Browsing by Subject "NEGATIVE REGULATION"

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  • Torrente, Laura; Maan, Gunjit; Rezig, Asma Oumkaltoum; Quinn, Jean; Jackson, Angus; Grilli, Andrea; Casares, Laura; Zhang, Ying; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Saarela, Jani; Bicciato, Silvio; Edwards, Joanne; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T.; de la Vega, Laureano (2020)
    Aberrant hyperactivation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor 2 (NRF2) is a common event in many tumour types and associates with resistance to therapy and poor patient prognosis; however, its relevance in colorectal tumours is not well-established. Measuring the expression of surrogate genes for NRF2 activity in silico, in combination with validation in patients' samples, we show that the NRF2 pathway is upregulated in colorectal tumours and that high levels of nuclear NRF2 correlate with a poor patient prognosis. These results highlight the need to overcome the protection provided by NRF2 and present an opportunity to selectively kill cancer cells with hyperactive NRF2. Exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 technology, we generated colorectal cancer cell lines with hyperactive NRF2 and used them to perform a drug screen. We identified AT9283, an Aurora kinase inhibitor, for its selectivity towards killing cancer cells with hyperactive NRF2 as a consequence to either genetic or pharmacological activation. Our results show that hyperactivation of NRF2 in colorectal cancer cells might present a vulnerability that could potentially be therapeutically exploited by using the Aurora kinase inhibitor AT9283.
  • Singh, Vineeta; Praveen, Vandana; Tripathi, Divya; Haque, Shafiul; Somvanshi, Pallavi; Katti, S. B.; Tripathi, C. K. M. (2015)
    During the search for a potent antifungal drug, a cell-permeable metabolite was isolated from a soil isolate taxonomically identified as Penicillium radicum. The strain was found to be a potent antifungal agent. Production conditions of the active compound were optimized and the active compound was isolated, purified, characterized and identified as a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, commonly known as wortmannin (Wtmn). This is very first time we are reporting the production of Wtmn from P. radicum. In addition to its previously discovered anticancer properties, the broad spectrum antifungal property of Wtmn was re-confirmed using various fungal strains. Virtual screening was performed through molecular docking studies against potential antifungal targets, and it was found that Wtmn was predicted to impede the actions of these targets more efficiently than known antifungal compounds such as voriconazole and nikkomycin i.e. 1) mevalonate-5-diphosphate decarboxylase (1FI4), responsible for sterol/isoprenoid biosynthesis; 2) exocyst complex component SEC3 (3A58) where Rho-and phosphoinositide-dependent localization is present and 3) Kre2p/Mnt1p a Golgi alpha1,2-mannosyltransferase (1S4N) involved in the biosynthesis of yeast cell wall glycoproteins). We conclude that Wtmn produced from P. radicum is a promising lead compound which could be potentially used as an efficient antifungal drug in the near future after appropriate structural modifications to reduce toxicity and improve stability.
  • Hietamäki, Johanna; Gregory, Louise C.; Ayoub, Sandy; Iivonen, Anna-Pauliina; Vaaralahti, Kirsi; Liu, Xiaonan; Brandstack, Nina; Buckton, Andrew J.; Laine, Tiina; Känsäkoski, Johanna; Hero, Matti; Miettinen, Päivi J.; Varjosalo, Markku; Wakeling, Emma; Dattani, Mehul T.; Raivio, Taneli (2020)
    Context: Congenital pituitary hormone deficiencies with syndromic phenotypes and/or familial occurrence suggest genetic hypopituitarism; however, in many such patients the underlying molecular basis of the disease remains unknown. Objective: To describe patients with syndromic hypopituitarism due to biallelic loss-of-function variants in TBC1D32, a gene implicated in Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Setting: Referral center. Patients: A Finnish family of 2 siblings with panhypopituitarism, absent anterior pituitary, and mild craniofacial dysmorphism, and a Pakistani family with a proband with growth hormone deficiency, anterior pituitary hypoplasia, and developmental delay. Interventions: The patients were investigated by whole genome sequencing. Expression profiling of TBC1D32 in human fetal brain was performed through in situ hybridization. Stable and dynamic protein-protein interaction partners of TBC1D32 were investigated in HEK cells followed by mass spectrometry analyses. Main Outcome Measures: Genetic and phenotypic features of patients with biallelic loss-offunction mutations in TBC1D32. Results: The Finnish patients harboured compound heterozygous loss-of-function variants (c.1165_1166dup p.(Gln390Phefs*32) and c.2151del p.(Lys717Asnfs*29)) in TBC1D32; the Pakistani proband carried a known pathogenic homozygous TBC1D32 splice-site variant c.1372 + 1G > A p.(Arg411_Gly458del), as did a fetus with a cleft lip and partial intestinal malrotation from a terminated pregnancy within the same pedigree. TBC1D32 was expressed in the developing hypothalamus, Rathke's pouch, and areas of the hindbrain. TBC1D32 interacted with proteins implicated in cilium assembly, Shh signaling, and brain development. Conclusions: Biallelic TBC1D32 variants underlie syndromic hypopituitarism, and the underlying mechanism may be via disrupted Shh signaling.