Browsing by Subject "NITRIC-OXIDE"

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  • Kringel, D.; Lippmann, C.; Parnham, M. J.; Kalso, E.; Ultsch, A.; Lötsch, J. (2018)
    Background Human genetic research has implicated functional variants of more than one hundred genes in the modulation of persisting pain. Artificial intelligence and machine-learning techniques may combine this knowledge with results of genetic research gathered in any context, which permits the identification of the key biological processes involved in chronic sensitization to pain. MethodsResultsBased on published evidence, a set of 110 genes carrying variants reported to be associated with modulation of the clinical phenotype of persisting pain in eight different clinical settings was submitted to unsupervised machine-learning aimed at functional clustering. Subsequently, a mathematically supported subset of genes, comprising those most consistently involved in persisting pain, was analysed by means of computational functional genomics in the Gene Ontology knowledgebase. Clustering of genes with evidence for a modulation of persisting pain elucidated a functionally heterogeneous set. The situation cleared when the focus was narrowed to a genetic modulation consistently observed throughout several clinical settings. On this basis, two groups of biological processes, the immune system and nitric oxide signalling, emerged as major players in sensitization to persisting pain, which is biologically highly plausible and in agreement with other lines of pain research. ConclusionsSignificanceThe present computational functional genomics-based approach provided a computational systems-biology perspective on chronic sensitization to pain. Human genetic control of persisting pain points to the immune system as a source of potential future targets for drugs directed against persisting pain. Contemporary machine-learned methods provide innovative approaches to knowledge discovery from previous evidence. We show that knowledge discovery in genetic databases and contemporary machine-learned techniques can identify relevant biological processes involved in Persitent pain.
  • Rao, Shailaja P.; Riederer, Monika; Lechleitner, Margarete; Hermansson, Martin; Desoye, Gernot; Hallstroem, Seth; Graier, Wolfgang F.; Frank, Sasa (2013)
  • Alshami, Abbas; Einav, Sharon; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Varon, Joseph (2020)
    Objective: Inhalation of noble and other gases after cardiac arrest (CA) might improve neurological and cardiac outcomes. This article discusses up-to-date information on this novel therapeutic intervention. Data sources: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, online published abstracts from conference proceedings, clinical trial registry clinicaltrials.gov, and reference lists of relevant papers were systematically searched from January 1960 till March 2019. Study selection: Preclinical and clinical studies, irrespective of their types or described outcomes, were included. Data extraction: Abstract screening, study selection, and data extraction were performed by two independent authors. Due to the paucity of human trials, risk of bias assessment was not performed DATA SYNTHESIS: After screening 281 interventional studies, we included an overall of 27. Only, xenon, helium, hydrogen, and nitric oxide have been or are being studied on humans. Xenon, nitric oxide, and hydrogen show both neuroprotective and cardiotonic features, while argon and hydrogen sulfide seem neuroprotective, but not cardiotonic. Most gases have elicited neurohistological protection in preclinical studies; however, only hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide appeared to preserve CA1 sector of hippocampus, the most vulnerable area in the brain for hypoxia. Conclusion: Inhalation of certain gases after CPR appears promising in mitigating neurological and cardiac damage and may become the next successful neuroprotective and cardiotonic interventions. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Rajendran, Jayasimman; Purhonen, Janne; Tegelberg, Saara; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Mörgelin, Matthias; Rozman, Jan; Gailus-Durner, Valerie; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Auvinen, Petri; Mervaala, Eero; Jacobs, Howard T.; Szibor, Marten; Fellman, Vineta; Kallijärvi, Jukka (2019)
    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a non-mammalian enzyme that can bypass blockade of the complex III-IV segment of the respiratory chain (RC). We crossed a Ciona intestinalis AOX transgene into RC complex III (cIII)-deficient Bcs1l(p.S78G) knock-in mice, displaying multiple visceral manifestations and premature death. The homozygotes expressing AOX were viable, and their median survival was extended from 210 to 590 days due to permanent prevention of lethal cardiomyopathy. AOX also prevented renal tubular atrophy and cerebral astrogliosis, but not liver disease, growth restriction, or lipodystrophy, suggesting distinct tissue-specific pathogenetic mechanisms. Assessment of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and damage suggested that ROS were not instrumental in the rescue. Cardiac mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial respiration, and pathological transcriptome and metabolome alterations were essentially normalized by AOX, showing that the restored electron flow upstream of cIII was sufficient to prevent cardiac energetic crisis and detrimental decompensation. These findings demonstrate the value of AOX, both as a mechanistic tool and a potential therapeutic strategy, for cIII deficiencies.
