Browsing by Subject "NEWBORNS"

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  • Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Huotilainen, Minna; Alku, Paavo; Kushnerenko, Elena; Suominen, Kalervo; Rytky, Seppo; Luotonen, Mirja; Kaukola, Tuula; Tolonen, Uolevi; Hallman, Mikko (2010)
  • Asayesh, Amirreza; Ilen, Elina; Metsäranta, Marjo; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2022)
    Long-term EEG monitoring in neonatal intensive care units (NICU) is challenged with finding solutions for setting up and maintaining a sufficient recording quality with limited technical experience. The current study evaluates different solutions for the skin–electrode interface and develops a disposable EEG cap for newborn infants. Several alternative materials for the skin–electrode interface were compared to the conventional gel and paste: conductive textiles (textured and woven), conductive Velcro, sponge, super absorbent hydrogel (SAH), and hydro fiber sheets (HF). The comparisons included the assessment of dehydration and recordings of signal quality (skin interphase impedance and powerline (50 Hz) noise) for selected materials. The test recordings were performed using snap electrodes integrated into a forearm sleeve or a forehead band along with skin–electrode interfaces to mimic an EEG cap with the aim of long-term biosignal recording on unprepared skin. In the hydration test, conductive textiles and Velcro performed poorly. While the SAH and HF remained sufficiently hydrated for over 24 h in an incubator-mimicking environment, the sponge material was dehydrated during the first 12 h. Additionally, the SAH was found to have a fragile structure and was electrically prone to artifacts after 12 h. In the electrical impedance and recording comparisons of muscle activity, the results for thick-layer HF were comparable to the conventional gel on unprepared skin. Moreover, the mechanical instability measured by 1–2 Hz and 1–20 Hz normalized relative power spectrum density was comparable with clinical EEG recordings using subdermal electrodes. The results together suggest that thick-layer HF at the skin–electrode interface is an effective candidate for a preparation-free, long-term recording, with many advantages, such as long-lasting recording quality, easy use, and compatibility with sensitive infant skin contact. Keywords: aEEG; NICU; SAH; HF
  • Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Mikkola, Kaija; Erkkilä, Jaakko; Huotilainen, Minna (2021)
    Introduction Preterm birth may disturb the typical development of the mother-infant relationship, when physical separation and emotional distress in the neonatal intensive care unit may increase maternal anxiety and create challenges for early interaction. This cluster-randomized controlled trial examined the effects of maternal singing during kangaroo care on mothers' anxiety, wellbeing, and the early mother-infant relationship after preterm birth. Method In the singing intervention group, a certified music therapist guided the mothers (n = 24) to sing or hum during daily kangaroo care during 33-40 gestational weeks (GW). In the control group, the mothers (n = 12) conducted daily kangaroo care without specific encouragement to sing. Using a convergent mixed methods design, the quantitative outcomes included the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at 35 GW and 40 GW to assess the change in maternal-state anxiety levels and parent diaries to examine intervention length. Post-intervention, the singing intervention mothers completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of quantitative and qualitative questions about their singing experiences. Results The mothers in the singing intervention group showed a statistically significant decrease in STAI anxiety levels compared to the control group mothers. According to the self-report questionnaire results, maternal singing relaxed both mothers and infants and supported their relationship by promoting emotional closeness and creating early interaction moments. Discussion Maternal singing can be used during neonatal hospitalization to support maternal wellbeing and early mother-infant relationship after preterm birth. However, mothers may need information, support, and privacy for singing.
