Browsing by Subject "NITRIFICATION"

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  • Joensuu, Johanna; Raivonen, M.; Kieloaho, A. -J.; Altimir, N.; Kolari, P.; Sarjala, T.; Back, J. (2015)
  • Holmroos, Heidi; Horppila, Jukka; Niemistö, Juha; Nurminen, Leena; Hietanen, Susanna (2015)
    Seasonally changing mechanisms affect the concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus, which differ between the stands of different macrophyte life forms and open water in a eutrophic lake. Macrophytes that take nutrients up for their growth also shelter sediments from resuspension that brings nutrients back to the water and affect denitrification, which removes nitrogen from the water ecosystem. In this study the changes in nutrient concentrations were observed during the open-water period from April to November, and also denitrification rates were measured at different phases of the open-water season. The study was conducted at a shallow eutrophic lake where the effect of macrophytes on water quality is remarkable. The concentration changes of different nitrogen forms during the summer were very similar at the open-water and floating-leaved macrophyte (Nuphar lutea L.) stations. Nitrate was depleted faster among the submerged macrophytes (Myriophyllum verticillatum L.) than among floating-leaved plants or in open water. The decrease in the concentration of nitrate was so significant during the summer that it also affected the total nitrogen concentration in the water. Denitrification was highest in sediments among floating-leaved macrophytes (average 4.3 mg N m(-2) d(-1)) and lowest in sediments of submerged plants (average 1.5 mg N m(-2) d(-1)). Denitrification among submerged macrophytes was limited by low nitrate availability.
  • Mäkelä, Minna; Kabir, Kazi Md. Jahangir; Kanerva, Sanna; Yli-Halla, Markku; Simojoki, Asko (2022)
    Factors limiting the production of the greenhouse gases nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were investigated in three incubation experiments conducted with soil from top- and subsoil horizons of a peatland which had an acid sulphate mineral subsoil derived from black schists. The effect of moisture was investigated by equilibrating undisturbed soil samples from three horizons (H-2, Cg and Cr) at -10, -60 or -100 cm matric potential and measuring the gas production. In the second experiment, the effects of temperature and various substrates were studied by incubating disturbed soil samples in aerobic conditions at 5 or 20 degrees C, and measuring basal respiration and N2O production before and after adding water, glucose or ammonium into the soil. In the third experiment, the effects of added glucose and/or nitrate on the denitrification in soil samples from four horizons (H1, H2, Cg and Cr were investigated by acetylene inhibition and monitoring of N2O production during a 48-h anaerobic incubation. The production of CO2 in the topmost peat horizon was largest at -10 cm matric potential, and it was larger than those in the mineral subsoil also at -60 and -100 cm potentials. In contrast, drainage seemed to increase N2O production, whereas in the wettest condition the production of N2O in the mineral subsoil was small and the peat horizon was a sink of N2O. Lowering of temperature (from 20 degrees C to 5 degrees C) decreased CO2 production, as expected, but it had almost no role in the production of N2O in aerobic conditions. Glucose addition increased the aerobic production of CO2 in peat, but it had a minor effect in the mineral horizons. Lack of C source (glucose) was limiting anaerobic N2O production in the uppermost peat horizon, while in all other horizons, nitrate proved to be the most limiting factor. It is concluded that peatlands with black schist derived acid sulphate subsoil horizons, such as in this study, have high microbial activity in the peaty topsoil horizons but little microbial activity in the mineral subsoil. These findings are contrary to previous results obtained in sediment-derived acid sulphate soils.