  • Seppala, Ilkka; Kleber, Marcus E.; Bevan, Steve; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Oksala, Niku; Hernesniemi, Jussi A.; Makela, Kari-Matti; Rothwell, Peter M.; Sudlow, Cathie; Dichgans, Martin; Mononen, Nina; Vlachopoulou, Efthymia; Sinisalo, Juha; Delgado, Graciela E.; Laaksonen, Reijo; Koskinen, Tuomas; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kahonen, Mika; Markus, Hugh S.; Maez, Winfried; Lehtimaki, Terho (2016)
    Asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginines (ADMA and SDMA) impair nitric oxide bioavailability and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) is the only enzyme capable of metabolizing both of the dimethylarginines. We hypothesized that two functional AGXT2 missense variants (rs37369, V140I; rs16899974, V498L) are associated with AF and its cardioembolic complications. Association analyses were conducted using 1,834 individulas with AF and 7,159 unaffected individuals from two coronary angiography cohorts and a cohort comprising patients undergoing clinical exercise testing. In coronary angiography patients without structural heart disease, the minor A allele of rs16899974 was associated with any AF (OR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.59-2.68), and with paroxysmal AF (OR = 1.98, 95% CI 1.44-2.74) and chronic AF (OR = 2.03, 95% CI 1.35-3.06) separately. We could not replicate the association with AF in the other two cohorts. However, the A allele of rs16899974 was nominally associated with ischemic stroke risk in the meta-analysis of WTCCC2 ischemic stroke cohorts (3,548 cases, 5,972 controls) and with earlier onset of first-ever ischemic stroke (360 cases) in the cohort of clinical exercise test patients. In conclusion, AGXT2 variations may be involved in the pathogenesis of AF and its age-related thromboembolic complications.
  • Tomberg, Teemu; Muraviev, Andrey; Ru, Qitian; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L. (2019)
    Background-free methods have potentially superior detection sensitivity because of their ability to take advantage of the full laser power; they are therefore attractive to spectroscopists. We implement background-free Fourier transform spectroscopy based on coherent suppression of the background using an interferometer, whereby the central peak of the interferogram is suppressed without losing molecular absorption signatures. This results in the appearance of peaks rather than dips in the measured spectrum. The technique can be used with a variety of broadband spectroscopies and features advantages such as a reduction in the required detector dynamic range, the capability to perform quantitative measurements, and strongly enhanced sensitivity down to the quantum limit. We validated our method experimentally by performing mid-infrared dual-comb spectroscopy with a mixture of multiple molecular species over a broad wavelength range of 3-5 mu m. (C) 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement
  • Forsgard, Richard A.; Marrachelli, Vannina G.; Korpela, Katri; Frias, Rafael; Carmen Collado, Maria; Korpela, Riitta; Monleon, Daniel; Spillmann, Thomas; Osterlund, Pia (2017)
    Purpose Chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal toxicity (CIGT) is a complex process that involves multiple pathophysiological mechanisms. We have previously shown that commonly used chemotherapeutics 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan damage the intestinal mucosa and increase intestinal permeability to iohexol. We hypothesized that CIGT is associated with alterations in fecal microbiota and metabolome. Our aim was to characterize these changes and examine how they relate to the severity of CIGT. Methods A total of 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally either with 5-fluorouracil (150 mg/kg), oxaliplatin (15 mg/kg), or irinotecan (200 mg/kg). Body weight change was measured daily after drug administration and the animals were euthanized after 72 h. Blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected at baseline and at the end of the experiment. The changes in the composition of fecal microbiota were analyzed with 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Metabolic changes in serum and urine metabolome were measured with 1 mm proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). Results Irinotecan increased the relative abundance of Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria, while 5-FU and oxaliplatin caused only minor changes in the composition of fecal microbiota. All chemotherapeutics increased the levels of serum fatty acids and N(CH3)(3) moieties and decreased the levels of Krebs cycle metabolites and free amino acids. Conclusions Chemotherapeutic drugs, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, induce several microbial and metabolic changes which may play a role in the pathophysiology of CIGT. The observed changes in intestinal permeability, fecal microbiota, and metabolome suggest the activation of inflammatory processes.