  • Nevalainen, Päivi; Marchi, Viviana; Metsäranta, Marjo; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Lauronen, Leena (2017)
    Objective: To evaluate the added value of somatosensory (SEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) recorded simultaneously with routine EEG in early outcome prediction of newborns with hypoxicischemic encephalopathy under modern intensive care. Methods: We simultaneously recorded multichannel EEG, median nerve SEPs, and flash VEPs during the first few postnatal days in 50 term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. EEG background was scored into five grades and the worst two grades were considered to indicate poor cerebral recovery. Evoked potentials were classified as absent or present. Clinical outcome was determined from the medical records at a median age of 21 months. Unfavorable outcome included cerebral palsy, severe mental retardation, severe epilepsy, or death. Results: The accuracy of outcome prediction was 98% with SEPs compared to 90% with EEG. EEG alone always predicted unfavorable outcome when it was inactive (n = 9), and favorable outcome when it was normal or only mildly abnormal (n = 17). However, newborns with moderate or severe EEG background abnormality could have either favorable or unfavorable outcome, which was correctly predicted by SEP in all but one newborn (accuracy in this subgroup 96%). Absent VEPs were always associated with an inactive EEG, and an unfavorable outcome. However, presence of VEPs did not guarantee a favorable outcome. Conclusions: SEPs accurately predict clinical outcomes in newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and improve the EEG-based prediction particularly in those newborns with severely or moderately abnormal EEG findings. Significance: SEPs should be added to routine EEG recordings for early bedside assessment of newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. (C) 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mahlman, Mari; Karjalainen, Minna K.; Huusko, Johanna M.; Andersson, Sture; Kari, M. Anneli; Tammela, Outi K. T.; Sankilampi, Ulla; Lehtonen, Liisa; Marttila, Riitta H.; Bassler, Dirk; Poets, Christian F.; Lacaze-Masmonteil, Thierry; Danan, Claude; Delacourt, Christophe; Palotie, Aarno; Muglia, Louis J.; Lavoie, Pascal M.; Hadchouel, Alice; Ramet, Mika; Hallman, Mikko (2017)
    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), the main consequence of prematurity, has a significant heritability, but little is known about predisposing genes. The aim of this study was to identify gene loci predisposing infants to BPD. The initial genome-wide association study (GWAS) included 174 Finnish preterm infants of gestational age 24-30 weeks. Thereafter, the most promising single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with BPD were genotyped in both Finnish (n = 555) and non-Finnish (n = 388) replication cohorts. Finally, plasma CRP levels from the first week of life and the risk of BPD were assessed. SNP rs11265269, flanking the CRP gene, showed the strongest signal in GWAS (odds ratio [ OR] 3.2, p = 3.4 x 10(-6)). This association was nominally replicated in Finnish and French African populations. A number of other SNPs in the CRP region, including rs3093059, had nominal associations with BPD. During the first week of life the elevated plasma levels of CRP predicted the risk of BPD (OR 3.4, p = 2.9 x 10(-4)) and the SNP rs3093059 associated nominally with plasma CRP levels. Finally, SNP rs11265269 was identified as a risk factor of BPD (OR 1.8, p = 5.3 x 10(-5)), independently of the robust antenatal risk factors. As such, in BPD, a potential role for variants near CRP gene is proposed.
  • Terho, A. M.; Tiitinen, A.; Martikainen, H.; Gissler, M.; Pelkonen, S. (2022)
    STUDY QUESTION Is the health of singletons born after frozen embryo transfer (FET) comparable to that of singletons born after fresh embryo transfer (ET) until early adulthood? SUMMARY ANSWER The health of singletons born after FET does not differ from that of singletons born after fresh ET. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The differences in perinatal outcomes of children born after FET and fresh ET are well known. FET is associated with an increased risk of large-for-gestational-age but diminished risks of preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age and decreased perinatal mortality compared to fresh ET. However, knowledge on the long-term health after FET is scarce. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION This retrospective register-based cohort study compares singletons born after FET (n = 1825) between the years 1995 and 2006 to those born after fresh ET (n = 2933) and natural conception (NC, n = 31 136) with a mean follow-up time of 18-20 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Singletons born after FET were compared to those born after fresh ET and NC regarding the frequencies of diagnoses in the main ICD-10 chapters (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision), the number of outpatient visits and hospital admissions, and mortality. Adjustments were made for PTB, maternal age, parity, socioeconomic status based on mother's occupation and offspring sex. The study combines data from the Finnish Medical Birth Register, the Finnish Care Register for Health Care (CRHC) and the Cause-of-Death Register at Statistics Finland. The Student's T-test was used for continuous variables, and the Chi-square test was used for categorical variables. Cox regression was used to estimate crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and aHRs, respectively). A general linear model was used to compare the means of outpatient visits, hospital admissions and lengths of hospital stays per person. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE No significant differences between the FET and fresh ET groups were found in the frequency of diagnoses in any of the ICD-10 chapters or in the parameters describing the need for hospital care. However, compared to the NC group, higher proportions in the FET group had outpatient visits in the hospital (93.5% vs 92.2%, aHR 1.23, 95% CI 1.17, 1.30) or hospital admissions (48% vs 46.5%, aHR 1.28, 95% CI 1.19, 1.37). Compared to the NC group, the FET group had elevated adjusted risks of diagnoses of infectious and parasitic diseases (aHR 1.24; 95% CI 1.11, 1.38), neoplasms (aHR 1.68; 95% CI 1.48, 1.91), diseases of the eye and adnexa, the ear or mastoid process (aHR 1.11; 95% CI 1.01, 1.21), the respiratory system (aHR 1.15; 95% CI 1.06, 1.23), the digestive system (aHR 1.17; 95% CI 1.05, 1.32), the skin or subcutaneous tissue (aHR 1.28; 95% CI 1.14, 1.43) and the genitourinary system (aHR 1.27; 95% CI 1.11, 1.45), as well as congenital malformations or chromosomal abnormalities (aHR 1.31; 95% CI 1.14, 1.50) and symptoms, signs or abnormal clinical or laboratory findings (aHR 1.25, 95% CI 1.16, 1.34). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION Only hospital-based inpatient and outpatient care is covered by the CRHC register, excluding milder cases diagnosed elsewhere. We were not able to study the effect of ART treatments and subfertility separately in our setting. In addition, although our cohort is reasonably sized, even larger cohorts would be needed to reliably study rare outcomes, such as cancer. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS For many ICD-10 chapters, we present the first published data on the long-term outcome of singletons born after FET. The results on FET versus fresh ET are reassuring, whereas the results on FET versus NC warrant further investigation. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S) Finnish government research funding was obtained for this study. Funding was also obtained from the Finnish Medical Society Duodecim, the Paivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, Orion Research Foundation, Finnish Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (research grants to A.M.T.) and Finnish government research funding. The funding sources were not involved in the planning or execution of the study. The authors have no competing interests to declare.
  • Koolen, Ninah; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Rasanen, Okko; Jansen, Katrien; Vervisch, Jan; Matic, Vladimir; De Vos, Maarten; Van Huffel, Sabine; Naulaers, Gunnar; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2014)
  • PedNet Haemophilia Res Fdn; Andersson, Nadine G.; Chalmers, Elizabeth A.; Kenet, G.; Mäkipernaa, Anne; Chambost, Herve (2019)
    The optimal mode of delivery for a pregnant hemophilia carrier is still a matter of debate. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of intracranial hemorrhage and other major bleeds in neonates with moderate and severe hemophilia in relationship to mode of delivery and known family history. A total of 926 neonates, 786 with severe and 140 with moderate hemophilia were included in this PedNet multicenter study. Vaginal delivery was performed in 68.3% (n=633) and Cesarean section in 31.6% (n=293). Twenty intracranial hemorrhages (2.2%) and 44 other major bleeds (4.8%) occurred. Intracranial hemorrhages occurred in 2.4% of neonates following vaginal delivery compared to 1.7% after Cesarean section (P=not significant); other major bleeds occurred in 4.2% born by vaginal delivery and in 5.8% after Cesarean section (P=not significant). Further analysis of subgroups (n=813) identified vaginal delivery with instruments being a significant risk factor for both intracranial hemorrhages and major bleeds (Relative Risk: 4.78-7.39; P
  • Nevalainen, Päivi; Metsäranta, Marjo; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Marchi, Viviana; Mikkonen, Kirsi; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Lauronen, Leena (2020)
