive care of SGM youth. Conclusion: This review summarised how SGM youth were encountered in healthcare and how heteronormativity was affecting their healthcare. Furthermore, this review identified elements that supported diversity-affirming care. With diversity-affirming care, SGM youth may access the information and support they need from healthcare. Further research is needed about how diversity-affirming care can be applied to the healthcare of SGM youth and how elements of heteronormative care are occurring globally in the healthcare of SGM youth. The perceptions of transgender and other gender minority youth were under-represented in the studies and research needs to focus more on how they are encountered in healthcare.
  • Nurmela, Kirsti; Mattila, Aino; Heikkinen, Virpi; Uitti, Jukka; Ylinen, Aarne; Virtanen, Pekka (2018)
    The study explores whether clinical screening targeted at work disabilities among long-term unemployed people reveals eligible individuals for a disability pension and the importance of depression in granting the disability pensions. A total of 364 participants of the screening project were considered as eligible to apply for disability pension. Among them, 188 were diagnosed as clinically depressed. They were classified into those with earlier depression diagnosis (n = 85), those whose depression had not been diagnosed earlier (n = 103), and those without diagnosed depression (n = 176). The association of this Depression identification pattern' with being granted a disability pension was explored by logistic regression analyses. Compared to those with earlier diagnosis, those whose depression had not been diagnosed earlier were granted disability pension more commonly (72% vs. 54% OR 2.2, p = 0.012). Corresponding figures of the undepressed were 73%, OR 2.3, p = 0.002. The adjustments did not affect the results. Clinical examination of the long-term unemployed people in terms of work disability seems to be worthwhile. In particular, the examination reveals new depression diagnoses, which contribute more to the award of disability pension than depression diagnosed earlier by regular health care. Novel ways to detect depression among the unemployed should be implemented in the health and employment services.
  • Salakari, Minna; Suominen, Sakari; Nurminen, Raija; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Pylkkanen, Liisa; Rautava, Paivi; Koskenvuo, Markku (Springer-Verlag, 2016)
    Communications in Computer and Information Science
    The purpose of the study was to compare the life satisfaction (LS) and sense of coherence (SOC) of women recovering from breast cancer (BC) to LS and SOC of women with depression or hypertension and of healthy controls. Finnish Health and Social Support (HeSSup) follow-up survey data in 2003 was linked with national health registries. BC patients were followed up for mortality until the end of 2012. The statistical computations were carried out with SAS (R). There were no significant differences in LS and SOC between the groups with BC, arterial hypertension or healthy controls. Women recovering from BC are as satisfied with their life as healthy controls, and their perceived LS is better and SOC is stronger compared to women with depression. SOC correlated positively (r(2) = 0.36, p <0.001) with LS. However, more studies on determinants of the LS are needed for designing and organizing health care services for BC survivors.
  • Stenius-Ayoade, Agnes; Haaramo, Peija; Erkkila, Elisabet; Marola, Niko; Nousiainen, Kirsi; Wahlbeck, Kristian; Eriksson, Johan G. (2017)
    Background: Homelessness is associated with increased morbidity, mortality and health care use. The aim of this study was to examine the role of mental disorders in relation to the use of 1) daytime primary health care services and 2) after hours primary health care emergency room (PHER) services among homeless shelter users in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland. Methods: The study cohort consists of all 158 homeless persons using the four shelters operating in the study area during two selected nights. The health records were analyzed over a period of 3 years prior to the sample nights and data on morbidity and primary health care visits were gathered. We used negative binomial regression to estimate the association between mental disorders and daytime visits to primary health care and after hours visits to PHERs. Results: During the 3 years the 158 homeless persons in the cohort made 1410 visits to a physician in primary health care. The cohort exhibited high rates of mental disorders, including substance use disorders (SUDs); i.e. 141 persons (89%) had a mental disorder. We found dual diagnosis, defined as SUD concurring with other mental disorder, to be strongly associated with daytime primary health care utilization (IRR 11.0, 95% CI 5.9-20.6) when compared with those without any mental disorder diagnosis. The association was somewhat weaker for those with only SUDs (IRR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-9.9) or with only other mental disorders (IRR 5.0, 95% CI 2.4-10.8). When focusing upon the after hours visits to PHERs we observed that both dual diagnosis (IRR 14.1, 95% CI 6.3-31.2) and SUDs (11.5, 95% CI 5.7-23.3) were strongly associated with utilization of PHERs compared to those without any mental disorder. In spite of a high numbers of visits, we found undertreatment of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes. Conclusions: Dual diagnosis is particularly strongly associated with primary health care daytime visits among homeless persons staying in shelters, while after hours visits to primary health care level emergency rooms are strongly associated with both dual diagnosis and SUDs. Active treatment for SUDs could reduce the amount of emergency visits made by homeless shelter users.