  • Koskela, Sirpa; Mäkelä, Satu; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Outinen, Tuula; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta; Pörsti, Ilkka; Mustonen, Jukka; Laine, Outi (2021)
    Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), also called nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is mainly endemic in Europe and Russia. The clinical features include a low platelet count, altered coagulation, endothelial activation, and acute kidney injury (AKI). Multiple connections between coagulation pathways and inflammatory mediators, as well as complement and kallikrein-kinin systems, have been reported. The bleeding symptoms are usually mild. PUUV-infected patients also have an increased risk for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and thrombosis.
  • Polianskyte-Prause, Zydrune; Tolvanen, Tuomas A.; Lindfors, Sonja; Kon, Kanta; Hautala, Laura C.; Wang, Hong; Wada, Tsutomu; Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu; Lehtonen, Sanna (2022)
    Ebselen, a multifunctional organoselenium compound, has been recognized as a potential treatment for diabetes-related disorders. However, the underlying mechanisms whereby ebselen regulates metabolic pathways remain elusive. We discovered that ebselen inhibits lipid phosphatase SHIP2 (Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol-5-phosphatase 2), an emerging drug target to ameliorate insulin resistance in diabetes. We found that ebselen directly binds to and inhibits the catalytic activity of the recombinant SHIP2 phosphatase domain and SHIP2 in cultured cells, the skeletal muscle and liver of the diabetic db/db mice, and the liver of the SHIP2 overexpressing (SHIP2-Tg) mice. Ebselen increased insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in cultured myotubes, enhanced insulin sensitivity and protected liver tissue from lipid peroxidation and inflammation in the db/db mice, and improved glucose tolerance more efficiently than metformin in the SHIP2-Tg mice. SHIP2 overexpression abrogated the ability of ebselen to induce glucose uptake and reduce ROS production in myotubes and blunted the effect of ebselen to inhibit SHIP2 in the skeletal muscle of the SHIP2-Tg mice. Our data reveal ebselen as a potent SHIP2 inhibitor and demonstrate that the ability of ebselen to ameliorate insulin resistance and act as an antioxidant is at least in part mediated by the reduction of SHIP2 activity.
  • Larbalestier, Hannah; Keatinge, Marcus; Watson, Lisa; White, Emma; Gowda, Siri; Wei, Wenbin; Koler, Katjusa; Semenova, Svetlana A.; Elkin, Adam M.; Rimmer, Neal; Sweeney, Sean T.; Mazzolini, Julie; Sieger, Dirk; Hide, Winston; McDearmid, Jonathan; Panula, Pertti; MacDonald, Ryan B.; Bandmann, Oliver (2022)
    The Parkinson's disease (PD) risk gene GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) synthesis, an essential cofactor in the synthesis of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. To investigate the mechanisms by which GCH1 deficiency may contribute to PD, we generated a loss of function zebrafish gch1(-/- )mutant (gch1(-/-), using CRISPR/Cas technology. gch1(-/-) zebrafish develop marked monoaminergic neurotransmitter deficiencies by 5 d postfertilization (dpf), movement deficits by 8 dpf and lethality by 12 dpf. Tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) protein levels were markedly reduced without loss of ascending dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons. L-DOPA treatment of gchl(-/-) larvae improved survival without ameliorating the motor phenotype. RNAseq of gchl(-/-) larval brain tissue identified highly upregulated transcripts involved in innate immune response. Subsequent experiments provided morphologic and functional evidence of microglial activation in gchl(-/-). The results of our study suggest that GCH1 deficiency may unmask early, subclinical parkinsonism and only indirectly contribute to neuronal cell death via immune-mediated mechanisms. Our work highlights the importance of functional validation for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) risk factors and further emphasizes the important role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of PD.
