Browsing by Subject "NITRIC-OXIDE SYNTHASE"

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  • Ribeiro, Deidiane Elisa; Casarotto, Plinio Cabrera; Júnior, Ailton Spiacci; Fernandes, Gabriel Gripp; Pinheiro, Lucas César; Tanus- Santos, José Eduardo; Zangrossi Jr, Hélio; Silveira Guimarães, Francisco; Lourenço Joca, Samia Regiane; Biojone, Caroline (2019)
    Nitric oxide (NO) triggers escape reactions in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter (dPAG), a core structure mediating panic-associated response, and decreases the release of BDNF in vitro. BDNF mediates the panicolytic effect induced by antidepressant drugs and produces these effects per se when injected into the dPAG. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors would have panicolytic properties associated with increased BDNF signaling in the dPAG. We observed that the repeated (7 days), but not acute (1 day), systemic administration of the NOS inhibitor aminoguanidine (AMG; 15 mg/kg/day) increased the latency to escape from the open arm of the elevated T-maze (ETM) and inhibited the number of jumps in hypoxia-induced escape reaction in rats, suggesting a panicolytic-like effect. Repeated, but not acute, AMG administration (15 mg/kg) also decreased nitrite levels and increased TRKB phosphorylation at residues Y706/7 in the dPAG. Notwithstanding the lack of AMG effect on total BDNF levels in this structure, the microinjection of the TRK antagonist K252a into the dPAG blocked the anti-escape effect of this drug in the ETM. Taken together our data suggest that the inhibition of NO production by AMG increases the levels of pTRKB, which is required for the panicolytic-like effect observed.
  • Benetos, Athanase; Bulpitt, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Mirko; Ungar, Andrea; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Cherubini, Antonio; Redon, Josep; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Dominiczak, Anna; Strandberg, Timo; Mancia, Giuseppe (2016)
  • Porokuokka, L. Lauriina; Virtanen, Heikki T.; Linden, Jere; Sidorova, Yulia; Danilova, Tatiana; Lindahl, Maria; Saarma, Mart; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle (2019)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: RET, the receptor for the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands, is the most frequently mutated gene in congenital aganglionic megacolon or Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR). The leading cause of mortality in HSCR is HSCR-associated enterocolitis (HAEC), which is characterized by altered mucin composition, mucin retention, bacterial adhesion to enterocytes, and epithelial damage, although the order of these events is obscure. In mice, loss of GDNF signaling leads to a severely underdeveloped enteric nervous system and neonatally fatal kidney agenesis, thereby precluding the use of these mice for modeling postnatal HSCR and HAEC. Our aim was to generate a postnatally viable mouse model for HSCR/HAEC and analyze HAEC etiology. METHODS: GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRa1) hypomorphic mice were generated by placing a selectable marker gene in the sixth intron of the Gfra1 locus using gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells. RESULTS: We report that 70%-80% reduction in GDNF co-receptor GFRa1 expression levels in mice results in HSCR and HAEC, leading to death within the first 25 postnatal days. These mice mirror the disease progression and histopathologic findings in children with untreated HSCR/HAEC. CONCLUSIONS: In GFRa1 hypomorphic mice, HAEC proceeds from goblet cell dysplasia, with abnormal mucin production and retention, to epithelial damage. Microbial enterocyte adherence and tissue invasion are late events and therefore unlikely to be the primary cause of HAEC. These results suggest that goblet cells may be a potential target for preventative treatment and that reduced expression of GFRa1 may contribute to HSCR susceptibility.
