Browsing by Subject "NEURONAL RESPONSES"

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  • Komulainen, Emma; Heikkila, Roope; Meskanen, Katarina; Raij, Tuukka T.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Lahti, Jari; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Harmer, Catherine J.; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (2016)
    Increased self-focus is a core factor in the psychopathology of depression. Cortical midline structures (CMS) are implicated in the neurobiology of self, depression and antidepressant treatment response. Mirtazapine, an antidepressant that increases serotonin and norepinephrine release, enhances processing of positive and attenuates processing of negative emotional information in healthy volunteers after a single dose. These early changes, which are opposite to the negative information bias in depression, may be important for the therapeutic effect of mirtazapine. It nevertheless remains unresolved whether/how mirtazapine specifically influences processing of self-referential emotional information. Half of the healthy volunteers (n=15/30) received a single dose of mirtazapine, in an open-label design, two hours before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the other half was scanned as a control group without medication. During fMRI the participants categorized positive and negative self-referential adjectives. Mirtazapine attenuated responses to self-referential processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Mirtazapine further decreased responses to positive self-referential processing in the posterior cingulate cortex and parietal cortex. These decreased responses of the CMS suggest that mirtazapine may rapidly improve the ability of the CMS to down-regulate self-referential processing. In depressed patients, this could lead to decreased self-focus and rumination, contributing to the antidepressant effect.
  • Komulainen, Emma; Heikkila, Roope; Meskanen, Katarina; Raij, Tuukka T.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Lahti, Jari; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Harmer, Catherine J.; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (SAGE SCIENCE PRESS (UK), 2016)
    Increased self-focus is a core factor in the psychopathology of depression. Cortical midline structures (CMS) are implicated in the neurobiology of self, depression and antidepressant treatment response. Mirtazapine, an antidepressant that increases serotonin and norepinephrine release, enhances processing of positive and attenuates processing of negative emotional information in healthy volunteers after a single dose. These early changes, which are opposite to the negative information bias in depression, may be important for the therapeutic effect of mirtazapine. It nevertheless remains unresolved whether/how mirtazapine specifically influences processing of self-referential emotional information. Half of the healthy volunteers (n=15/30) received a single dose of mirtazapine, in an open-label design, two hours before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the other half was scanned as a control group without medication. During fMRI the participants categorized positive and negative self-referential adjectives. Mirtazapine attenuated responses to self-referential processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Mirtazapine further decreased responses to positive self-referential processing in the posterior cingulate cortex and parietal cortex. These decreased responses of the CMS suggest that mirtazapine may rapidly improve the ability of the CMS to down-regulate self-referential processing. In depressed patients, this could lead to decreased self-focus and rumination, contributing to the antidepressant effect.
  • Komulainen, Emma; Glerean, Enrico; Meskanen, Katarina; Heikkila, Roope; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Raij, Tuukka; Lahti, Jari; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (2017)
    The link between neurotransmitter-level effects of antidepressants and their clinical effect remain poorly understood. A single dose of mirtazapine decreases limbic responses to fearful faces in healthy subjects, but it is unknown whether this effect applies to complex emotional situations and dynamic connectivity between brain regions. Thirty healthy volunteers listened to spoken emotional narratives during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In an open-label design, 15 subjects received 15 mg of mirtazapine two hours prior to fMRI while 15 subjects served as a control group. We assessed the effects of mirtazapine on regional neural responses and dynamic functional connectivity associated with valence and arousal. Mirtazapine attenuated responses to unpleasant events in the right fronto-insular cortex, while modulating responses to arousing events in the core limbic regions and the cortical midline structures (CMS). Mirtazapine decreased responses to unpleasant and arousing events in sensorimotor areas and the anterior CMS implicated in self-referential processing and formation of subjective feelings. Mirtazapine increased functional connectivity associated with positive valence in the CMS and limbic regions. Mirtazapine triggers large-scale changes in regional responses and functional connectivity during naturalistic, emotional stimuli. These span limbic, sensorimotor, and midline brain structures, and may be relevant to the clinical effectiveness of mirtazapine.
  • Guzman-Lopez, Jessica; Hernandez-Pavon, Julio C.; Lioumis, Pantelis; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Silvanto, Juha (2022)
    Objective: The impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been shown to depend on the initial brain state of the stimulated cortical region. This observation has led to the development of paradigms that aim to enhance the specificity of TMS effects by using visual/luminance adaptation to modulate brain state prior to the application of TMS. However, the neural basis of interactions between TMS and adaptation is unknown. Here, we examined these interactions by using electroencephalography (EEG) to measure the impact of TMS over the visual cortex after luminance adaptation. Methods: Single-pulses of neuronavigated TMS (nTMS) were applied at two different intensities over the left visual cortex after adaptation to either high or low luminance. We then analyzed the effects of adaptation on the global and local cortical excitability. Results: The analysis revealed a significant interaction between the TMS-evoked responses and the adaptation condition. In particular, when nTMS was applied with high intensity, the evoked responses were larger after adaptation to high than low luminance.Conclusion: This result provides the first neural evidence on the interaction between TMS with visual adaptation. Significance: TMS can activate neurons differentially as a function of their adaptation state.(c) 2021 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).