  • SUMMIT Consortium; DCCT EDIC Res Grp; GENIE Consortium; Salem, Rany M.; Todd, Jennifer N.; Sandholm, Niina; Valo, Erkka; Haukka, Jani K.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Leif C.; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Florez, Jose C.; Panduru, Nicolae Mircea (2019)
    Background Although diabetic kidney disease demonstrates both familial clustering and single nucleotide polymorphism heritability, the specific genetic factors influencing risk remain largely unknown. Methods To identify genetic variants predisposing to diabetic kidney disease, we performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses. Through collaboration with the Diabetes Nephropathy Collaborative Research Initiative, we assembled a large collection of type 1 diabetes cohorts with harmonized diabetic kidney disease phenotypes. We used a spectrum of ten diabetic kidney disease definitions based on albuminuria and renal function. Results Our GWAS meta-analysis included association results for up to 19,406 individuals of European descent with type 1 diabetes. We identified 16 genome-wide significant risk loci. The variant with the strongest association (rs55703767) is a common missense mutation in the collagen type IV alpha 3 chain (COL4A3) gene, which encodes a major structural component of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). Mutations in COL4A3 are implicated in heritable nephropathies, including the progressive inherited nephropathy Alport syndrome. The rs55703767 minor allele (Asp326Tyr) is protective against several definitions of diabetic kidney disease, including albuminuria and ESKD, and demonstrated a significant association with GBM width; protective allele carriers had thinner GBM before any signs of kidney disease, and its effect was dependent on glycemia. Three other loci are in or near genes with known or suggestive involvement in this condition (BMP7) or renal biology (COLEC11 and DDR1). Conclusions The 16 diabetic kidney disease-associated loci may provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of this condition and help identify potential biologic targets for prevention and treatment.
  • Meng, Xiangxiang; Li, Lu; Pascual, Jesus; Rahikainen, Moona; Yi, Changyu; Jost, Ricarda; He, Cunman; Fournier-Level, Alexandre; Borevitz, Justin; Kangasjärvi, Saijaliisa; Whelan, James; Berkowitz, Oliver (2022)
    Mitochondrial ACONITASE3 is important for the acclimation to submergence stress by integrating carbon and nitrogen metabolism and impacting stress signaling pathways. Flooding causes severe crop losses in many parts of the world. Genetic variation in flooding tolerance exists in many species; however, there are few examples for the identification of tolerance genes and their underlying function. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 387 Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions. Plants were subjected to prolonged submergence followed by desubmergence, and seven traits (score, water content, Fv/Fm, and concentrations of nitrate, chlorophyll, protein, and starch) were quantified to characterize their acclimation responses. These traits showed substantial variation across the range of accessions. A total of 35 highly significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified across the 20 GWA datasets, pointing to 22 candidate genes, with functions in TCA cycle, DNA modification, and cell division. Detailed functional characterization of one candidate gene, ACONITASE3 (ACO3), was performed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism in the ACO3 promoter co-located with the binding site of the master regulator of retrograde signaling ANAC017, while subcellular localization of an ACO3-YFP fusion protein confirmed a mitochondrial localization during submergence. Analysis of mutant and overexpression lines determined changes in trait parameters that correlated with altered submergence tolerance and were consistent with the GWAS results. Subsequent RNA-seq experiments suggested that impairing ACO3 function increases the sensitivity to submergence by altering ethylene signaling, whereas ACO3 overexpression leads to tolerance by metabolic priming. These results indicate that ACO3 impacts submergence tolerance through integration of carbon and nitrogen metabolism via the mitochondrial TCA cycle and impacts stress signaling during acclimation to stress.
