Browsing by Subject "NEW-ZEALAND"

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  • Barnieh, Lianne; Clement, Fiona; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Manns, Braden (2014)
  • Skarp, C. P. A.; Hanninen, M-L; Rautelin, Hilpi I (2016)
    The incidence of human infections caused by Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coil, the main bacterial agents of gastrointestinal disease, has been increasing worldwide. Here, we review the role of poultry as a source and reservoir for Campylobacter. Contamination and subsequent colonization of broiler flocks at the farm level often lead to transmission of Campylobacter along the poultry production chain and contamination of poultry meat at retail. Yet Cainpylobacter prevalence in poultry, as well as the contamination level of poultry products, vary greatly between different countries so there are differences in the intervention strategies that need to be applied. Temporal patterns in poultry do not always coincide with those found in human infections. Studies in rural and urban areas have revealed differences in Campylobacter infections attributed to poultry, as poultry seems to be the predominant reservoir in urban, but not necessarily in rural, settings. Furthermore, foreign travel is considered a major risk factor in acquiring the disease, especially for individuals living in the northern European countries. Intervention strategies aimed at reducing Campylobacter colonization in poultry and focused at the farm level have been successful in reducing the number of Campylobacter cases in several countries. Increasing farm biosecurity and education of consumers are likely to limit the risk of infection. Overall, poultry is an important reservoir and source of human campylobacteriosis, although the contribution of other sources, reservoirs and transmission warrants more research. Clinical Microbiology and Infection (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
  • Haapalainen, Minna; Latvala, Satu; Rastas, Marika; Wang, Jinhui; Hannukkala, Asko; Pirhonen, Minna; Nissinen, Anne (2018)
    'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' (CLso) haplotype C, a bacterial pathogen transmitted by the carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis, causes yield losses in carrot production. Due to concerns that this pathogen might also threaten potato ( Solanum tuberosum) production, the occurrence of CLso in cultivated and volunteer potatoes in Tavastia Proper and Satakunta regions of Finland was studied. Volunteer potato plants were found in 13 of the 27 inspected carrot fields. Of the 148 potato samples tested by PCR, eight volunteer potato plants and one cultivated potato grown at the edge of a carrot field were found to be CLso positive. The PCR products obtained from these potatoes with primers OA2/OI2c, LpFrag4-1611F/LpFrag4-480R and CL514F/CL514R all showed 100% sequence identity to CLso haplotype C. This is the first observation of CLso haplotype C in field-grown potatoes. In addition, transmission experiments were performed. Attempts to transmit CLso into potato with carrot psyllids were not successful; however, CLso haplotype C was transmitted from infected carrots to potato plants by leaf grafting and by phloem connection formed by dodder, a parasitic plant, and found to survive in the potato plants for several weeks after transmission. However, the bacterial colonisation progressed slowly in the potato phloem and the amount of bacteria detected was low. The plants produced from the daughter tubers of the CLso-positive potato plants were all CLso negative, suggesting that CLso haplotype C was not able to pass to the daughter plants. None of the CLso-positive potatoes inoculated in greenhouse or collected from fields showed symptoms characteristic of zebra chip disease, associated with CLso haplotypes A and B.
  • Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Duggan, Ian C. (2017)
    We tested whether variability in zooplankton assemblages was consistent with the categories of estuarine environments proposed by the 'Estuary Environment Classification' system (EEC) (Hume et al., 2007) across a variety of North Island, New Zealand, estuaries. The EEC classifies estuaries in to eight categories (A to F) based primarily on a combination of three abiotic controlling factors: ocean forcing, river forcing and basin morphometry. Additionally, we tested whether Remane's curve, which predicts higher diversities of benthic macrofauna and high and low salinities, can be applied to zooplankton assemblages. We focused on three of the eight EEC categories (B, D and F), which covered the range of estuaries with river inputs dominating (B) to ocean influence dominating (F). Additionally, we included samples from river (FW) and sea (MW) to encompass the entire salinity range. Zooplankton assemblages varied across the categories examined in accordance with a salinity gradient predicted by the EEC. Three groups of zooplankton were distinguishable: the first formed by the most freshwater categories, FW and B, and dominated by rotifers (primarily Bdelloidea) and estuarine copepods (Gladioferans pectinatus), a second group formed by categories D and F, of intermediate salinity, dominated by copepods (Euterpina acutifrons), and a final group including the purely marine category MW and dominated also by E. acutifrons along with other marine taxa. Zooplankton diversity responded to the salinity gradient in a manner expected from Remane's curve. The results of this study support others which have shown salinity to be the main factor driving zooplankton community composition and diversity. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • GBD 2016 Traumatic Brain Injury Sp (2019)
    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI) are increasingly recognised as global health priorities in view of the preventability of most injuries and the complex and expensive medical care they necessitate. We aimed to measure the incidence, prevalence, and years of life lived with disability (YLDs) for TBI and SCI from all causes of injury in every country, to describe how these measures have changed between 1990 and 2016, and to estimate the proportion of TBI and SCI cases caused by different types of injury. Methods We used results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016 to measure the global, regional, and national burden of TBI and SCI by age and sex. We measured the incidence and prevalence of all causes of injury requiring medical care in inpatient and outpatient records, literature studies, and survey data. By use of clinical record data, we estimated the proportion of each cause of injury that required medical care that would result in TBI or SCI being considered as the nature of injury. We used literature studies to establish standardised mortality ratios and applied differential equations to convert incidence to prevalence of long-term disability. Finally, we applied GBD disability weights to calculate YLDs. We used a Bayesian meta-regression tool for epidemiological modelling, used cause-specific mortality rates for non-fatal estimation, and adjusted our results for disability experienced with comorbid conditions. We also analysed results on the basis of the Socio-demographic Index, a compound measure of income per capita, education, and fertility. Findings In 2016, there were 27.08 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24.30-30.30 million) new cases of TBI and 0.93 million (0.78-1.16 million) new cases of SCI, with age-standardised incidence rates of 369 (331-412) per 100 000 population for TBI and 13 (11-16) per 100 000 for SCI. In 2016, the number of prevalent cases of TBI was 55.50 million (53.40-57.62 million) and of SCI was 27.04 million (24 .98-30 .15 million). From 1990 to 2016, the age-standardised prevalence of TBI increased by 8.4% (95% UI 7.7 to 9.2), whereas that of SCI did not change significantly (-0.2% [-2.1 to 2.7]). Age-standardised incidence rates increased by 3.6% (1.8 to 5.5) for TBI, but did not change significantly for SCI (-3.6% [-7.4 to 4.0]). TBI caused 8.1 million (95% UI 6. 0-10. 4 million) YLDs and SCI caused 9.5 million (6.7-12.4 million) YLDs in 2016, corresponding to age-standardised rates of 111 (82-141) per 100 000 for TBI and 130 (90-170) per 100 000 for SCI. Falls and road injuries were the leading causes of new cases of TBI and SCI in most regions. Interpretation TBI and SCI constitute a considerable portion of the global injury burden and are caused primarily by falls and road injuries. The increase in incidence of TBI over time might continue in view of increases in population density, population ageing, and increasing use of motor vehicles, motorcycles, and bicycles. The number of individuals living with SCI is expected to increase in view of population growth, which is concerning because of the specialised care that people with SCI can require. Our study was limited by data sparsity in some regions, and it will be important to invest greater resources in collection of data for TBI and SCI to improve the accuracy of future assessments. Copyright (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Thorogood, Rose; Kilner, Rebecca M.; Rasmussen, Justin L. (2017)
    Many brood parasites rely on mimicry to prevent the detection of their eggs by hosts, yet most Australasian cuckoo species lay darkly colored eggs while the eggs of their hosts are pale and speckled. In the dimly lit nests of their hosts, these cuckoo eggs may appear cryptic; however, it is unclear if this disguise has evolved to fool hosts or other cuckoos. Recent work suggests that in at least one species of bronze-cuckoo, cuckoos are more likely to reject conspicuous eggs than are hosts, but it remains unclear whether this is common across the species group. Here, we present field experiments on the sole host of the Shining Bronze-Cuckoo (Chalcites lucidus lucidus) in New Zealand, the Grey Gerygone (Gerygone igata; known locally as the Grey Warbler), that explored whether this host ignores cuckoo eggs because they are cryptic. Using an avian vision model, we showed that Shining Bronze-Cuckoo eggs were variable in their conspicuousness, but were more cryptic in host nests than the host's eggs. We then experimentally parasitized all available clutches with model eggs that mimicked darkly or brightly colored cuckoo eggs, or were of maximum conspicuousness (white) as determined by visual modeling. Hosts never rejected our model eggs, nor cuckoo eggs when naturally parasitized. Instead, only cuckoos rejected model eggs: In 3 out of 4 experimental nests that were subsequently parasitized, the model egg was taken and replaced by a cuckoo's egg. Together, these data and previous experiments suggest that competition among cuckoos, rather than rejection by hosts, provides a stronger selection pressure for the evolution of cryptic eggs across the genus Chalcites.
