Browsing by Subject "NEGATIVE REGULATOR"

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  • Whitaker, Vance M.; Knapp, Steven J.; Hardigan, Michael A.; Edger, Patrick P.; Slovin, Janet P.; Bassil, Nahla V.; Hytönen, Timo; Mackenzie, Kathryn K.; Lee, Seonghee; Jung, Sook; Main, Dorrie; Barbey, Christopher R.; Verma, Sujeet (2020)
    The cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an allo-octoploid species, originating nearly 300 years ago from wild progenitors from the Americas. Since that time the strawberry has become the most widely cultivated fruit crop in the world, universally appealing due to its sensory qualities and health benefits. The recent publication of the first high-quality chromosome-scale octoploid strawberry genome (cv. Camarosa) is enabling rapid advances in genetics, stimulating scientific debate and provoking new research questions. In this forward-looking review we propose avenues of research toward new biological insights and applications to agriculture. Among these are the origins of the genome, characterization of genetic variants, and big data approaches to breeding. Key areas of research in molecular biology will include the control of flowering, fruit development, fruit quality, and plant–pathogen interactions. In order to realize this potential as a global community, investments in genome resources must be continually augmented.
  • Bösl, Korbinian; Ianevski, Aleksandr; Than, Thoa T.; Andersen, Petter I.; Kuivanen, Suvi; Teppor, Mona; Zusinaite, Eva; Dumpis, Uga; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Cox, Rebecca J.; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Bergqvist, Anders; Tenson, Tanel; Merits, Andres; Oksenych, Valentyn; Bjørås, Magnar; Anthonsen, Marit W.; Shum, David; Kaarbø, Mari; Vapalahti, Olli; Windisch, Marc P.; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Snijder, Berend; Kainov, Denis; Kandasamy, Richard K. (2019)
    Viruses are one of the major causes of acute and chronic infectious diseases and thus a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Several studies have shown how viruses have evolved to hijack basic cellular pathways and evade innate immune response by modulating key host factors and signaling pathways. A collective view of these multiple studies could advance our understanding of virus-host interactions and provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of viral diseases. Here, we performed an integrative meta-analysis to elucidate the 17 different host-virus interactomes. Network and bioinformatics analyses showed how viruses with small genomes efficiently achieve the maximal effect by targeting multifunctional and highly connected host proteins with a high occurrence of disordered regions. We also identified the core cellular process subnetworks that are targeted by all the viruses. Integration with functional RNA interference (RNAi) datasets showed that a large proportion of the targets are required for viral replication. Furthermore, we performed an interactome-informed drug re-purposing screen and identified novel activities for broad-spectrum antiviral agents against hepatitis C virus and human metapneumovirus. Altogether, these orthogonal datasets could serve as a platform for hypothesis generation and follow-up studies to broaden our understanding of the viral evasion landscape.
  • Pihan, Philippe; Lisbona, Fernanda; Borgonovo, Janina; Edwards-Jorquera, Sandra; Nunes-Hasler, Paula; Castillo, Karen; Kepp, Oliver; Urra, Hery; Saarnio, Suvi; Vihinen, Helena; Carreras-Sureda, Amado; Forveille, Sabrina; Sauvat, Allan; De Giorgis, Daniela; Pupo, Amaury; Rodriguez, Diego A.; Quarato, Giovanni; Sagredo, Alfredo; Lourido, Fernanda; Letai, Anthony; Latorre, Ramon; Kroemer, Guido; Demaurex, Nicolas; Jokitalo, Eija; Concha, Miguel L.; Glavic, Alvaro; Green, Douglas R.; Hetz, Claudio (2021)
    Programmed cell death is regulated by the balance between activating and inhibitory signals. Here, we have identified RECS1 (responsive to centrifugal force and shear stress 1) [also known as TMBIM1 (transmembrane BAX inhibitor motif containing 1)] as a proapoptotic member of the TMBIM family. In contrast to other proteins of the TMBIM family, RECS1 expression induces cell death through the canonical mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Unbiased screening indicated that RECS1 sensitizes cells to lysosomal perturbations. RECS1 localizes to lysosomes, where it regulates their acidification and calcium content, triggering lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Structural modeling and electrophysiological studies indicated that RECS1 is a pH-regulated calcium channel, an activity that is essential to trigger cell death. RECS1 also sensitizes whole animals to stress in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster and zebrafish models. Our results unveil an unanticipated function for RECS1 as a proapoptotic component of the TMBIM family that ignites cell death programs at lysosomes.
