Browsing by Subject "NITROGEN DEPOSITION"

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  • Fernandez-Martinez, M.; Vicca, S.; Janssens, I. A.; Ciais, P.; Obersteiner, M.; Bartrons, M.; Sardans, J.; Verger, A.; Canadell, J. G.; Chevallier, F.; Wang, X.; Bernhofer, C.; Curtis, P. S.; Gianelle, D.; Gruewald, T.; Heinesch, B.; Ibrom, A.; Knohl, A.; Laurila, T.; Law, B. E.; Limousin, J. M.; Longdoz, B.; Loustau, D.; Mammarella, I.; Matteucci, G.; Monson, R. K.; Montagnani, L.; Moors, E. J.; Munger, J. W.; Papale, D.; Piao, S. L.; Penuelas, J. (2017)
    Concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) have continued to increase whereas atmospheric deposition of sulphur and nitrogen has declined in Europe and the USA during recent decades. Using time series of flux observations from 23 forests distributed throughout Europe and the USA, and generalised mixed models, we found that forest-level net ecosystem production and gross primary production have increased by 1% annually from 1995 to 2011. Statistical models indicated that increasing atmospheric CO2 was the most important factor driving the increasing strength of carbon sinks in these forests. We also found that the reduction of sulphur deposition in Europe and the USA lead to higher recovery in ecosystem respiration than in gross primary production, thus limiting the increase of carbon sequestration. By contrast, trends in climate and nitrogen deposition did not significantly contribute to changing carbon fluxes during the studied period. Our findings support the hypothesis of a general CO2-fertilization effect on vegetation growth and suggest that, so far unknown, sulphur deposition plays a significant role in the carbon balance of forests in industrialized regions. Our results show the need to include the effects of changing atmospheric composition, beyond CO2, to assess future dynamics of carbon-climate feedbacks not currently considered in earth system/climate modelling.
  • Abbott, Benjamin W.; Jones, Jeremy B.; Schuur, Edward A. G.; Chapin, F. Stuart; Bowden, William B.; Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia; Epstein, Howard E.; Flannigan, Michael D.; Harms, Tamara K.; Hollingsworth, Teresa N.; Mack, Michelle C.; McGuire, A. David; Natali, Susan M.; Rocha, Adrian V.; Tank, Suzanne E.; Turetsky, Merritt R.; Vonk, Jorien E.; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Aiken, George R.; Alexander, Heather D.; Amon, Rainer M. W.; Benscoter, Brian W.; Bergeron, Yves; Bishop, Kevin; Blarquez, Olivier; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Breen, Amy L.; Buffam, Ishi; Cai, Yihua; Carcaillet, Christopher; Carey, Sean K.; Chen, Jing M.; Chen, Han Y. H.; Christensen, Torben R.; Cooper, Lee W.; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; de Groot, William J.; DeLuca, Thomas H.; Dorrepaal, Ellen; Fetcher, Ned; Finlay, Jacques C.; Forbes, Bruce C.; French, Nancy H. F.; Gauthier, Sylvie; Girardin, Martin P.; Goetz, Scott J.; Goldammer, Johann G.; Gough, Laura; Grogan, Paul; Guo, Laodong; Higuera, Philip E.; Hinzman, Larry; Hu, Feng Sheng; Hugelius, Gustaf; Jafarov, Elchin E.; Jandt, Randi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Karlsson, Jan; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kattner, Gerhard; Kelly, Ryan; Keuper, Frida; Kling, George W.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Kouki, Jari; Kuhry, Peter; Laudon, Hjalmar; Laurion, Isabelle; Macdonald, Robie W.; Mann, Paul J.; Martikainen, Pertti J.; McClelland, James W.; Molau, Ulf; Oberbauer, Steven F.; Olefeldt, David; Pare, David; Parisien, Marc-Andre; Payette, Serge; Peng, Changhui; Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Rastetter, Edward B.; Raymond, Peter A.; Raynolds, Martha K.; Rein, Guillermo; Reynolds, James F.; Robards, Martin; Rogers, Brendan M.; Schaedel, Christina; Schaefer, Kevin; Schmidt, Inger K.; Shvidenko, Anatoly; Sky, Jasper; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Starr, Gregory; Striegl, Robert G.; Teisserenc, Roman; Tranvik, Lars J.; Virtanen, Tarmo; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Zimov, Sergei (2016)
    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
  • Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Brotons, Lluis; Calladine, John; Campedelli, Tommaso; Escandell, Virginia; Flousek, Jiri; Grueneberg, Christoph; Haas, Fredrik; Harris, Sarah; Herrando, Sergi; Husby, Magne; Jiguet, Frederic; Kalas, John Atle; Lindstrom, Ake; Lorrilliere, Romain; Molina, Blas; Pladevall, Clara; Calvi, Gianpiero; Sattler, Thomas; Schmid, Hans; Sirkiä, Päivi M.; Teufelbauer, Norbert; Trautmann, Sven (2019)