  • Funke, Bernd; Ball, William; Bender, Stefan; Gardini, Angela; Harvey, V. Lynn; Lambert, Alyn; Lopez-Puertas, Manuel; Marsh, Daniel R.; Meraner, Katharina; Nieder, Holger; Päivärinta, Sanna-Mari; Perot, Kristell; Randall, Cora E.; Reddmann, Thomas; Rozanov, Eugene; Schmidt, Hauke; Seppälä, Annika; Sinnhuber, Miriam; Sukhodolov, Timofei; Stiller, Gabriele P.; Tsvetkova, Natalia D.; Verronen, Pekka T.; Versick, Stefan; von Clarmann, Thomas; Walker, Kaley A.; Yushkov, Vladimir (2017)
    We compare simulations from three high-top (with upper lid above 120 km) and five medium-top (with upper lid around 80 km) atmospheric models with observations of odd nitrogen (NOx D NO+NO2), temperature, and carbon monoxide from seven satellite instruments (ACE-FTS on SciSat, GOMOS, MIPAS, and SCIAMACHY on Envisat, MLS on Aura, SABER on TIMED, and SMR on Odin) during the Northern Hemisphere (NH) polar winter 2008/2009. The models included in the comparison are the 3-D chemistry transport model 3dCTM, the ECHAM5/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, FinROSE, the Hamburg Model of the Neutral and Ionized Atmosphere (HAMMO-NIA), the Karlsruhe Simulation Model of the Middle Atmosphere (KASIMA), the modelling tools for SOlar Climate Ozone Links studies (SOCOL and CAO-SOCOL), and the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM4). The comparison focuses on the energetic particle precipitation (EPP) indirect effect, that is, the polar winter descent of NOx largely produced by EPP in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. A particular emphasis is given to the impact of the sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) in January 2009 and the subsequent elevated stratopause (ES) event associated with enhanced descent of mesospheric air. The chemistry climate model simulations have been nudged toward reanalysis data in the troposphere and stratosphere while being unconstrained above. An odd nitrogen upper boundary condition obtained from MIPAS observations has further been applied to medium-top models. Most models provide a good representation of the mesospheric tracer descent in general, and the EPP indirect effect in particular, during the unperturbed (pre-SSW) period of the NH winter 2008/2009. The observed NOx descent into the lower mesosphere and stratosphere is generally reproduced within 20 %. Larger discrepancies of a few model simulations could be traced back either to the impact of the models' gravity wave drag scheme on the polar wintertime meridional circulation or to a combination of prescribed NOx mixing ratio at the uppermost model layer and low vertical resolution. In March-April, after the ES event, however, modelled mesospheric and stratospheric NOx distributions deviate significantly from the observations. The too-fast and early downward propagation of the NO x tongue, encountered in most simulations, coincides with a temperature high bias in the lower mesosphere (0.2-0.05 hPa), likely caused by an overestimation of descent velocities. In contrast, upper-mesospheric temperatures (at 0.05-0.001 hPa) are generally underestimated by the high-top models after the onset of the ES event, being indicative for too-slow descent and hence too-low NOx fluxes. As a consequence, the magnitude of the simulated NOx tongue is generally underestimated by these models. Descending NOx amounts simulated with mediumtop models are on average closer to the observations but show a large spread of up to several hundred percent. This is primarily attributed to the different vertical model domains in which the NOx upper boundary condition is applied. In general, the intercomparison demonstrates the ability of state-of- the-art atmospheric models to reproduce the EPP indirect effect in dynamically and geomagnetically quiescent NH winter conditions. The encountered differences between observed and simulated NOx, CO, and temperature distributions during the perturbed phase of the 2009 NH winter, however, emphasize the need for model improvements in the dynamical representation of elevated stratopause events in order to allow for a better description of the EPP indirect effect under these particular conditions.