    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) grade, and neonatal neurophysiological and neuroimaging measures for predicting development of infantile spasms syndrome (IS) or other postneonatal, infantile onset epilepsy after perinatal HIE. Methods: We examined a population-based cohort of 92 consequent infants with moderate-to-severe HIE. The HIE grade and neonatal neuroimaging (MRI) and neurophysiology (EEG and somatosensory evoked potentials, SEPs) findings were compared to the development of IS or other epilepsy within the first year of life. Results: Out of 74 surviving infants with follow-up information, five developed IS and one developed a focal onset epilepsy. They all had recovered from severe HIE. All survivors with inactive neonatal EEG (recorded within the first few postnatal days, n = 4) or the most severe type of brain injury in MRI (n = 3) developed epilepsy (positive predictive value, PPV 100 %). Bilaterally absent SEPs had 100 % sensitivity and 75 % PPV for epilepsy. A combination of absent SEPs and a poor MRI finding (combined deep and cortical gray matter injury) resulted in higher PPV (86 %) without lowering sensitivity (100 %). Follow-up EEGs showed recurrent epileptiform activity already between 1- and 2-months age in those that developed epilepsy, distinguishing them from those surviving without epilepsy. Conclusions: Poor neonatal neuroimaging and neurophysiological findings provide accurate prediction for development of infantile onset epilepsy after HIE. Of the neonates with severe HIE, the ones with severe neonatal MRI and neurophysiological abnormalities need frequent follow-up, including repeated EEGs, for early detection of IS.
  • Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Partanen, Eino; Mikkola, Kaija; Wikström, Valtteri; Pakarinen, Satu; Fellman, Vineta; Huotilainen, Minna (2020)
    Objective: Auditory change-detection responses provide information on sound discrimination and memory skills in infants. We examined both the automatic change-detection process and the processing of emotional information content in speech in preterm infants in comparison to full-term infants at term age. Methods: Preterm (n = 21) and full-term infants' (n = 20) event-related potentials (ERP) were recorded at term age. A challenging multi-feature mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm with phonetic deviants and rare emotional speech sounds (happy, sad, angry), and a simple one-deviant oddball paradigm with pure tones were used. Results: Positive mismatch responses (MMR) were found to the emotional sounds and some of the phonetic deviants in preterm and full-term infants in the multi-feature MMN paradigm. Additionally, late positive MMRs to the phonetic deviants were elicited in the preterm group. However, no group differences to speech-sound changes were discovered. In the oddball paradigm, preterm infants had positive MMRs to the deviant change in all latency windows. Responses to non-speech sounds were larger in preterm infants in the second latency window, as well as in the first latency window at the left hemisphere electrodes (F3, C3). Conclusions: No significant group-level differences were discovered in the neural processing of speech sounds between preterm and full-term infants at term age. Change-detection of non-speech sounds, however, may be enhanced in preterm infants at term age. Significance: Auditory processing of speech sounds in healthy preterm infants showed similarities to full-term infants at term age. Large individual variations within the groups may reflect some underlying differences that call for further studies.
  • Granelli, Anne de-Wahl; Meberg, Alf; Ojala, Tiina; Steensberg, Jesper; Oskarsson, Gylfi; Mellander, Mats (2014)
  • Partanen, Eino; Kujala, Teija; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna (2013)
    We investigated the neural correlates induced by prenatal exposure to melodies using brains' event-related potentials (ERPs). During the last trimester of pregnancy, the mothers in the learning group played the ‘Twinkle twinkle little star’ -melody 5 times per week. After birth and again at the age of 4 months, we played the infants a modified melody in which some of the notes were changed while ERPs to unchanged and changed notes were recorded. The ERPs were also recorded from a control group, who received no prenatal stimulation. Both at birth and at the age of 4 months, infants in the learning group had stronger ERPs to the unchanged notes than the control group. Furthermore, the ERP amplitudes to the changed and unchanged notes at birth were correlated with the amount of prenatal exposure. Our results show that extensive prenatal exposure to a melody induces neural representations that last for several months.