    Mountain areas often hold special species communities, and they are high on the list of conservation concern. Global warming and changes in human land use, such as grazing pressure and afforestation, have been suggested to be major threats for biodiversity in the mountain areas, affecting species abundance and causing distribution shifts towards mountaintops. Population shifts towards poles and mountaintops have been documented in several areas, indicating that climate change is one of the key drivers of species' distribution changes. Despite the high conservation concern, relatively little is known about the population trends of species in mountain areas due to low accessibility and difficult working conditions. Thanks to the recent improvement of bird monitoring schemes around Europe, we can here report a first account of population trends of 44 bird species from four major European mountain regions: Fennoscandia, UK upland, south-western (Iberia) and south-central mountains (Alps), covering 12 countries. Overall, the mountain bird species declined significantly (-7%) during 2002-2014, which is similar to the declining rate in common birds in Europe during the same period. Mountain specialists showed a significant -10% decline in population numbers. The slope for mountain generalists was also negative, but not significantly so. The slopes of specialists and generalists did not differ from each other. Fennoscandian and Iberian populations were on average declining, while in United Kingdom and Alps, trends were nonsignificant. Temperature change or migratory behaviour was not significantly associated with regional population trends of species. Alpine habitats are highly vulnerable to climate change, and this is certainly one of the main drivers of mountain bird population trends. However, observed declines can also be partly linked with local land use practices. More efforts should be undertaken to identify the causes of decline and to increase conservation efforts for these populations.
  • Zhang, Hui; Valiranta, Minna; Piilo, Sanna; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Aquino-Lopez, Marco A.; Roland, Thomas P.; Salminen-Paatero, Susanna; Paatero, Jussi; Lohila, Annalea; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2020)
    Northern boreal peatlands are important ecosystems in modulating global biogeochemical cycles, yet their biological communities and related carbon dynamics are highly sensitive to changes in climate. Despite this, the strength and recent direction of these feedbacks are still unclear. The response of boreal peatlands to climate warming has received relatively little attention compared with other northern peatland types, despite forming a large northern hemisphere-wide ecosystem. Here, we studied the response of two ombrotrophic boreal peatlands to climate variability over the last c. 200 years for which local meteorological data are available. We used remains from plants and testate amoebae to study historical changes in peatland biological communities. These data were supplemented by peat property (bulk density, carbon and nitrogen content), C-14, Pb-210 and Cs-137 analyses and were used to infer changes in peatland hydrology and carbon dynamics. In total, six peat cores, three per study site, were studied that represent different microhabitats: low hummock (LH), high lawn and low lawn. The data show a consistent drying trend over recent centuries, represented mainly as a change from wet habitat Sphagnum spp. to dry habitat S. fuscum. Summer temperature and precipitation appeared to be important drivers shaping peatland community and surface moisture conditions. Data from the driest microhabitat studied, LH, revealed a clear and strong negative linear correlation (R-2 = .5031; p <.001) between carbon accumulation rate and peat surface moisture conditions: under dry conditions, less carbon was accumulated. This suggests that at the dry end of the moisture gradient, availability of water regulates carbon accumulation. It can be further linked to the decreased abundance of mixotrophic testate amoebae under drier conditions (R-2 = .4207; p <.001). Our study implies that if effective precipitation decreases in the future, the carbon uptake capacity of boreal bogs may be threatened.