  • Pohjamies, Netta; Haapa, Toni; Kääriäinen, Maria; Mikkonen, Kristina (2022)
    Aims To identify distinct orientation competence profiles amongst nurse preceptors and explain the associated factors. Design A cross-sectional study design. Methods The data were collected during the winter of 2020-2021 from registered nurses (N = 8279, n = 844) at one university hospital in Finland through an online questionnaire that included a self-administered electronic version of the Preceptors' Orientation Competence Instrument. K-means clustering was then used to identify nurse preceptor profiles. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyse factors associated with competence profiles. The results were reported as frequencies, percentages, mean and standard deviation. Results A total of three distinct orientation competence profiles (A, B, C) were identified. Profile A nurses evaluated their orientation competence at the highest level, whereas profile C nurses evaluated their competence at the lowest level. Sufficient clinical and theoretical experience, a motivation to work, willingness to orient new employees and participation in orientation and/or mentoring education were found to be associated with competence profiles. Conclusion The findings expand the current knowledge base of nurse preceptors' orientation competence. Health care organizations should recognize different orientation competence profiles amongst the nursing staff since the selection of a preceptor should always be based on possessing the necessary orientation competence rather than availability. The results indicate that preceptors (who reported taking on various tasks and covering multiple roles) need support from co-workers to sufficiently concentrate on employee orientation tasks. The results also indicate that preceptors need further orientation education, which should-for example-outline the learning goals for new employees and how preceptors can assess employee performance. Impact What problem did the study address? Prior research has not applied a robust theoretical framework covering all aspects relevant to a preceptor's competence. What were the main findings? A nurse's clinical and theoretical experience, motivation to work, willingness to orient new employees, and prior participation in orientation and/or student mentoring education were found to influence their level of orientation competence. Where and on whom will the research have an impact? Healthcare organizations can use the results of this study to make the selection of preceptors competency-based rather than their availability. Nurse leaders can use the results of this study to pinpoint which areas of nurses' orientation competence and associated factors need to be improved. Increased orientation competence will enable clinical nurses to provide high-quality orientation to new employees, which is crucial to the retention of nursing staff and the quality of patient care.
  • Jäppinen, Anna-Maija; Munoz, Minna; Kettunen, Tarja; Piirainen, Arja (2020)
    Objective The aim of this study was to explore patients' narratives of patient education in physiotherapy after a total hip arthroplasty (THA). Method The data was collected via open thematic interviews from ten patients who had had a primary THA. The interviews were analysed using a qualitative, narrative method. Results Three story models of patient education in physiotherapy were identified: Supportive patient education in physiotherapy, Co-operative patient education in physiotherapy and Contradictory patient education in physiotherapy. The emphasis of narration in the first story model was on the trust in the guidance, functioning interaction in the second and insufficient patient education in physiotherapy in the third story model. Discussion According to the results of this study, patients with THA experience functioning interaction and trust in the patient education in physiotherapy as enhancing the rehabilitation process. Conversely insufficient patient education about exercising and follow-up physiotherapy made the patients feel insecure and according to them might have slowed down the rehabilitation process. These findings can be utilized in planning and improving patient education in physiotherapy after THA.