  • Kerminen, Kaisa Aino Maria; Moël, Romain Le; Harju, Anu Vilhelmiina; Kontro, Merja Hannele (2018)
    Pesticides leaching from soil to surface and groundwater are a global threat for drinking water safety, as no cleaning methods occur for groundwater environment. We examined whether peat, compost-peat-sand (CPS) mixture, NH4NO3, NH4NO3 with sodium citrate (Na-citrate), and the surfactant methyl-beta-cyclodextrin additions enhance atrazine, simazine, hexazinone, dichlobenil, and the degradate 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) dissipations in sediment slurries under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, with sterilized controls. The vadose zone sediment cores were drilled from a depth of 11.3-14.6m in an herbicide-contaminated groundwater area. The peat and CPS enhanced chemical atrazine and simazine dissipation, and the peat enhanced chemical hexazinone dissipation, all oxygen-independently. Dichlobenil dissipated under all conditions, while BAM dissipation was fairly slow and half-lives could not be calculated. The chemical dissipation rates could be associated with the chemical structures and properties of the herbicides, and additive compositions, not with pH. Microbial atrazine degradation was only observed in the Pseudomonas sp. ADP amended slurries, although the sediment slurries were known to contain atrazine-degrading microorganisms. The bioavailability of atrazine in the water phase seemed to be limited, which could be due to complex formation with organic and inorganic colloids. Atrazine degradation by indigenous microbes could not be stimulated by the surfactant methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, or by the additives NH4NO3 and NH4NO3 with Na-citrate, although the nitrogen additives increased microbial growth. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Rodrigues, Ana S. B.; Silva, Sara E.; Marabuto, Eduardo; Silva, Diogo N.; Wilson, Mike R.; Thompson, Vinton; Yurtsever, Selcuk; Halkka, Antti; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Quartau, Jose A.; Paulo, Octavio S.; Seabra, Sofia G. (2014)
  • Uimari, Anne; Heliövaara, Kari; Tuba, Katalin; Poteri, Marja; Vuorinen, Martti (2018)
    Several young damaged Norway spruce stands in eastern and central Finland were observed from 2013 to 2016. The damage included trees with heavy resin flow, necrotic foliage, stem and branch cankers and dead trees. Pest identification resulted in the tortricid moth Cydia pactolana whose occurrence was always associated with the presence of the ascomycete pathogen Neonectria fuckeliana. Both the insect and the disease contributed to the extent of the damage, but it is not possible to say in which order they had attacked the trees. Apparently, changed climate has affected the increased occurrence of both the fungus and the moth. However, the characteristics of the insect-fungus interaction and the factors contributing to the coincidences are unknown. Emerging coexistence or potential symbiosis of the two damaging agents is a serious threat for Norway spruce cultivation. Understanding the biology of this fungus-insect interaction is important for controlling them.
  • Poczai, Peter; Hyvönen, Jaakko; Symon, David E. (2011)
  • Seyfullah, Leyla J.; Beimforde, Christina; Dal Corso, Jacobo; Perrichot, Vincent; Rikkinen, Jouko; Schmidt, Alexander R. (2018)
    Amber is fossilised plant resin. It can be used to provide insights into the terrestrial conditions at the time the original resin was exuded. Amber research thus can inform many aspects of palaeontology, from the recovery and description of enclosed fossil organisms (biological inclusions) to attempts at reconstruction of past climates and environments. Here we focus on the resin itself, the conditions under which it may have been exuded, and its potential path to fossilisation, rather than on enclosed fossils. It is noteworthy that not all plants produce resin, and that not all resins can (nor do) become amber. Given the recent upsurge in the number of amber deposits described, it is time to re‐examine ambers from a botanical perspective. Here we summarise the state of knowledge about resin production in modern ecosystems, and review the biological and ecological aspects of resin production in plants. We also present new observations on conifer‐derived resin exudation, with a particular focus on araucarian conifer trees. We suggest that besides disease, insect attacks and traumatic wounding from fires and storms, other factors such as tree architecture and local soil conditions are significant in creating and preserving resin outpourings. We also examine the transformation of resin into amber (maturation), focusing on geological aspects of amber deposit formation and preservation. We present new evidence that expands previous understanding of amber deposit formation. Specific geological conditions such as anoxic burial are essential in the creation of amber from resin deposits. We show that in the past, the production of large amounts of resin could have been linked to global climate changes and environmental disruption. We then highlight where the gaps in our knowledge still remain and potential future research directions.
  • Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Bailey, Michael; Pilcher, David; Cooper, D. James; Bellomo, Rinaldo (2018)
    Purpose: Despite the recent Sepsis-3 consensus, the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) criteria continue to be assessed and recommended. Such use implies equivalence and interchangeability of criteria. Thus, we aimed to test whether such criteria are indeed equivalent and interchangeable. Materials and methods: From 2000 to 2015, we identified patients with infection, organ failure, and at least one SIRS criterion in 179 Intensive Care Units in Australia and New. Zealand. We studied the association of different SIRS criteria with hospital mortality. Results: Among 131,016 patients with infection and organ failure, mortality increased from 10.6% for the respiratory rate criterion to 15.8% for the heart rate criterion (P <0.01); from 10.1% for the high leukocyte count criterion to 20.0% for a low count and from 10.1% for a high temperature to 14.4% for a low temperature criterion. With any two SIRS criteria, hospital mortality varied from 11.5% to 30.8% depending on the combination of criteria. This difference remained unchanged after adjustments and was consistent over time. Conclusions: Different individual and combinations of SIRS criteria were associated with marked differences in hospital mortality. These differences remained unchanged after adjustment and over time and imply that individual SIRS criteria are not equivalent or interchangeable. (c) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Martens, Helge; Tillmann, Urban; Harju, Kirsi; Dell'Aversano, Carmela; Tartaglione, Luciana; Krock, Bernd (2017)
    Alexandrium ostenfeldii is a toxic dinoflagellate that has recently bloomed in Ouwerkerkse Kreek, The Netherlands, and which is able to cause a serious threat to shellfish consumers and aquacultures. We used a large set of 68 strains to the aim of fully characterizing the toxin profiles of the Dutch A. ostenfeldii in consideration of recent reports of novel toxins. Alexandrium ostenfeldii is known as a causative species of paralytic shellfish poisoning, and consistently in the Dutch population we determined the presence of several paralytic shellfish toxins (PST) including saxitoxin (STX), GTX2/3 (gonyautoxins), B1 and C1/C2. We also examined the production of spiroimine toxins by the Dutch A. ostenfeldii strains. An extensive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis revealed a high intraspecific variability of spirolides (SPX) and gymnodimines (GYM). Spirolides included 13-desMethyl-spirolide C generally as the major compound and several other mostly unknown SPX-like compounds that were detected and characterized. Besides spirolides, the presence of gymnodimine A and 12-Methyl-gymnodimine A was confirmed, together with two new gymnodimines. One of these was tentatively identified as an analogue of gymnodimine D and was the most abundant gymnodimine (calculated cell quota up to 274 pg cell(-1), expressed as GYM A equivalents). Our multi-clonal approach adds new analogues to the increasing number of compounds in these toxin classes and revealed a high strain variability in cell quota and in toxin profile of toxic compounds within a single population.
  • Int Network Evaluation Outcomes iN; Lui, Kei; Lee, Shoo K.; Kusuda, Satoshi; Andersson, Sture (2019)
    Objective To evaluate outcome trends of neonates born very preterm in 11 high-income countries participating in the International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of neonates. Study design In a retrospective cohort study, we included 154 233 neonates admitted to 529 neonatal units between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2015, at 24(0/7) to 31(6/7) weeks of gestational age and birth weight Results For composite outcome including BPD, the trend decreased in Canada and Israel but increased in Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. For composite outcome excluding BPD, the trend decreased in all countries except Spain, Sweden, Tuscany, and the United Kingdom. The risk of composite outcome was lower in epoch 2 than epoch 1 in Canada (adjusted relative risks 0.78; 95% CI 0.74-0.82) only. The risk of composite outcome excluding BPD was significantly lower in epoch 2 compared with epoch 1 in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Finland, Japan, and Switzerland. Mortality rates reduced in most countries in epoch 2. BPD rates increased significantly in all countries except Canada, Israel, Finland, and Tuscany. Conclusions In most countries, mortality decreased whereas BPD increased for neonates born very preterm.