  • Szabo, Zoltan; Buczko, Krisztina; Haliuc, Aritina; Pal, Ilona; Korponai, Janos L.; Begy, Robert-Csaba; Veres, Daniel; Luoto, Tomi P.; Zsigmond, Andreea R.; Magyari, Eniko K. (2020)
    A multiproxy approach including chironomid, diatom, pollen and geochemical analyses was applied on short gravitational cores retrieved from an alpine lake (Lacul Balea) in the Southern Carpathians (Romania) to unveil how this lake responded to natural and anthropogenic forcing over the past 500 years.On the basis of chironomid and diatom assemblage changes, and supported by sediment chemical data and historical information, we distinguished two main phases in lake evolution. Before 1926 the lake was dominated by chironomids belonging to Micropsectra insignilobus-type and benthic diatoms suggesting well-oxygenated oligotrophic environment with only small-scale disturbance. We considered this state as the lake's safe operational space. After 1926 significant changes occurred: Tanytarsus lugens-type and T. mendax-type chironomids took over dominance and collector filterers increased until 1970 pointing to an increase in available nutrients. The diatom community showed the most pronounced change between 1950 and 1992 when planktonic diatoms increased. The highest trophic level was reconstructed between 1970 and 1992, while the indicator species of increasing nutrient availability, Asterionella formosa spread from 1982 and decreased rapidly at 1992. Statistical analyses evidenced that the main driver of the diatom community change was atmospheric reactive nitrogen (Nr) fertilization that drastically moved the community towards planktonic diatom dominance from 1950. The transformation of the chironomid community was primarily driven by summer mean temperature increase that also changed the dominant feeding guild from collector gatherers to collector falterers. Our results overall suggest that the speed of ecosystem reorganisation showed an unprecedented increase over the last 100 years; biological systems in many cases underwent threshold type changes, while several system components displayed non-hysteretic change between alternating community composition. We conclude that Lake Balea is outside of its safe operating space today. The main trigger of changes since 1926 was climate change and human impact acting synergically. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Hui, Nan; Liu, Xinxin; Kotze, D. Johan; Jumpponen, Ari; Francini, Gaia; Setala, Heikki (2017)
    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important mutualists for the growth and health of most boreal trees. Forest age and its host species composition can impact the composition of ECM fungal communities. Although plentiful empirical data exist for forested environments, the effects of established vegetation and its successional trajectories on ECM fungi in urban greenspaces remain poorly understood. We analyzed ECM fungi in 5 control forests and 41 urban parks of two plant functional groups (conifer and broadleaf trees) and in three age categories (10, similar to 50, and > 100 years old) in southern Finland. Our results show that although ECM fungal richness was marginally greater in forests than in urban parks, urban parks still hosted rich and diverse ECM fungal communities. ECM fungal community composition differed between the two habitats but was driven by taxon rank order reordering, as key ECM fungal taxa remained largely the same. In parks, the ECM communities differed between conifer and broadleaf trees. The successional trajectories of ECM fungi, as inferred in relation to the time since park construction, differed among the conifers and broadleaf trees: the ECM fungal communities changed over time under the conifers, whereas communities under broadleaf trees provided no evidence for such age-related effects. Our data show that plant-ECM fungus interactions in urban parks, in spite of being constructed environments, are surprisingly similar in richness to those in natural forests. This suggests that the presence of host trees, rather than soil characteristics or even disturbance regime of the system, determine ECM fungal community structure and diversity. IMPORTANCE In urban environments, soil and trees improve environmental quality and provide essential ecosystem services. ECM fungi enhance plant growth and performance, increasing plant nutrient acquisition and protecting plants against toxic compounds. Recent evidence indicates that soil-inhabiting fungal communities, including ECM and saprotrophic fungi, in urban parks are affected by plant functional type and park age. However, ECM fungal diversity and its responses to urban stress, plant functional type, or park age remain unknown. The significance of our study is in identifying, in greater detail, the responses of ECM fungi in the rhizospheres of conifer and broadleaf trees in urban parks. This will greatly enhance our knowledge of ECM fungal communities under urban stresses, and the findings can be utilized by urban planners to improve urban ecosystem services.
  • Yu, Lei; Song, Mengya; Xia, Zhichao; Korpelainen, Helena; Niinemets, Ulo; Li, Chunyang (2019)
    There is a limited understanding of the impacts of global warming on intra- and interspecific plant competition. Resolving this knowledge gap is important for predicting the potential influence of global warming on forests, particularly on high-altitude trees, which are more sensitive to warming. In the present study, effects of intra- and interspecific competition on plant growth and associated physiological, structural and chemical traits were investigated in Abies faxoniana and Picea purpurea seedlings under control (ambient temperature) and elevated temperature (ET, 2 degrees C above ambient temperature) conditions for 2 years. We found that A. faxoniana and P. purpurea grown under intra- and interspecific competition showed significant differences in dry matter accumulation (DMA), photosynthetic capacity, nutrient absorption, nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) contents and leaf ultrastructure under ET conditions. ET increased leaf, stem and root DMA of both conifers under both competition patterns. Moreover, under ET and interspecific competition, P. purpurea had overall superior competitive capacity characterized by higher organ (leaf, stem and root) and total DMA, height growth rate, net photosynthetic rate, specific leaf area, water use efficiency (delta C-13), leaf and root N and NSC concentrations and greater plasticity for absorption of different soil N forms. Thus, the growth of P. purpurea benefitted from the presence of A. faxoniana under ET. Our results demonstrated that ET significantly affects the asymmetric competition patterns in subalpine conifer species. Potential alteration of plant competitive interactions by global warming can influence the composition, structure and functioning of subalpine coniferous forests.