  • Schmidt, Dietrich J. Epp; Kotze, David Johan; Hornung, Erzsebet; Setala, Heikki; Yesilonis, Ian; Szlavecz, Katalin; Dombos, Miklos; Pouyat, Richard; Cilliers, Sarel; Toth, Zsolt; Yarwood, Stephanie A. (2019)
    Urbanization results in the systemic conversion of land-use, driving habitat and biodiversity loss. The "urban convergence hypothesis" posits that urbanization represents a merging of habitat characteristics, in turn driving physiological and functional responses within the biotic community. To test this hypothesis, we sampled five cities (Baltimore, MD, United States; Helsinki and Lahti, Finland; Budapest, Hungary; Potchefstroom, South Africa) across four different biomes. Within each city, we sampled four land-use categories that represented a gradient of increasing disturbance and management (from least intervention to highest disturbance: reference, remnant, turf/lawn, and ruderal). Previously, we used amplicon sequencing that targeted bacteria/archaea (16S rRNA) and fungi (ITS) and reported convergence in the archaeal community. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing and QPCR of functional genes to the same soil DNA extracts to test convergence in microbial function. Our results suggest that urban land-use drives changes in gene abundance related to both the soil N and C metabolism. Our updated analysis found taxonomic convergence in both the archaeal and bacterial community (16S amplicon data). Convergence of the archaea was driven by increased abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea and genes for ammonia oxidation (QPCR and shotgun metagenomics). The proliferation of ammonia-oxidizers under turf and ruderal land-use likely also contributes to the previously documented convergence of soil mineral N pools. We also found a higher relative abundance of methanogens (amplicon sequencing), a higher relative abundance of gene sequences putatively identified as Ni-Fe hydrogenase and nickel uptake (shotgun metagenomics) under urban land-use; and a convergence of gene sequences putatively identified as contributing to the nickel transport function under urban turf sites. High levels of disturbance lead to a higher relative abundance of gene sequences putatively identified as multiple antibiotic resistance protein marA and multidrug efflux pump mexD, but did not lead to an overall convergence in antibiotic resistance gene sequences.
  • Uusheimo, Sari Anneli; Tulonen, Tiina Valpuri; Aalto, Sanni L.; Arvola, Lauri Matti Juhani (2018)
    Constructed agricultural ponds and wetlands can reduce nitrogen loading from agriculture especially in areas where warm climate predominates. However, in cold climate temperature-dependency of microbiological processes have raised the question about the applicability of constructed wetlands in N removal. We measured in situ denitrification rates in a constructed agricultural pond using N-15-isotope pairing technique at ambient light and temperature throughout a year as well as diurnally. The field IPT measurements were combined with a wide set of potentially important explanatory data, including air temperature, photosynthetically active radiation, precipitation, discharge, nitrate plus other water quality variables, sediment temperature, oxygen concentration and penetration depth, diffusive oxygen uptake and sediment organic carbon. Denitrification varied, on average, diurnally between 12 and 314 mu mol N m(-2) h(-1) and seasonally between 0 and 12409 mu mol m(-2) h(-1). Light and oxygen regulated the diel variation of denitrification, but seasonally denitrification was governed by a combination of temperature, oxygen and turbidity. The results indicated that the real N removal rate might be 30-35% higher than the measured daytime rates, suggesting that neglecting the diel variation of denitrification we may underestimate N removal capacity of shallow sediments. We conclude, that by following recommended wetland:catchment - size ratios, boreal agricultural ponds can efficiently remove nitrogen by denitrification in summer and in autumn, while in winter and in spring the contribution of denitrification might be negligible relative to the loading, especially with short residence time.