  • Pavicic, M.; Wang, F.; Mouhu, K.; Himanen, K. (2019)
    Seed quality is an important factor for seedling vigour as well as adult plant resilience. The key quality attributes are related to physical characteristics, physiological performance, genetic background and health status of the seeds. Many ways to address seed quality attributes have been developed and recently many of them have featured automated high throughput methods. In our study, we addressed two of the seed quality attributes, namely physiological performance and genetic background by analysing germination rates in our mutant collection. These mutants represent ubiquitin E3 ligases that transcriptionally respond to abscisic acid (ABA). This plant hormone is an important regulator of germination and seedling establishment. To facilitate in vitro germination screens of large seed collections a high throughput image-based assay was developed. As a read out of the germination on ABA treatment the cotyledon emergence was detected with top view chlorophyll fluorescence camera. By applying the ABA treatment during germination, RING-type ubiquitin E3 ligase mutants were identified, showing either resistant or sensitive responses to ABA. In conclusion, a scalable high throughput screen for in vitro germination assay was established that allowed fast screening of tens of mutants in a hormone supplemented media.
  • Gerasymchuk, Dmytro; Hubiernatorova, Anastasiia; Domanskyi, Andrii (2020)
    The cytoskeleton is one of the most mobile and complex cell structures. It is involved in cellular transport, cell division, cell shape formation and adaptation in response to extra- and intracellular stimuli, endo- and exocytosis, migration, and invasion. These processes are crucial for normal cellular physiology and are affected in several pathological processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Some proteins, participating in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), play an important role in actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and formation of invadopodia in cancer cells and are also deregulated in neurodegenerative disorders. However, there is still limited information about the factors contributing to the regulation of their expression. MicroRNAs are potent negative regulators of gene expression mediating crosstalk between different cellular pathways in cellular homeostasis and stress responses. These molecules regulate numerous genes involved in neuronal differentiation, plasticity, and degeneration. Growing evidence suggests the role of microRNAs in the regulation of endocytosis, cell motility, and invasiveness. By modulating the levels of such microRNAs, it may be possible to interfere with CME or other processes to normalize their function. In malignancy, the role of microRNAs is undoubtful, and therefore changing their levels can attenuate the carcinogenic process. Here we review the current advances in our understanding of microRNAs regulating actin cytoskeleton dynamics, CME and cell motility with a special focus on neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. We investigate whether current literature provides an evidence that microRNA-mediated regulation of essential cellular processes, such as CME and cell motility, is conserved in neurons, and cancer cells. We argue that more research effort should be addressed to study the neuron-specific functions on microRNAs. Disease-associated microRNAs affecting essential cellular processes deserve special attention both from the view of fundamental science and as future neurorestorative or anti-cancer therapies.
  • Roach, Tiffany G.; Lång, Heljä K. M.; Xiong, Wen; Ryhänen, Samppa J.; Capelluto, Daniel G. S. (2021)
    Lysosomal degradation of ubiquitinated transmembrane protein receptors (cargo) relies on the function of Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) protein complexes. The ESCRT machinery is comprised of five unique oligomeric complexes with distinct functions. Target of Myb1 (TOM1) is an ESCRT protein involved in the initial steps of endosomal cargo sorting. To exert its function, TOM1 associates with ubiquitin moieties on the cargo via its VHS and GAT domains. Several ESCRT proteins, including TOLLIP, Endofin, and Hrs, have been reported to form a complex with TOM1 at early endosomal membrane surfaces, which may potentiate the role of TOM1 in cargo sorting. More recently, it was found that TOM1 is involved in other physiological processes, including autophagy, immune responses, and neuroinflammation, which crosstalk with its endosomal cargo sorting function. Alteration of TOM1 function has emerged as a phosphoinositide-dependent survival mechanism for bacterial infections and cancer progression. Based on current knowledge of TOM1-dependent cellular processes, this review illustrates how TOM1 functions in coordination with an array of protein partners under physiological and pathological scenarios.