  • Loisel, J.; Loisel, J.; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Magnan, G.; Anshari, G.; Beilman, D. W.; Benavides, J. C.; Blewett, J.; Camill, P.; Charman, D. J.; Chawchai, S.; Hedgpeth, A.; Kleinen, T.; Korhola, Atte; Large, D.; Mansilla, C. A.; Muller, J.; van Bellen, S.; West, J. B.; Yu, Z.; Bubier, J. L.; Garneau, M.; Moore, T.; Sannel, A. B. K.; Page, S.; Väliranta, Minna; Bechtold, M.; Brovkin, Victor; Cole, L. E. S.; Chanton, J. P.; Christensen, T. R.; Davies, M. A.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Finkelstein, S. A.; Frolking, S.; Galka, M.; Gandois, L.; Girkin, N.; Harris, L.; Heinemeyer, A.; Hoyt, A. M.; Jones, M. C.; Joos, F.; Juutinen, Sari; Kaiser, K.; Lacourse, T.; Lamentowicz, M.; Larmola, T.; Leifeld, J.; Lohila, Annalea Katriina; Milner, A. M.; Minkkinen, Kari; Moss, P.; Naafs, B. D. A.; Nichols, J.; O'Donnell, J.; Payne, R.; Philben, M.; Piilo, Sanna; Quillet, A.; Ratnayake, A. S.; Roland, T. P.; Sjogersten, S.; Sonnentag, O.; Swindles, G. T.; Swinnen, W.; Talbot, J.; Treat, C.; Valach, A. C.; Wu, J. (2021)
    Peatlands are impacted by climate and land-use changes, with feedback to warming by acting as either sources or sinks of carbon. Expert elicitation combined with literature review reveals key drivers of change that alter peatland carbon dynamics, with implications for improving models. The carbon balance of peatlands is predicted to shift from a sink to a source this century. However, peatland ecosystems are still omitted from the main Earth system models that are used for future climate change projections, and they are not considered in integrated assessment models that are used in impact and mitigation studies. By using evidence synthesized from the literature and an expert elicitation, we define and quantify the leading drivers of change that have impacted peatland carbon stocks during the Holocene and predict their effect during this century and in the far future. We also identify uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the scientific community and provide insight towards better integration of peatlands into modelling frameworks. Given the importance of the contribution by peatlands to the global carbon cycle, this study shows that peatland science is a critical research area and that we still have a long way to go to fully understand the peatland-carbon-climate nexus.
  • Li, Junyu; Wu, Guoxi; Guo, Qingxue; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2018)
    There are significant differences in the morphological and physiological responses of larch species with contrasting growth rates under fertilization. However, little is known about species-specific differences in responses to nutrient imbalance caused by fertilization. Therefore, in this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on the morphological, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural traits of two contrasting larch species, fast-growing Larix kaempferi and slowly-growing L. olgensis, grown in larch plantation soil, were investigated during two growth seasons. It was shown that N and combined N and P (NP) fertilization increased plant photosynthesis, foliar N contents, chlorophyll contents, and dry mass accumulation and partitioning in aboveground organs in both larch species. Although P fertilization enhanced P accumulation, its presence reduced the N content in soluble proteins in the foliage of both larch species. Yet, P fertilization exhibited some differences in the two species: P fertilization increased photosynthesis, chlorophyll content and biomass accumulation of L. olgensis, while it decreased these parameters dramatically in L. kaempfert P fertilization increased foliar N content in L. olgensis, while it reduced it in L. kaempferi. P fertilized L. kaempferi had more damaged chloroplast ultrastructure than L. olgensis. In addition, L. kaempferi exhibited lower acid phosphatase activities, and higher photosynthesis and biomass accumulation than L. olgensis, except under P fertilization. L. kaempferi allocated more biomass into needles, except under P fertilization, while L. olgensis allocated more into stems under fertilization. In conclusion, it was shown that nutrient imbalance caused by P fertilization has greater negative effects on a fast-growing species than on a slowly-growing one, and the negative effects are related to differences in acclimation strategies, N partitioning to photosynthetic components, and P transportation and metabolism in the foliage.