  • Lappalainen, Mari; Kukkonen, Jussi V. K.; Piirainen, Sirpa; Sarjala, Tytti; Setälä, Heikki; Koivusalo, Harri; Finer, Leena; Lauren, Ari (2013)
  • Bartl, Ines; Hellemann, Dana; Rabouille, Christophe; Schulz, Kirstin; Tallberg, Petra; Hietanen, Susanna; Voss, Maren (2019)
    Estuaries worldwide act as "filters" of landderived nitrogen (N) loads, yet differences in coastal environmental settings can affect the N filter function. We investigated microbial N retention (nitrification, ammonium assimilation) and N removal (denitrification, anammox) processes in the aphotic benthic system (bottom boundary layer (BBL) and sediment) of two Baltic Sea estuaries differing in riverine N loads, trophic state, geomorphology, and sediment type. In the BBL, rates of nitrification (5-227 nmol N L-1 d(-1)) and ammonium assimilation (9-704 nmol N L-1 d(-1)) were not enhanced in the eutrophied Vistula Estuary compared to the oligotrophic Ore Estuary. No anammox was detected in the sediment of either estuary, while denitrification rates were twice as high in the eutrophied (352 +/- 123 mu mol N m(-2) d(-1)) as in the oligotrophic estuary. Particulate organic matter (POM) was mainly of phytoplankton origin in the benthic systems of both estuaries. It seemed to control heterotrophic denitrification and ammonium assimilation as well as autotrophic nitrification by functioning as a substrate source of N and organic carbon. Our data suggest that in stratified estuaries, POM is an essential link between riverine N loads and benthic N turnover and may furthermore function as a temporary N reservoir. During long particle residence times or alongshore transport pathways, increased time is available for the recycling of N until its eventual removal, allowing effective coastal filtering even at low process rates. Understanding the key controls and microbial N processes in the coastal N filter therefore requires to also consider the effects of geomorphological and hydrological features.
  • Hellemann, D.; Tallberg, P.; Aalto, S. L.; Bartoli, M.; Hietanen, S. (2020)
    Current knowledge on the seasonality of benthic nitrate reduction pathways in the aphotic, density stratified coastal zone of the Baltic Sea is largely based on data from muddy sediments, neglecting the potential contribution of sandy sediments. To gain a more comprehensive understanding of seasonality in this part of the Baltic Sea coast, we measured rates of benthic denitrification, anammox and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) monthly in the ice-free period of 2016 in both sandy and muddy aphotic sediments, northwestern Gulf of Finland. No anammox was observed. The seasonal cycle of denitrification in both sediment types was related to the hydrography-driven development of bottom water temperature. The seasonal cycle of DNRA was less clear and likely connected to a combination of bottom water temperature, carbon to nitrogen ratio, and substrate competition with denitrification. Denitrification and DNRA rates were 50-80 and 20% lower in the sandy than in the muddy sediment. The share of DNRA in total nitrate reduction, however, was higher in the sandy than in the muddy sediment, being (by similar to 50%) the highest DNRA share in sandy sediments so far measured. Our data add to the small pool of published studies showing significant DNRA in both cold and/or sandy sediments and suggest that DNRA is currently underestimated in the Baltic coastal nitrogen filter. Our results furthermore emphasize that the various environmental conditions of a coastal habitat (light regime, hydrography, and geomorphology) affect biogeochemical element cycling and thus need to be considered in data interpretation.
  • Kaarakka, Lilli; Smolander, Aino; Lindroos, Antti-Jussi; Nojd, Pekka; Korpela, Leila; Nieminen, Tiina M.; Helmisaari, Helja-Sisko (2019)
    The artificial recharge of groundwater by infiltrating surface water through forest soil has been introduced as a groundwater producing practice in Finland. As a result, the forest soil, as well as the whole ecosystem, is subjected to extremely high inputs of carbon and nutrient rich lake water. The effects of sprinkling infiltration on forest soil, tree growth and understory vegetation and their respective recovery were studied on a forested esker in central Finland. The Scots pine-dominated experimental plots were sprinkled with lake water in 1998-2001 and sampled after a 12-15-year recovery period. Soil pH and base cation concentration, as well as the rate of net N mineralization were significantly higher at the plots that had been infiltrated. The concentrations of base cations calcium and magnesium were thousands of times higher in the infiltrated soil than in the untreated soil. In addition, sprinkling infiltration had favored early-successional herbs, grasses and forbs and negatively affected late successional, slow-growing mosses and lichens. Sprinkling infiltration had significantly increased tree radial growth. Sprinkling infiltration is an environment altering soil treatment method which, based on the findings of this study, can have long-term effects on tree growth, soil processes and understory vegetation.