Browsing by Subject "NICOTINE"

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  • Juonala, Markus; Pitkänen, Niina; Tolonen, Sanna; Laaksonen, Marika; Sievänen, Harri; Jokinen, Eero; Laitinen, Tomi; Sabin, Matthew A.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Taittonen, Leena; Jula, Antti; Loo, Britt-Marie; Impivaara, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Magnussen, Costan G.; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T. (2019)
    Context: Passive smoke exposure has been linked to the risk of osteoporosis in adults. Objective: We examined the independent effects of childhood passive smoke exposure on adult bone health. Design/Setting: Longitudinal, the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants: The study cohort included 1422 individuals followed for 28 years since baseline in 1980 (age 3 to 18 years). Exposure to passive smoking was determined in childhood. In adulthood, peripheral bone traits were assessed with peripheral quantitative CT (pQCT) at the tibia and radius, and calcaneal mineral density was estimated with quantitative ultrasound. Fracture data were gathered by questionnaires. Results: Parental smoking in childhood was associated with lower pQCT-derived bone sum index in adulthood (beta +/- SE, -0.064 +/- 0.023 per smoking parent; P= 0.004) in multivariate models adjusted for age, sex, active smoking, body mass index, serum 25-OH vitamin D concentration, physical activity, and parental socioeconomic position. Similarly, parental smoking was associated with lower heel ultrasound estimated bone mineral density in adulthood (beta +/- SE, -0.097 +/- 0.041 per smoking parent; P = 0.02). Parental smoking was also associated with the incidence of low-energy fractures (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.62). Individuals with elevated cotinine levels (3 to 20 ng/mL) in childhood had lower bone sum index with pQCT (beta +/- SE, -0.206 +/- 0.057; P = 0.0003). Children whose parents smoked and had high cotinine levels (3 to 20 ng/mL) had significantly lower pQCT-derived bone sum index compared with those with smoking parents but had low cotinine levels ( Conclusions and Relevance: Children of parents who smoke have evidence of impaired bone health in adulthood.
  • Szukalska, Marta; Szyfter, Krzysztof; Florek, Ewa; Rodrigo, Juan P.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Strojan, Primoz; Takes, Robert P.; Suarez, Carlos; Saba, Nabil F.; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J. M.; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Simple Summary The risk of developing cancer is always higher for tobacco smokers than for non-smokers. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have become increasingly popular in the last decade and are considered less harmful than traditional tobacco products, due to the lower content of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. However, this is still a controversial issue. This paper contains a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on the pathogenesis and risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). The authors reviewed articles on both toxic and carcinogenic compounds contained in e-cigarettes and their molecular and health effects on the upper respiratory tract in comparison to traditional tobacco cigarettes. In conclusion, the studies discussed in the review strongly suggest that more long-term studies are needed to better address the safety of e-cigarettes. E-cigarettes have become increasingly popular in the last decade and are considered less harmful than traditional tobacco products due to the lower content of toxic and carcinogenic compounds. However, this is still a controversial issue. This paper contains a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on the pathogenesis and risk of head and neck cancer (HNC). The objective of the review was to compare the molecular and health effects of e-cigarette use in relation to the effects of traditional cigarette smoking in the upper respiratory tract, and to assess the safety and effect of e-cigarettes on HNC risk. A review for English language articles published until 31 August 2020 was made, using a PubMed (including MEDLINE), CINAHL Plus, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science data. The authors reviewed articles on both toxic and carcinogenic compounds contained in e-cigarettes and their molecular and health effects on the upper respiratory tract in comparison to tobacco cigarettes. The risk of developing head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains lower in users of e-cigarettes compared with tobacco smokers. However, more long-term studies are needed to better address the safety of e-cigarettes.
  • CHD Exome Consortium; Consortium Genetics Smoking; EPIC-CVD Consortium; Understanding Soc Sci Grp; Brazel, David M.; Jiang, Yu; Hughey, Jordan M.; Loukola, Anu; Qaiser, Beenish; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kontto, Jukka; Perola, Markus; Dunning, Alison M. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use have been associated with common genetic variants in multiple loci. Rare variants within these loci hold promise in the identification of biological mechanisms in substance use. Exome arrays and genotype imputation can now efficiently genotype rare nonsynonymous and loss of function variants. Such variants are expected to have deleterious functional consequences and to contribute to disease risk. METHODS: We analyzed similar to 250,000 rare variants from 16 independent studies genotyped with exome arrays and augmented this dataset with imputed data from the UK Biobank. Associations were tested for five phenotypes: cigarettes per day, pack-years, smoking initiation, age of smoking initiation, and alcoholic drinks per week. We conducted stratified heritability analyses, single-variant tests, and gene-based burden tests of nonsynonymous/loss-of-function coding variants. We performed a novel fine-mapping analysis to winnow the number of putative causal variants within associated loci. RESULTS: Meta-analytic sample sizes ranged from 152,348 to 433,216, depending on the phenotype. Rare coding variation explained 1.1% to 2.2% of phenotypic variance, reflecting 11% to 18% of the total single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of these phenotypes. We identified 171 genome-wide associated loci across all phenotypes. Fine mapping identified putative causal variants with double base-pair resolution at 24 of these loci, and between three and 10 variants for 65 loci. Twenty loci contained rare coding variants in the 95% credible intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Rare coding variation significantly contributes to the heritability of smoking and alcohol use. Fine-mapping genome-wide association study loci identifies specific variants contributing to the biological etiology of substance use behavior.