  • Kostilainen, Kaisamari; Partanen, Eino; Mikkola, Kaija; Wikström, Valtteri; Pakarinen, Satu; Fellman, Vineta; Huotilainen, Minna (2021)
    Preterm birth carries a risk for adverse neurodevelopment. Cognitive dysfunctions, such as language disorders may manifest as atypical sound discrimination already in early infancy. As infant-directed singing has been shown to enhance language acquisition in infants, we examined whether parental singing during skin-to-skin care (kangaroo care) improves speech sound discrimination in preterm infants. Forty-five preterm infants born between 26 and 33 gestational weeks (GW) and their parents participated in this cluster-randomized controlled trial ( ID IRB00003181SK). In both groups, parents conducted kangaroo care during 33-40 GW. In the singing intervention group (n = 24), a certified music therapist guided parents to sing or hum during daily kangaroo care. In the control group (n = 21), parents conducted standard kangaroo care and were not instructed to use their voices. Parents in both groups reported the duration of daily intervention. Auditory event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalogram at term age using a multi-feature paradigm consisting of phonetic and emotional speech sound changes and a one-deviant oddball paradigm with pure tones. In the multi-feature paradigm, prominent mismatch responses (MMR) were elicited to the emotional sounds and many of the phonetic deviants in the singing intervention group and in the control group to some of the emotional and phonetic deviants. A group difference was found as the MMRs were larger in the singing intervention group, mainly due to larger MMRs being elicited to the emotional sounds, especially in females. The overall duration of the singing intervention (range 15-63 days) was positively associated with the MMR amplitudes for both phonetic and emotional stimuli in both sexes, unlike the daily singing time (range 8-120 min/day). In the oddball paradigm, MMRs for the non-speech sounds were elicited in both groups and no group differences nor connections between the singing time and the response amplitudes were found. These results imply that repeated parental singing during kangaroo care improved auditory discrimination of phonetic and emotional speech sounds in preterm infants at term age. Regular singing routines can be recommended for parents to promote the development of the auditory system and auditory processing of speech sounds in preterm infants.
  • Xu, Cheng-Jian; Bonder, Marc Jan; Soderhall, Cilla; Bustamante, Mariona; Baiz, Nour; Gehring, Ulrike; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A.; van der Vlies, Pieter; van Diemen, Cleo C.; van Rijkom, Bianca; Just, Jocelyne; Kull, Inger; Kere, Juha; Anto, Josep Maria; Bousquet, Jean; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Wijmenga, Cisca; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Sunyer, Jordi; Melen, Erik; Li, Yang; Postma, Dirkje S.; Koppelman, Gerard H. (2017)
    Background: DNA methylation has been found to associate with disease, aging and environmental exposure, but it is unknown how genome, environment and disease influence DNA methylation dynamics in childhood. Results: By analysing 538 paired DNA blood samples from children at birth and at 4-5 years old and 726 paired samples from children at 4 and 8 years old from four European birth cohorts using the Illumina Infinium Human Methylation 450 k chip, we have identified 14,150 consistent age-differential methylation sites (a-DMSs) at epigenome-wide significance of rho <1.14x10(-7). Genes with an increase in age-differential methylation were enriched in pathways related to 'development', and were more often located in bivalent transcription start site (TSS) regions, which can silence or activate expression of developmental genes. Genes with a decrease in age-differential methylation were involved in cell signalling, and enriched on H3K27ac, which can predict developmental state. Maternal smoking tended to decrease methylation levels at the identified da-DMSs. We also found 101 a-DMSs (0.71%) that were regulated by genetic variants using cis-differential Methylation Quantitative Trait Locus (cis-dMeQTL) mapping. Moreover, a-DMS-associated genes during early development were significantly more likely to be linked with disease. Conclusion: Our study provides new insights into the dynamic epigenetic landscape of the first 8 years of life.