  • Loppi, S.; Kolosowska, N.; Kärkkäinen, O.; Korhonen, P.; Huuskonen, M.; Grubman, A.; Dhungana, H.; Wojciechowski, S.; Pomeshchik, Y.; Giordano, M.; Kagechika, H.; White, A.; Auriola, S.; Koistinaho, J.; Landreth, G.; Hanhineva, K.; Kanninen, K.; Malm, T. (2018)
    Ischemic stroke is amongst the leading causes of death and disabilities. The available treatments are suitable for only a fraction of patients and thus novel therapies are urgently needed. Blockage of one of the cerebral arteries leads to massive and persisting inflammatory reaction contributing to the nearby neuronal damage. Targeting the detrimental pathways of neuroinflammation has been suggested to be beneficial in conditions of ischemic stroke. Nuclear receptor 4A-family (NR4A) member Nurr1 has been shown to be a potent modulator of harmful inflammatory reactions, yet the role of Nurr1 in cerebral stroke remains unknown. Here we show for the first time that an agonist for the dimeric transcription factor Nurr1/retinoid X receptor (RXR), HX600, reduces microglia expressed proinflammatory mediators and prevents inflammation induced neuronal death in in vitro co-culture model of neurons and microglia. Importantly, HX600 was protective in a mouse model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion and alleviated the stroke induced motor deficits. Along with the anti-inflammatory capacity of HX600 in vitro, treatment of ischemic mice with HX600 reduced ischemia induced Iba-1, p38 and TREM2 immunoreactivities, protected endogenous microglia from ischemia induced death and prevented leukocyte infiltration. These anti-inflammatory functions were associated with reduced levels of brain lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs) and acylcarnitines, metabolites related to proinflammatory events. These data demonstrate that HX600 driven Nurr1 activation is beneficial in ischemic stroke and propose that targeting Nurr1 is a novel candidate for conditions involving neuroinflammatory component.
  • Alamo, Maria Montserrat Rivera del; Reilas, Tiina; Lukasik, Karolina; Galvão, Antonio; Yeste, Marc; Katila, Terttu (2021)
    Simple Summary While intrauterine devices (IUDs) are used to prevent disturbing oestrous behaviour in sport mares, their mechanism of action has not been elucidated. The presence of an embryo or an IUD prevents cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and subsequently prostaglandin (PG) release and luteolysis. It has been suggested that a plastic sphere would mimic the embryo by mechanotransduction. However, there is some evidence that IUDs also cause endometrial inflammation, which might contribute to luteostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and time course of possible inflammation by evaluating changes in uterine fluid composition. On Day 10 after ovulation, events leading to COX-2 and prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF(2 alpha)) inhibition start, whereas either luteolysis occurs or the corpus luteum is maintained on Day 15. Therefore, uterine lavage fluid was evaluated at two time points in inseminated mares, either pregnant or not, and in mares inserted with an IUD. On Day 10, PGF(2 alpha) concentration in the fluid was significantly lower in the IUD group than in the pregnant mare one but did not differ from the non-pregnant mare group. On Day 15, the IUD group had significantly higher levels of the modulatory cytokine IL-10 and inhibin A, which could indicate previous inflammation and resolution stage. Intrauterine devices (IUDs) are used in mares to suppress oestrous behaviour, but the underlying mechanism is yet to be elucidated. The presence of an embryo or an IUD prevents cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and, subsequently, prostaglandin (PG) release and luteolysis. However, inflammation may also be involved. Endometrial inflammatory markers in uterine lavage fluid were measured on Day 10 (EXP 1, n = 25) and Day 15 (EXP 2, n = 27) after ovulation in inseminated mares, non-pregnant or pregnant, and in mares in which a small plastic sphere had been inserted into the uterus 4 (EXP 1) or 3 days (EXP 2) after ovulation. Uterine lavage fluid samples were analysed for nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) (only EXP 1), prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF(2 alpha)), inhibin A and cytokines, and blood samples for progesterone and oestradiol. On Day 10, the concentration of PGF(2 alpha) was lower (p < 0.05) in the IUD group than in pregnant mares. The concentration of the modulatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly higher in the IUD group in comparison to non-pregnant mares, and inhibin A was significantly higher in IUD mares than in the pregnant counterparts on Day 15. The results suggest that the presence of IUD causes endometrial inflammation which is at a resolution stage on Day 15.
