Browsing by Subject "NIVOLUMAB"

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  • Kasanen, Henna; Hernberg, Micaela; Mäkelä, Siru; Brück, Oscar; Juteau, Susanna; Kohtamäki, Laura; Ilander, Mette; Mustjoki, Satu; Kreutzman, Anna (2020)
    Anti-PD1 treatment has improved the survival of metastatic melanoma patients, yet it is unknown which patients benefit from the treatment. In this exploratory study, we aimed to understand the effects of anti-PD1 therapy on the patients' immune system and discover the characteristics that would result in successful treatment. We collected peripheral blood (PB) samples from 17 immuno-oncology-naive metastatic melanoma patients before and after 1 and 3 months of anti-PD1 therapy. In addition, matching tumor biopsies at the time of diagnosis were collected for tissue microarray. The complete blood counts, PB immunophenotype, serum cytokine profiles, and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed and correlated with the clinical data. Patients were categorized based on their disease control into responders (complete response, partial response, stable disease > 6 months, N = 11) and non-responders (progressive disease, stable disease
  • Karihtala, Kristiina; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Chan, Fong Chun; Steidl, Christian; Pellinen, Teijo; Leppä, Sirpa (2022)
    Emerging evidence indicates a major impact for the tumor microenvironment (TME) and immune escape in the pathogenesis and clinical course of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). We used gene expression profiling (n = 88), CIBERSORT, and multiplex immunohistochemistry (n = 131) to characterize the immunoprofile of cHL TME and correlated the findings with survival. Gene expression analysis divided tumors into subgroups with T cell-inflamed and -noninflamed TME. Several macrophage-related genes were upregulated in samples with the non-T cell-inflamed TME, and based on the immune cell proportions, the samples clustered according to the content of T cells and macrophages. A cluster with high proportions of checkpoint protein (programmed cell death protein 1, PD-1 ligands, indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1, lymphocyte-activation gene 3, and T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain containing protein 3) positive immune cells translated to unfavorable overall survival (OS) (5-year OS 76% vs 96%; P = .010) and remained an independent prognostic factor for OS in multivariable analysis (HR, 4.34; 95% CI, 1.05-17.91; P = .043). cHL samples with high proportions of checkpoint proteins overexpressed genes coding for cytolytic factors, proposing paradoxically that they were immunologically active. This checkpoint molecule gene signature translated to inferior survival in a validation cohort of 290 diagnostic cHL samples (P < .001) and in an expan-sion cohort of 84 cHL relapse samples (P = .048). Our findings demonstrate the impact of T cell-and macrophage-mediated checkpoint system on the survival of patients with cHL.
  • Eggermont, Alexander MM; Meshcheryakov, Andrey; Atkinson, Victoria; Blank, Christian U.; Mandala, Mario; Long, Georgina V.; Barrow, Catherine; Di Giacomo, Anna Maria; Fisher, Rosalie; Sandhu, Shahneen; Kudchadkar, Ragini; Ortiz Romero, Pablo Luis; Svane, Inge Marie; Larkin, James; Puig, Susana; Hersey, Peter; Quaglino, Pietro; Queirolo, Paola; Stroyakovskiy, Daniil; Bastholt, Lars; Mohr, Peter; Hernberg, Micaela; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Strother, Matthew; Hauschild, Axel; Yamazaki, Naoya; van Akkooi, Alexander CJ; Lorigan, Paul; Krepler, Clemens; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Marreaud, Sandrine; Kicinski, Michal; Suciu, Stefan; Robert, Caroline (2021)
    Background: In the phase III double-blind European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 1325/KEYNOTE-054 trial, pembrolizumab improved recurrence-free and distant metastasis-free survival in patients with stage III cutaneous melanoma with complete resection of lymph nodes. In the pembrolizumab group, the incidence of grade I–V and of grade III–V immune-related adverse events (irAEs) was 37% and 7%, respectively. Methods: Patients were randomised to receive intravenous (i.v.) pembrolizumab 200 mg (N = 514) or placebo (N = 505) every 3 weeks, up to 1 year. On recurrence, patients could enter part 2 of the study: pembrolizumab 200 mg i.v. every 3 weeks up to 2 years, for crossover (those who received placebo) or rechallenge (those who had recurrence ≥6 months after completing 1-year adjuvant pembrolizumab therapy). For these patients, we present the safety profile and efficacy outcomes. Results: At the clinical cut-off (16-Oct-2020), in the placebo group, 298 patients had a disease recurrence, in which 155 (52%) crossed over (‘crossover’). In the pembrolizumab group, 297 patients completed the 1-year treatment period; 47 had a recurrence ≥6 months later, in which 20 (43%) entered the rechallenge part 2 (‘rechallenge’). In the crossover group, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 8.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.7–15.2) and the 3-year PFS rate was 32% (95% CI 25–40%). Among 80 patients with stage IV evaluable disease, 31 (39%) had an objective response: 14 (18%) patients with complete response (CR) and 17 (21%) patients with partial response. The 2-year PFS rate from response was 69% (95% CI 48–83%). In the rechallenge group, the median PFS was 4.1 months (95% CI 2.6–NE). Among 9 patients with stage IV evaluable disease, 1 had an objective response (CR). Among the 175 patients, 51 (29%) had a grade I–IV irAE and 11 (6%) had a grade III–IV irAE. Conclusions: Pembrolizumab treatment after crossover yielded an overall 3-year PFS rate of 32% and a 39% ORR in evaluable patients, but the efficacy (11% ORR) was lower in those rechallenged.