  • Arrhenius, Bianca; Sariaslan, Amir; Suominen, Auli; Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David (2021)
    Aim This study examined the associations between prenatal smoking and speech and language, scholastic, coordination and mixed developmental disorders in offspring, using sibling and population controls. Methods National Finnish registers were used to identify all 690 654 singletons born between 1996 and 2007 and any cases diagnosed with speech and language, scholastic, coordination and mixed developmental disorders by the end of 2012. Cases were compared to population controls, biological full-siblings and maternal half-siblings born during the same period. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess any associations between smoking during pregnancy and the selected developmental disorders. Results Prenatal smoking was higher in the mothers of the 27 297 cases (21.7%) than the 99 876 population controls (14.5%). The adjusted odds ratio for smoking throughout pregnancy, and any diagnosis of speech and language, scholastic, coordination or mixed developmental disorders, was 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.24-1.34). However, when we compared a subsample of 15 406 cases and their 20 657 siblings, the association was no longer statistically significant (odds ratio 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.98-1.21). Conclusion The sibling comparisons suggested that the associations between prenatal smoking and speech and language, scholastic, coordination and mixed developmental disorders were confounded by familial factors shared by differentially exposed siblings.
  • Ranjit, Anu; Buchwald, Jadwiga; Latvala, Antti; Heikkila, Kauko; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korhonen, Tellervo (2019)
    Longitudinal, genetically informative studies of the association between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms among adolescents are limited. We examined the longitudinal association of cigarette smoking with subsequent depressive symptoms during adolescence in a Finnish twin cohort. We used prospective data from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (maximum N = 4152 individuals, 1910 twin pairs). Current smoking status and a number of lifetime cigarettes smoked were assessed at the age of 14 and depressive symptoms at the age of 17. Negative binomial regression was conducted to model the association between smoking behavior and subsequent depressive symptoms among individuals, and within-pair analyses were conducted to control for unmeasured familial confounding. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, school grades, drinking alcohol to intoxication, health status, family structure, parental education, and smoking, as well as for pre-existing depressiveness. The results of the individual-level analyses showed that cigarette smoking at the age of 14 predicted depressive symptoms at the age of 17. Compared to never smokers, those who had smoked over 50 cigarettes (incidence rate ratio, IRR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.28-1.60) and regular smokers (IRR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.32-1.62) had higher depression scores. The associations were attenuated when adjusted for measured covariates and further reduced in within-pair analyses. In the within-pair results, the estimates were lower within monozygotic (MZ) pairs compared to dizygotic (DZ) pairs, suggesting that shared genetic factors contribute to the associations observed in individual-based analyses. Thus, we conclude that cigarette smoking is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms during adolescence, but the association is not independent of measured confounding factors and shared genetic influences.
  • Danielsson, Maria; Tanner, Tarja; Patinen, Pertti; Birkhed, Dowen; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lammi, Anelma; Siitonen, Simo; Ollgren, Jukka; Pylkkanen, Liisa; Vasankari, Tuula (2021)
    Objective The health hazards of tobacco products depend on the level of exposure, but little is known about the characteristics of snus use. The aim of this study was to investigate the duration of daily exposure to snus among occasional and daily users and its associated predictive factors among young Finnish men. Design Cross-sectional questionnaire study. Setting Three out of 16 Finnish Defence Forces units. Participants 1280 young Finnish male conscripts starting their military service in 2016 chosen by simple random sampling. Primary and secondary measures The prevalence, duration of use and the amount of daily usage of snus and cigarettes were investigated. The attitudes towards perceived harmfulness of snus and the predictive factors affecting the total time of snus consumption were examined. Results Almost a fifth (19.5%) of the conscripts reported daily snus use, and a further 16% reported occasional use. Daily snus use was associated with an earlier starting age, longer duration of use and higher daily exposure time compared with occasional use. On average, daily snus users consumed 10 portions and occasional users three portions per day (p