  • Kivilä, Elissa Henriikka; Luoto, Tomi P.; Rantala, Marttiina V.; Nevalainen, Liisa (2020)
    High latitude freshwater systems are facing changes in catchment-mediated allochthonous input, as well as physical and chemical controls triggered by on-going climate change, which may alter their carbon processing and ecological characteristics. To explore changes in chironomid functional responses and carbon utilization in relation to longterm environmental change, we studied a sediment core covering ca. 2000 years from a tundra lake in northern Finland, which was analysed for sediment geochemistry, isotopic composition of chironomid remains and their functional assemblages. We aimed to relate changes in chironomid functional feeding assemblages and resource utilization, based on Bayesian stable isotope modelling, and determined that the long-term resource utilization was more controlled by sediment geochemistry (resource availability) and climatic variables, reflecting changes in habitat and lake ontogeny, rather than the functional feeding assemblage composition. Change horizons were observed for both sediment geochemistry and functional assemblage composition. However, different timing of these changes suggests different drivers affecting the dynamics of primary production and chironomid community functionality. We also compared the recent warming period to Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), observing divergent patterns, which suggests that MCA may not be a good analogue for changes induced by on-going climate warming.
  • Hari, Pertti; Aakala, Tuomas; Aalto, Juho; Back, Jaana; Hollmen, Jaakko; Jogiste, Kalev; Koupaei, Kourosh Kabiri; Kahkonen, Mika A.; Korpela, Mikko; Kulmala, Liisa; Nikinmaa, Eero; Pumpanen, Jukka; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja; Schiestl-Aalto, Pauliina; Simojoki, Asko; Havimo, Mikko (2017)
    Isaac Newton's approach to developing theories in his book Principia Mathematica proceeds in four steps. First, he defines various concepts, second, he formulates axioms utilising the concepts, third, he mathematically analyses the behaviour of the system defined by the concepts and axioms obtaining predictions and fourth, he tests the predictions with measurements. In this study, we formulated our theory of boreal forest ecosystems, called NewtonForest, following the four steps introduced by Newton. The forest ecosystem is a complicated entity and hence we needed altogether 27 concepts to describe the material and energy flows in the metabolism of trees, ground vegetation and microbes in the soil, and to describe the regularities in tree structure. Thirtyfour axioms described the most important features in the behaviour of the forest ecosystem. We utilised numerical simulations in the analysis of the behaviour of the system resulting in clear predictions that could be tested with field data. We collected retrospective time series of diameters and heights for test material from 6 stands in southern Finland and five stands in Estonia. The numerical simulations succeeded to predict the measured diameters and heights, providing clear corroboration with our theory.
  • Laine, A. M.; Selänpää, T.; Oksanen, J.; Sevakivi, M.; Tuittila, E-S (2018)
    During succession, plant species composition undergoes changes that may have implications for ecosystem functions. Here we aimed to study changes in plant species diversity, functional diversity and functional traits associated with mire development. We sampled vegetation from 22 mires on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Bothnia (west coast of Finland) that together represent seven different time steps along a mire chronosequence resulting from post-glacial rebound. This chronosequence spans a time period of almost 2500 years. Information about 15 traits of vascular plants and 17 traits of mosses was collected, mainly from two different databases. In addition to species richness and Shannon diversity index, we measured functional diversity and community weighted means of functional traits. We found that plant species diversity increased from the early succession stages towards the fen-bog transition. The latter stage also has the most diverse surface structure, consisting of pools and hummocks. Functional diversity increased linearly with species richness, suggesting a lack of functional redundancy during mire succession. On the other hand, Rao's quadratic entropy, another index of functional diversity, remained rather constant throughout the succession. The changes in functional traits indicate a trade-off between acquisitive and conservative strategies. The functional redundancy, i.e. the lack of overlap between similarly functioning species, may indicate that the resistance to environmental disturbances such as drainage or climate change does not change during mire succession. However, the trait trade-off towards conservative strategy, together with the developing microtopography of hummocks and hollows with strongly differing vegetation composition, could increase resistance during mire succession.