  • Iivanainen, Sanna; Ahvonen, Jarkko; Knuuttila, Aija; Tiainen, Satu; Koivunen, Jussi Pekka (2019)
    Background Anti-PD-(L)1 agents are standard of care treatments in various cancers but predictive factors for therapy selection are limited. We hypothesised that markers of systemic inflammation would predict adverse outcomes in multiple cancers treated with anti-PD-(L)1 agents. Material and methods Discovery cohort consisted of patients who were treated with anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) agents for advanced melanoma (MEL), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or renal and bladder cancers (GU) at Oulu University Hospital and had pretreatment C reactive protein (CRP), or neutrophil/lymphocyte values available. As a validation cohort, we collected patients treated with anti-PD-1 agents from three other hospitals in Finland. Results In the discovery cohort (n=56, MEL n=23, GU n=17, NSCLC n=16), elevated CRP over the upper limit of normal (ULN) (>10mg/mL) indicated poor progression-free (PFS; p=0.005) and overall survival (OS; p=0.000004) in the whole population and in MEL subgroup. Elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (>2.65) also indicated inferior PFS (p=0.02) and OS (p=0.009). In the validation cohort (n=107,MEL n=44, NSCLC n=42, GU n=17, other n=4), CRP over ULN also was a strong indicator for poor PFS (p=0.0000008), and OS (p=0.000006) in the whole population, and in MEL and NSCLC also. Conclusions Systemic inflammation suggested by elevated CRP is a very strong indicator for adverse prognosis on patients treated with anti-PD-(L)1 agents and has a potential negative predictive value for treatment with anti-PD-(L)1 agents. Prospective trials should investigate whether patients with elevated CRP gain any significant benefit from anti-PD-1 therapy.
  • Karhapää, Hanna; Mäkelä, Siru; Lauren, Hanna; Jaakkola, Marjut; Schalin-Jäntti, Camilla; Hernberg, Micaela (2022)
    Objective: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) can cause endocrine adverse events. However, endocrine AEs could be related to better treatment outcomes. Our aim was to investigate whether this holds true in a real-world setting of metastatic melanoma patients. Design: A retrospective single-institution study. Methods: We included 140 consecutive metastatic melanoma patients treated with ICI between January 2012 and May 2019. We assessed the endocrine toxicity and the best possible treatment outcomes from electronic patient records, including laboratory parameters and radiological images. Results: Of the treated patients, 21 patients (15%) were treated with ipilimumab, 46 (33%) with nivolumab, 67 (48%) with pembrolizumab, and 6 (4%) with combination therapy (ipilimumab + nivolumab). Endocrine AEs appeared in 29% (41/140) patients. Three patients had two different endocrine AEs. Thyroid disorders were the most common: 26% (36/140), followed by hypophysitis: 4% (5/140). Three subjects (2%, 3/140) were diagnosed with autoimmune diabetes. Three patients had to terminate treatment due to endocrine toxicity. Radiological manifestations of endocrine AEs were found in 16 patients (39%, 16/41). Endocrine toxicity was associated with significantly better treatment outcomes. Median progression-free survival (8.1 months, range 5.1-11.1 months vs 2.7 months, range 2.4-3.0 months, P < 0.001), and median overall survival (47.5 months, range 15.5-79.5 months vs 23.7 months, range 15.3-32.1 months, P = 0.035) were longer for patients experiencing endocrine AEs. Conclusions: The higher number of endocrine AEs suggest that regular laboratory monitoring aids in AE detection. Endocrine AEs in metastatic melanoma may correlate with better treatment outcomes.
  • Vesterinen, Tiina; Kuopio, Teijo; Ahtiainen, Maarit; Knuuttila, Aija; Mustonen, Harri; Salmenkivi, Kaisa; Arola, Johanna; Haglund, Caj (2019)
    Pulmonary carcinoid (PC) tumors are rare tumors that account for approximately 1% of all lung cancers. The primary treatment option is surgery, while there is no standard treatment for metastatic disease. As the number of PCs diagnosed yearly is increasing, there is a need to establish novel therapeutic options. This study aimed to investigate programmed death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in PC tumors since blocking of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is a promising therapeutic option in various other malignancies. A total of 168 PC patients treated between 1990 and 2013 were collected from the Finnish biobanks. After re-evaluation of the tumors, 131 (78%) were classified as typical carcinoid (TC) and 37 (22%) as atypical carcinoid (AC) tumors. Primary tumor samples were immunohistochemically labeled for PD-1, PD-L1 and CD8. High PD-1 expression was detected in 16% of the tumors. PD-L1 expression was detected in 7% of TC tumors; all AC tumors were PD-L1 negative. PD-L1 expression was associated with mediastinal lymph-node metastasis at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.021) as well as overall metastatic potential of the tumor (P = 0.010). Neither PD-1 expression, PD-L1 expression nor CD8(+) T cell density was associated with survival. In conclusion, PD-1 and PD-L1 were expressed in a small proportion of PC tumors and PD-L1 expression was associated with metastatic disease. Targeting of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with immune checkpoint inhibitors may thus offer a treatment option for a subset of PC patients.