  • Helle, Emmi; Priest, James R. (2020)
    Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common anatomical malformation occurring live-born infants and an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality across the lifespan and throughout the world. Population-based observations have long described associations between maternal cardiometabolic disorders and the risk of CHD in the offspring. Here we review the epidemiological evidence and clinical observations relating maternal obesity and diabetes mellitus to the risk of CHD offspring with particular attention to mechanistic models of maternal-fetal risk transmission and first trimester disturbances of fetal cardiac development. A deeper understanding of maternal risk factors holds the potential to improve both prenatal detection of CHD by identifying at-risk pregnancies, along with primary prevention of disease by improving preconception and prenatal treatment of at-risk mothers.
  • Tigistu-Sahle, Feven; Lampinen, Milla; Kilpinen, Lotta; Holopainen, Minna; Lehenkari, Petri; Laitinen, Saara; Käkelä, Reijo (2017)
    High arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) and low n-3 PUFA levels impair the capacity of cultured human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (hBMSCs) to modulate immune functions. The capacity of the hBMSCs to modify PUFA structures was found to be limited. Therefore, different PUFA supplements given to the cells resulted in very different glycerophospholipid (GPL) species profiles and substrate availability for phospholipases, which have preferences for polar head group and acyl chains when liberating PUFA precursors for production of lipid mediators. When supplemented with 20:4n-6, the cells increased prostaglandin E2 secretion. However, they elongated 20:4n-6 to the less active precursor, 22:4n-6, and also incorporated it into triacylglycerols, which may have limited the proinflammatory signaling. The n-3 PUFA precursor, 18:3n-3, had little potency to reduce the GPL 20:4n-6 content, while the eicosapentaenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (22:6n-3) acid supplements efficiently displaced the 20:4n-6 acyls, and created diverse GPL species substrate pools allowing attenuation of inflammatory signaling.(Jlr) The results emphasize the importance of choosing appropriate PUFA supplements for in vitro hBMSC expansion and suggests that for optimal function they require an exogenous fatty acid source providing 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 sufficiently, but 20:4n-6 moderately, which calls for specifically designed optimal PUFA supplements for the cultures.
  • Kurra, Venla; Eräranta, Arttu; Paavonen, Timo; Honkanen, Teemu; Myllymäki, Juhani; Riutta, Asko; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Lakkisto, Päivi; Mustonen, Jukka; Pörsti, Ilkka (2023)
    Uric acid has promoted renal fibrosis and inflammation in experimental studies, but some studies have shown nephroprotective effects due to alleviated oxidative stress. We studied the influence of experimental hyperuricaemia in surgically 5/6 nephrectomized rats. Three weeks after subtotal nephrectomy or sham operation, the rats were allocated to control diet or 2.0% oxonic acid (uricase inhibitor) diet for 9 weeks. Then blood, urine and tissue samples were taken, and renal morphology and oxidative stress were examined. Inflammation and fibrosis were evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Remnant kidney rats ingesting normal or oxonic acid diet presented with similar to 60% reduction of creatinine clearance and suppressed plasma renin activity. Oxonic acid diet increased plasma uric acid levels by >80 mu mol/L. In remnant kidney rats, moderate hyperuricaemia decreased glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial damage and kidney mast cell count, without influencing the fibrosis marker collagen I messenger RNA (mRNA) content. In both sham-operated and 5/6 nephrectomized rats, the mast cell product 11-epi-prostaglandin-F-2 alpha excretion to the urine and kidney tissue cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels were decreased. To conclude, hyperuricaemic remnant kidney rats displayed improved kidney morphology and reduced markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Thus, moderately elevated plasma uric acid had beneficial effects on the kidney in this low-renin model of experimental renal insufficiency.