  • Hasan, Md Rakibul; Takatalo, Maarit; Ma, Hongqiang; Rice, Ritva; Mustonen, Tuija; Rice, David P. C. (2020)
    Mutations in the gene encoding Ras-associated binding protein 23 (RAB23) cause Carpenter Syndrome, which is characterized by multiple developmental abnormalities including polysyndactyly and defects in skull morphogenesis. To understand how RAB23 regulates skull development, we generated Rab23-deficient mice that survive to an age where skeletal development can be studied. Along with polysyndactyly, these mice exhibit premature fusion of multiple sutures resultant from aberrant osteoprogenitor proliferation and elevated osteogenesis in the suture. FGF10-driven FGFR1 signaling is elevated in Rab23(-/-) sutures with a consequent imbalance in MAPK, Hedgehog signaling and RUNX2 expression. Inhibition of elevated pERK1/2 signaling results in the normalization of osteoprogenitor proliferation with a concomitant reduction of osteogenic gene expression, and prevention of craniosynostosis. Our results suggest a novel role for RAB23 as an upstream negative regulator of both FGFR and canonical Hh-GLI1 signaling, and additionally in the non-canonical regulation of GLI1 through pERK1/2.
  • Jalakas, Pirko; Huang, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Yu-Hung; Zimmerli, Laurent; Merilo, Ebe; Kollist, Hannes; Brosche, Mikael (2017)
    Proper stomatal responses are essential for plant function in an altered environment. The core signaling pathway for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure involves perception of the hormone that leads to the activation of guard cell anion channels by the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA1. Several other regulators are suggested to modulate the ABA signaling pathway, including the protein ENHANCED RESPONSE TO ABA1 (ERA1), that encodes the farnesyl transferase beta-subunit. The era1 mutant is hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and shows a more closed stomata phenotype. Using a genetics approach with the double mutants era1 abi1-1 and era1 ost1, we show that while era1 suppressed the high stomatal conductance of abi1-1 and ost1, the ERA1 function was not required for stomatal closure in response to ABA and environmental factors. Further experiments indicated a role for ERA1 in blue light-induced stomatal opening. In addition, we show that ERA1 function in disease resistance was independent of its role in stomatal regulation. Our results indicate a function for ERA1 in stomatal opening and pathogen immunity.
  • Muley, Ajit; Kim Uh, Minji; Salazar-De Simone, Glicella; Swaminathan, Bhairavi; James, Jennifer M.; Murtomaki, Aino; Youn, Seock Won; McCarron, Joseph D.; Kitajewski, Chris; Gnarra Buethe, Maria; Riitano, Gloria; Mukouyama, Yoh suke; Kitajewski, Jan; Shawber, Carrie J. (2022)
    In mice, embryonic dermal lymphatic development is well understood and used to study gene functions in lymphangiogenesis. Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that modulates cell fate decisions, which has been shown to both inhibit and promote dermal lymphangiogenesis. Here, we demonstrate distinct roles for Notch4 signaling versus canonical Notch signaling in embryonic dermal lymphangiogenesis. Actively growing embryonic dermal lymphatics expressed NOTCH1, NOTCH4, and DLL4 which correlated with Notch activity. In lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs), DLL4 activation of Notch induced a subset of Notch effectors and lymphatic genes, which were distinctly regulated by Notch1 and Notch4 activation. Treatment of LECs with VEGF-A or VEGF-C upregulated Dll4 transcripts and differentially and temporally regulated the expression of Notch1 and Hes/Hey genes. Mice nullizygous for Notch4 had an increase in the closure of the lymphangiogenic fronts which correlated with reduced vessel caliber in the maturing lymphatic plexus at E14.5 and reduced branching at E16.5. Activation of Notch4 suppressed LEC migration in a wounding assay significantly more than Notch1, suggesting a dominant role for Notch4 in regulating LEC migration. Unlike Notch4 nulls, inhibition of canonical Notch signaling by expressing a dominant negative form of MAML1 (DNMAML) in Prox1+ LECs led to increased lymphatic density consistent with an increase in LEC proliferation, described for the loss of LEC Notch1. Moreover, loss of Notch4 did not affect LEC canonical Notch signaling. Thus, we propose that Notch4 signaling and canonical Notch signaling have distinct functions in the coordination of embryonic dermal lymphangiogenesis.
  • Han, Jinah; Calvo, Charles-Felix; Kang, Tae Hyuk; Baker, Kasey L.; Park, June-Hee; Parras, Carlos; Levittas, Marine; Birba, Ulrick; Pibouin-Fragner, Laurence; Fragner, Pascal; Bilguvar, Kaya; Duman, Ronald S.; Nurmi, Harri Juhani; Alitalo, Kari; Eichmann, Anne C.; Thomas, Jean-Leon (2015)