  • KEYNOTE-189 Investigators; Gandhi, L.; Myllärniemi, Marjukka (2018)
    BACKGROUND First-line therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial. METHODS In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2: 1 ratio) 616 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK mutations who had received no previous treatment for metastatic disease to receive pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug plus either 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab or placebo for up to a total of 35 cycles plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab monotherapy was permitted among the patients in the placebo-combination group who had verified disease progression. The primary end points were overall survival and progression-free survival, as assessed by blinded, independent central radiologic review. RESULTS After a median follow-up of 10.5 months, the estimated rate of overall survival at 12 months was 69.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 64.1 to 73.8) in the pembrolizumab-combination group versus 49.4% (95% CI, 42.1 to 56.2) in the placebocombination group (hazard ratio for death, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001). Improvement in overall survival was seen across all PD-L1 categories that were evaluated. Median progression-free survival was 8.8 months (95% CI, 7.6 to 9.2) in the pembrolizumab-combination group and 4.9 months (95% CI, 4.7 to 5.5) in the placebo-combination group (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.64; P<0.001). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 67.2% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-combination group and in 65.8% of those in the placebo-combination group. CONCLUSIONS In patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without EGFR or ALK mutations, the addition of pembrolizumab to standard chemotherapy of pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone.
  • Karihtala, Kristiina; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Brück, Oscar; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Mustjoki, Satu; Pellinen, Teijo; Leppä, Sirpa (2020)
    Tumor microenvironment and immune escape affect pathogenesis and survival in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). While tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) content has been associated with poor outcomes, macrophage-derived determinants with clinical impact have remained undefined. Here, we have used multiplex immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis to characterize TAM immunophenotypes with regard to expression of checkpoint molecules programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO-1) from the diagnostic tumor tissue samples of 130 cHL patients, and correlated the findings with clinical characteristics and survival. We show that a large proportion of TAMs express PD-L1 (CD68(+), median 32%; M2 type CD163(+), median 22%), whereas the proportion of TAMs expressing IDO-1 is lower (CD68(+), median 5.5%; CD163(+), median 1.4%). A high proportion of PD-L1 and IDO-1 expressing TAMs from all TAMs (CD68(+)), or from CD163(+) TAMs, is associated with inferior outcome. In multivariate analysis with age and stage, high proportions of PD-L1(+) and IDO-1(+) TAMs remain independent prognostic factors for freedom from treatment failure (PD-L1(+)CD68(+)/CD68(+), HR = 2.63, 95% CI 1.17-5.88, p = 0.019; IDO-1(+)CD68(+)/CD68(+), HR = 2.48, 95% CI 1.03-5.95, p = 0.042). In contrast, proportions of PD-L1(+) tumor cells, all TAMs or PD-L1(-) and IDO-1(-) TAMs are not associated with outcome. The findings implicate that adverse prognostic impact of TAMs is checkpoint-dependent in cHL.
  • Ålgars, Annika; Kemppinen, Lotta; Fair-Mäkelä, Ruth; Mustonen, Harri; Haglund, Caj; Jalkanen, Sirpa (2021)
    Simple Summary Tumor-associated macrophages can either promote or prevent cancer growth depending on factors such as macrophage polarization status, tumor type, and disease stage. Macrophages and vessels interact with each other, and the number of lymphatic vessels also affects cancer survival. CLEVER-1 is a protein expressed both on immunosuppressive M2 macrophages and lymphatic vessels. The aim of this study was to validate our previous results regarding the prognostic role of CLEVER-1(+) macrophages, CD68(+) macrophages, and CLEVER-1(+) lymphatic vessels in stage I-IV colorectal cancer. The results indicate that the prognostic role of tumor-associated macrophages and lymphatic vessels changes during disease progression. The findings resemble our earlier results, but are not completely equal, which may be due to the different types of tumor samples used in the two studies (whole section vs. tissue microarray). Macrophages, which are key players in the tumor microenvironment and affect the prognosis of many cancers, interact with lymphatic vessels in tumor tissue. However, the prognostic role of tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) and lymphatic vessels in human colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. We investigated the prognostic role of CD68(+) and CLEVER-1(+) (common lymphatic endothelial and vascular endothelial receptor 1) TAMs in addition to CLEVER-1(+) lymphatic vessels in 498 stage I-IV CRC patients. The molecular markers were detected by immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. The results showed that, in early stage I CRC and in young patients (age below median,