  • Maliniemi, Tuija; Happonen, Konsta; Virtanen, Risto (2019)
    Experimental evidence shows that site fertility is a key modulator underlying plant community changes under climate change. Communities on fertile sites, with species having fast dynamics, have been found to react more strongly to climate change than communities on infertile sites with slow dynamics. However, it is still unclear whether this generally applies to high-latitude plant communities in natural environments at broad spatial scales. We tested a hypothesis that vegetation of fertile sites experiences greater changes over several decades and thus would be more responsive under contemporary climate change compared to infertile sites that are expected to show more resistance. We resurveyed understorey communities (vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens) of four infertile and four fertile forest sites along a latitudinal bioclimatic gradient. Sites had remained outside direct human disturbance. We analyzed the magnitude of temporal community turnover, changes in the abundances of plant morphological groups and strategy classes, and changes in species diversity. In agreement with our hypothesis, temporal turnover of communities was consistently greater on fertile sites compared to infertile sites. However, our results suggest that the larger turnover of fertile communities is not primarily related to the direct effects of climatic warming. Furthermore, community changes in both fertile and infertile sites showed remarkable variation in terms of shares of plant functional groups and strategy classes and measures of species diversity. This further emphasizes the essential role of baseline environmental conditions and nonclimatic drivers underlying vegetation changes. Our results show that site fertility is a key determinant of the overall rate of high-latitude vegetation changes but the composition of plant communities in different ecological contexts is variously impacted by nonclimatic drivers over time.
  • Zoell, Undine; Bruemmer, Christian; Schrader, Frederik; Ammann, Christof; Ibrom, Andreas; Flechard, Christophe R.; Nelson, David D.; Zahniser, Mark; Kutsch, Werner L. (2016)
    Recent advances in laser spectrometry offer new opportunities to investigate ecosystem-atmosphere exchange of environmentally relevant trace gases. In this study, we demonstrate the applicability of a quantum cascade laser (QCL) absorption spectrometer to continuously measure ammonia concentrations at high time resolution and thus to quantify the net exchange between a seminatural peatland ecosystem and the atmosphere based on the eddy-covariance approach. Changing diurnal patterns of both ammonia concentration and fluxes were found during different periods of the campaign. We observed a clear tipping point in early spring with decreasing ammonia deposition velocities and increasingly bidirectional fluxes that occurred after the switch from dormant vegetation to CO2 uptake but was triggered by a significant weather change. While several biophysical parameters such as temperature, radiation, and surface wetness were identified to partially regulate ammonia exchange at the site, the seasonal concentration pattern was clearly dominated by agricultural practices in the surrounding area. Comparing the results of a compensation point model with our measurement-based flux estimates showed considerable differences in some periods of the campaign due to overestimation of non-stomatal resistances caused by low acid ratios. The total cumulative campaign exchange of ammonia after 9 weeks, however, differed only in a 6% deviation with 911 and 857 gNH(3)-N ha(-1) deposition being found by measurements and modeling, respectively. Extrapolating our findings to an entire year, ammonia deposition was lower than reported by Hurkuck et al. (2014) for the same site in previous years using denuder systems. This was likely due to a better representation of the emission component in the net signal of eddy-covariance fluxes as well as better adapted site-specific parameters in the model. Our study not only stresses the importance of high-quality measurements for studying and assessing land surface-atmosphere interactions but also demonstrates the potential of QCL spectrometers for continuous observation of reactive nitrogen species as important additional instruments within long-term monitoring research infrastructures such as ICOS or NEON at sites with strong nearby ammonia sources leading to relatively high mean background concentrations and fluxes.
  • Rantala, Marttiina V.; Luoto, Tomi P.; Nevalainen, Liisa (2016)
    Widespread ecological reorganizations and increases in organic carbon (OC) in lakes across the Northern Hemisphere have raised concerns about the impact of the ongoing climate warming on aquatic ecosystems and carbon cycling. We employed diverse biogeochemical techniques on a high-resolution sediment record from a subarctic lake in northern Finland (70 degrees N) to examine the direction, magnitude and mechanism of change in aquatic carbon pools prior to and under the anthropogenic warming. Coupled variation in the elemental and isotopic composition of the sediment and a proxy-based summer air temperature reconstruction tracked changes in aquatic production, depicting a decline during a cool climate interval between similar to 1700-1900 C.E. and a subsequent increase over the 20th century. OC accumulation rates displayed similar coeval variation with temperature, mirroring both changes in aquatic production and terrestrial carbon export. Increase in sediment organic content over the 20th century together with high inferred aquatic UV exposure imply that the 20th century increase in OC accumulation is primarily connected to elevated lake production rather than terrestrial inputs. The changes in the supply of autochthonous energy sources were further reflected higher up the benthic food web, as evidenced by biotic stable isotopic fingerprints.