  • Saarelainen, Suvi-Maria; Mäki-Petäjä-Leinonen, Anna; Pöyhiä, Reino (2022)
    Earlier studies show that experiencing life as meaningful in old age promotes holistic wellbeing and health among older people. As more and more people are living with reduced capacities in their own homes, there is an urgent need to find new ways of promoting holistic wellbeing of the ageing population. Analysing data gathered from existential discussion groups on Service TV (STV), we show how strongly relationality and meaning in life are intertwined for older people. Our findings indicate that respect and support for the autonomy of older people is very important: in order to continue living at home, and prepare for a future with reduced capacities, they need family members for support. Autonomy of ageing becomes relational as choices and wishes are negotiated with family members. Relationships also contribute to loss of meaning. When older people felt that they were not close enough to their family, longed for friends of the same age, were bereaved or widowed, the relational gap caused a violation of meaning. In contrast, participation and activities with peers brought deep joy and connectedness to the lives of the participants. STV provided a new channel for participants to find and form meaningful relationships. Therefore, it is concluded that relationality can be supported by technological means of care.
  • Choustikova, Julia; Turunen, Hannele; Tuominen-Salo, Hanna; Coco, Kirsi (2020)
    Aims and objectives The study aimed to examine traumatic brain injury (TBI) patient family members' (FMs) experiences of the support they received from healthcare professionals in acute care hospitals. Background The length of hospitalisation following TBI is constantly decreasing, and patients may return home with several problems. FMs care for the patients at home although they may not be prepared for the patient's medical needs or financial burden of the illness. The burden which some FMs experience can impair patient care and rehabilitation outcomes. Therefore, FMs require support during acute phases of TBI treatment. Design A structured questionnaire was sent to 216 TBI patients FMs. The response rate was 47% (n = 102). Methods A structured questionnaire-based on a systematic literature review and a previous questionnaire on TBI patient FMs' perceptions of support-was developed and used in the data collection. The questionnaire included 46 statements and 11 background questions. Data were collected via an electronic questionnaire. The STROBE checklist was followed in reporting the study. Results A factor analysis identified five factors that describe the guidance of TBI patient FMs: guidance of TBI patients' symptoms and survival; benefits of guidance; needs-based guidance; guidance for use of services; and guidance methods. Most of the FMs (51%-88%) felt that they had not received enough guidance from healthcare professionals in acute care hospitals across all five aspects of support. Conclusions The content of guidance should be developed, and healthcare staff should be trained to consider a FM's starting point when providing guidance. A calm environment, proper timing, sufficient information in different forms and professional healthcare staff were found to be key factors to comprehensive guidance. Involving FMs in the discharge process and rehabilitation of their loved ones both supports the abilities of caregivers and promotes the outcome of the patient's rehabilitation. Relevance to clinical practice This study provides varied information on the need for social support of TBI patients FMs in the early stages of treatment from the FMs' perspective. This research adopted the FM's perspective to identify various areas of social support that need to be developed so that the FMs of TBI patients receive enough support during the early stages of TBI treatment.
  • Vuong, Tung; Saastamoinen, Miamaria; Jacucci, Giulio; Ruotsalo, Tuukka (2019)
    Understanding users' search behavior has largely relied on the information available from search engine logs, which provide limited information about the contextual factors affecting users' behavior. Consequently, questions such as how users' intentions, task goals, and substances of the users' tasks affect search behavior, as well as what triggers information needs, remain largely unanswered. We report an experiment in which naturalistic information search behavior was captured by analyzing 24/7 continuous recordings of information on participants' computer screens. Written task diaries describing the participants' tasks were collected and used as real-life task contexts for further categorization. All search tasks were extracted and classified under various task categories according to users' intentions, task goals, and substances of the tasks. We investigated the effect of different task categories on three behavioral factors: search efforts, content-triggers, and application context. Our results suggest four findings: (i) Search activity is integrally associated with the users' creative processes. The content users have seen prior to searching more often triggers search, and is used as a query, within creative tasks. (ii) Searching within intellectual and creative tasks is more time-intensive, while search activity occurring as a part of daily routine tasks is associated with more frequent searching within a search task. (iii) Searching is more often induced from utility applications in tasks demanding a degree of intellectual effort. (iv) Users' leisure information-seeking activity is occurring inherently within social media services or comes from social communication platforms. The implications of our findings for information access and management systems are discussed.