Browsing by Subject "NH3"

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  • TOP-SCOPE Collaboration (2022)
    The Planck Catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps provides an all-sky sample of potential star-forming regions based on the submillimeter emission of their dust content. Around 1000 of these Planck objects were mapped with the James Clerk Maxwell telescope in the submillimeter range during the SCOPE survey, identifying prestellar and protostellar dense clumps inside them. We used the Effelsberg 100 m telescope to observe the emission lines of the NH3 inversion transitions toward a sample of 97 dense objects in varying environments in order to assess the physical parameters of their gas content. We derive their temperature, density, and velocity dispersion, correlating the resulting parameters with the environmental and evolutionary characteristics of the targets and with regard to their distance and physical size. We examine the dependence of physical parameters on distance and Galactic position and compare the gas-based and dust-continuum-based temperatures and densities. Together with the presence of maser emission and higher inversion transitions of ammonia, we may differentiate between certain groups of targets, e.g., filamentary, protostellar clumps, and high-latitude, core-sized, starless sources.
  • Hurkuck, Miriam; Bruemmer, Christian; Mohr, Karsten; Spott, Oliver; Well, Reinhard; Flessa, Heinz; Kutsch, Werner L. (2015)
    We applied a N-15 dilution technique called Integrated Total Nitrogen Input (ITNI) to quantify annual atmospheric N input into a peatland surrounded by intensive agricultural practices over a 2-year period. Grass species and grass growth effects on atmospheric N deposition were investigated using Lolium multiflorum and Eriophorum vaginatum and different levels of added N resulting in increased biomass production. Plant biomass production was positively correlated with atmospheric N uptake (up to 102.7mg N pot(-1)) when using Lolium multiflorum. In contrast, atmospheric N deposition to Eriophorum vaginatum did not show a clear dependency to produced biomass and ranged from 81.9 to 138.2mgNpot(-1). Both species revealed a relationship between atmospheric N input and total biomass N contents. Airborne N deposition varied from about 24 to 55kgNha(-1)yr(-1). Partitioning of airborne N within the monitor system differed such that most of the deposited N was found in roots of Eriophorum vaginatum while the highest share was allocated in aboveground biomass of Lolium multiflorum. Compared to other approaches determining atmospheric N deposition, ITNI showed highest airborne N input and an up to fivefold exceedance of the ecosystem-specific critical load of 5-10kgNha(-1)yr(-1).
  • Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Redaelli, E.; Juvela, M.; Bizzocchi, L. (2019)
    We carried out a parameter-space exploration of the ammonia abundance in the pre-stellar core L1544, where it has been observed to increase toward the centre of the core with no signs of freeze-out onto grain surfaces. We considered static and dynamical physical models coupled with elaborate chemical and radiative transfer calculations, and explored the effects of varying model parameters on the (ortho + para) ammonia abundance profile. None of our models are able to reproduce the inward-increasing tendency in the observed profile; ammonia depletion always occurs in the centre of the core. In particular, our study shows that including the chemical desorption process, where exothermic association reactions on the grain surface can result in the immediate desorption of the product molecule, leads to ammonia abundances that are over an order of magnitude above the observed level in the innermost 15 000 au of the core - at least when one employs a constant efficiency for the chemical desorption process, irrespective of the ice composition. Our results seemingly constrain the chemical desorption efficiency of ammonia on water ice to below 1 per cent. It is increasingly evident that time-dependent effects must be considered so that the results of chemical models can be reconciled with observations.