  • Varshney, Mukesh Kumar; Yu, Nancy Yiu-Lin; Katayama, Shintaro; Li, Xin; Liu, Tianyao; Wu, Wan-Fu; Tohonen, Virpi; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Kere, Juha; Fan, Xiaotang; Inzunza, Jose; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Nalvarte, Ivan (2020)
    Background: Male estrogen receptor beta (ER beta) knockout (BERKO) mice display anxiety and aggression linked to, among others, altered serotonergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala and dorsal raphe, impaired cortical radial glia migration, and reduced GABAergic signaling. The effects on primary motor cortex (M1 cortex) and locomotor activity as a consequence of ER beta loss have not been investigated. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether locomotor activity is altered as a consequence of the changes in the M1 cortex. Methods: The locomotor activity of male wild-type (WT) and BERKO mice was evaluated using the open-field and rotarod tests. Molecular changes in the M1 cortex were analyzed by RNA sequencing, electron microscopy, electrophysiology, and immunohistological techniques. In addition, we established oligodendrocyte (OL) cultures from WT and BERKO mouse embryonic stem cells to evaluate OL function. Results: Locomotor profiling revealed that BERKO mice were more active than WT mice but had impaired motor coordination. Analysis of the M1 cortex pointed out differences in synapse function and myelination. There was a reduction in GABAergic signaling resulting in imbalanced excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission as well as a defective OL differentiation accompanied by myelin defects. The effects of ER beta loss on OL differentiation were confirmed in vitro. Conclusion: ER beta is an important regulator of GABAergic interneurons and OL differentiation, which impacts on adult M1 cortex function and may be linked to increased locomotor activity and decreased motor coordination in BERKO mice.
  • Mou, Xiaohui; Zhang, Hongbo; Qiu, Hua; Zhang, Wentai; Wang, Ying; Xiong, Kaiqin; Huang, Nan; Santos, Helder A.; Yang, Zhilu (2022)
    Thrombosis and infections are the two major complications associated with extracorporeal circuits and indwelling medical devices, leading to significant mortality in clinic. To address this issue, here, we report a biomimetic surface engineering strategy by the integration of mussel-inspired adhesive peptide, with bio-orthogonal click chemistry, to tailor the surface functionalities of tubing and catheters. Inspired by mussel adhesive foot protein, a bioclickable peptide mimic (DOPA)(4)-azide-based structure is designed and grafted on an aminated tubing robustly based on catechol-amine chemistry. Then, the dibenzylcyclooctyne (DBCO) modified nitric oxide generating species of 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelated copper ions and the DBCO-modified antimicrobial peptide (DBCO-AMP) are clicked onto the grafted surfaces via bio-orthogonal reaction. The combination of the robustly grafted AMP and Cu-DOTA endows the modified tubing with durable antimicrobial properties and ability in long-term catalytically generating NO from endogenous s-nitrosothiols to resist adhesion/activation of platelets, thus preventing the formation of thrombosis. Overall, this biomimetic surface engineering technology provides a promising solution for multicomponent surface functionalization and the surface bioengineering of biomedical devices with enhanced clinical performance.
  • Metsälä, M. (2018)
    Optical spectroscopy can be used for trace-level gas analysis in different applications, including exhaled breath research. A common approach is the targeted on-line, real-time analysis of small molecules (two to five atoms). Currently, the methodology is normally used for the detection of single analytes at trace levels, or two to three species at most at the same time. The main limitation preventing sensitive multi-species detection has been the limited fast scanning range of the lasers used as light sources. This limitation is currently being eliminated by the availability of optical frequency combs (OFC) which offer wide spectral bandwidths and the benefits of a laser-type light source. Recent advances in mid-infrared OFC technology allow measurements in the so-called molecular fingerprint region of the electromagnetic spectrum, where many molecules have strong fundamental vibrational transitions that enable sensitive detection. Several technical hurdles remain to be overcome, but if these problems can be solved laser absorption spectroscopy has the potential to challenge mass spectrometry in on-line multi-species trace gas analysis.