  • Lisboa, S. F.; Issy, A. C.; Biojone, C.; Montezuma, K.; Fattori, V.; Del-Bel, E. A.; Guimaraes, F. S.; Cunha, F. Q.; Verri, W. A.; Joca, S. R. L. (2018)
    Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests pro-inflammatory cytokines might play an important role in the neurobiology of schizophrenia and stress-related psychiatric disorders. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines and it is widely expressed in brain regions involved in emotional regulation. Since IL-18 involvement in the neurobiology of mental illnesses, including schizophrenia, remains unknown, this work aimed at investigating the behavior of IL-18 null mice (KO) in different preclinical models: 1. the prepulse inhibition test (PPI), which provides an operational measure of sensorimotor gating and schizophrenic-like phenotypes; 2. amphetamine-induced hyperlocomotion, a model predictive of antipsychotic activity; 3. resident intruder test, a model predictive of aggressive behavior. Furthermore, the animals were submitted to models used to assess depressive- and anxiety-like behavior. IL-18KO mice showed impaired baseline PPI response, which was attenuated by D-amphetamine at a dose that did not modify PPI response in wild-type (WT) mice, suggesting a hypodopaminergic prefrontal cortex function in those mice. D-Amphetamine, however, induced hyperlocomotion in IL-18KO mice compared to their WT counterparts, suggesting hyperdopaminergic activity in the midbrain. Moreover, IL-18KO mice presented increased basal levels of IL-1 beta levels in the hippocampus and TNF-alpha in the prefrontal cortex, suggesting an overcompensation of IL-18 absence by increased levels of other proinflammatory cytokines. Although no alteration was observed in the forced swimming or in the elevated plus maze tests in naive IL-18KO mice, these mice presented anxiogenic-like behavior after exposure to repeated forced swimming stress. In conclusion, deletion of the IL-18 gene resembled features similar to symptoms observed in schizophrenia (positive and cognitive symptoms, aggressive behavior), in addition to increased susceptibility to stress. The IL-18KO model, therefore, could provide new insights into how changes in brain immunological homeostasis induce behavioral changes related to psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia.
  • Shaheryar, Zaib A.; Khan, Mahtab A.; Adnan, Ch. Sherjeel; Zaidi, Awais Ali; Hänggi, Daniel; Muhammad, Sajjad (2021)
    Ischemic stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. Hundreds of clinical trials have proven ineffective in bringing forth a definitive and effective treatment for ischemic stroke, except a myopic class of thrombolytic drugs. That, too, has little to do with treating long-term post-stroke disabilities. These studies proposed diverse options to treat stroke, ranging from neurotropic interpolation to venting antioxidant activity, from blocking specific receptors to obstructing functional capacity of ion channels, and more recently the utilization of neuroprotective substances. However, state of the art knowledge suggests that more pragmatic focus in finding effective therapeutic remedy for stroke might be targeting intricate intracellular signaling pathways of the 'neuroinflammatory triangle': ROS burst, inflammatory cytokines, and BBB disruption. Experimental evidence reviewed here supports the notion that allowing neuroprotective mechanisms to advance, while limiting neuroinflammatory cascades, will help confine post-stroke damage and disabilities.
  • Torregrosa-Munumer, Ruben; Vara, Elena; Fernandez-Tresguerres, Jesus Angel; Gredilla, Ricardo (2021)
    Purpose Aging is known to play a critical role in the etiopathogenesis of several diseases. Among them, cardiovascular disorders are especially relevant since they are becoming the first cause of death in western countries. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that has been shown to exert beneficial effects at different levels, including neuronal and cardiovascular protection. Those effects of resveratrol are related, at least in part, to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current investigation we were interested in exploring whether the positive effects of resveratrol at cardiac level were taking place even when the supplementation started in already old animals. Methods Old male rats were supplemented with resveratrol during 10 weeks. Using RT-PCR, we analyzed the effects of resveratrol supplementation on the expression of different genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in rat heart. Results Resveratrol reverted age-related changes in inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic markers in the rat heart. Among others, the expression of two major inflammatory markers, INF-gamma and TNF-alpha and two oxidative markers, heme oxygenase-1 and nitric oxide synthase, were increased with aging, and resveratrol supplementation reduced the level of some of these to those observed in the heart of young animals. Moreover, age-related changes in apoptotic markers in rat heart tend to be also reverted by resveratrol treatment. Conclusion Our results suggest that resveratrol might exert beneficial effects as an anti-aging compound to revert age-related changes in cardiac function.