Browsing by Subject "NK cell"

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  • Lee, Moon Hee (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Cancer immunotherapy has advanced with the introduction of anti-PD-1 therapy. Anti-PD-1 therapy blocks the inhibitory immune checkpoint receptor PD-1, and allows T cells to regain their cytotoxic potentials in response to cancerous cells. Amongst the cytotoxic lymphocytes other than T cells, natural killer (NK) cells have not been fully explored regarding anti-PD-1 treatment. With this in mind, our aim was to characterize the immunophenotype of the immune cells in patients diagnosed with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and separate their corresponding tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). Altogether, we analyzed the immunophenotype of the T and NK cells and RCC tumor cells from 13 RCC patients using flow cytometry. In addition, we tested the function of NK cells against RCC cells using various cell line models (NK-92 and RCC cell lines), and monitored the cytotoxicity in real time using a cell impedance assay. Based on the results, we suggest that patients diagnosed with RCC possess unique immune profiles depending on the individual, but also share characteristics regarding the tumor. In addition, NK cells have the potential to activate a cytotoxic response to RCC cells. By phenotyping the TILs, potential novel biomarkers for immuno-oncological (IO) therapy could be detected, which could aid in determining which patients would most likely benefit from immunological therapies such as anti-PD-1 treatment.
  • Hirvinen, Mari; Heiskanen, Raita; Oksanen, Minna; Pesonen, Saila; Liikanen, Ilkka; Joensuu, Timo; Kanerva, Anna; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Hemminki, Akseli (2013)
  • Eränkö, Elina; Ilander, Mette; Tuomiranta, Mirja; Mäkitie, Antti; Lassila, Tea; Kreutzman, Anna; Klemetti, Paula; Mustjoki, Satu; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Ranki, Annamari (2018)
    BackgroundNetherton syndrome (NS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome caused by SPINK5 mutations leading to a skin barrier defect and a severe atopic diathesis. NS patients are prone to bacterial infections, but the understanding of the underlying immune deficiency is incomplete.ResultsWe analyzed blood lymphocyte phenotypes and function in relation to clinical infections in 11 Finnish NS patients, aged 3 to 17years, and healthy age-matched controls. The proportion of B cells (CD19(+)) and naive B cells (CD27(-), IgD(+)) were high while memory B cells (CD27(+)) and switched memory B cells (CD27(+)IgM(-)IgD(-)), crucial for the secondary response to pathogens, was below or in the lowest quartile of the reference values in 8/11 (73%) and 9/11 (82%) patients, respectively. The proportion of activated non-differentiated B cells (CD21(low), CD38l(ow)) was below or in the lowest quartile of the reference values in 10/11 (91%) patients. Despite normal T cell counts, the proportion of naive CD4(+) T cells was reduced significantly and the proportion of CD8(+) T central memory significantly elevated. An increased proportion of CD57(+) CD8(+) T cells indicated increased differentiation potential of the T cells. The proportion of cytotoxic NK cells was elevated in NS patients in phenotypic analysis based on CD56DIM, CD16(+) and CD27(-) NK cells but in functional analysis, decreased expression of CD107a/b indicated impaired cytotoxicity.The T and NK cell phenotype seen in NS patients also significantly differed from that of age-matched atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, indicating a distinctive profile in NS. The frequency of skin infections correlated with the proportion of CD62L(+) T cells, naive CD4(+) and CD27(+) CD8(+) T cells and with activated B cells. Clinically beneficial intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) increased naive T cells and terminal differentiated effector memory CD8(+) cells and decreased the proportion of activated B cells and plasmablasts in three patients studied.ConclusionsThis study shows novel quantitative and functional aberrations in several lymphocyte subpopulations, which correlate with the frequency of infections in patients with Netherton syndrome. IVIG therapy normalized some dysbalancies and was clinically beneficial.
  • Eränkö, Elina; Ilander, Mette; Tuomiranta, Mirja; Mäkitie, Antti; Lassila, Tea; Kreutzman, Anna; Klemetti, Paula; Mustjoki, Satu; Hannula-Jouppi, Katariina; Ranki, Annamari (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Netherton syndrome (NS) is a rare life-threatening syndrome caused by SPINK5 mutations leading to a skin barrier defect and a severe atopic diathesis. NS patients are prone to bacterial infections, but the understanding of the underlying immune deficiency is incomplete. Results We analyzed blood lymphocyte phenotypes and function in relation to clinical infections in 11 Finnish NS patients, aged 3 to 17 years, and healthy age-matched controls. The proportion of B cells (CD19+) and naïve B cells (CD27−, IgD+) were high while memory B cells (CD27+) and switched memory B cells (CD27+IgM−IgD−), crucial for the secondary response to pathogens, was below or in the lowest quartile of the reference values in 8/11 (73%) and 9/11 (82%) patients, respectively. The proportion of activated non-differentiated B cells (CD21low, CD38low) was below or in the lowest quartile of the reference values in 10/11 (91%) patients. Despite normal T cell counts, the proportion of naïve CD4+ T cells was reduced significantly and the proportion of CD8+ T central memory significantly elevated. An increased proportion of CD57+ CD8+ T cells indicated increased differentiation potential of the T cells. The proportion of cytotoxic NK cells was elevated in NS patients in phenotypic analysis based on CD56DIM, CD16+ and CD27− NK cells but in functional analysis, decreased expression of CD107a/b indicated impaired cytotoxicity. The T and NK cell phenotype seen in NS patients also significantly differed from that of age-matched atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, indicating a distinctive profile in NS. The frequency of skin infections correlated with the proportion of CD62L+ T cells, naïve CD4+ and CD27+ CD8+ T cells and with activated B cells. Clinically beneficial intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIG) increased naïve T cells and terminal differentiated effector memory CD8+ cells and decreased the proportion of activated B cells and plasmablasts in three patients studied. Conclusions This study shows novel quantitative and functional aberrations in several lymphocyte subpopulations, which correlate with the frequency of infections in patients with Netherton syndrome. IVIG therapy normalized some dysbalancies and was clinically beneficial.
  • Lee, Moon Hee; Järvinen, Petrus; Nisen, Harry; Brück, Oscar; Ilander, Mette; Uski, Ilona; Theodoropoulos, Jason; Kankainen, Matti; Mirtti, Tuomas; Mustjoki, Satu; Kreutzman, Anna (2022)
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is considered as an immunogenic cancer. Because not all patients respond to current immunotherapies, we aimed to investigate the immunological heterogeneity of RCC tumors. We analyzedthe immunophenotype of the circulating, tumor, and matching adjacent healthy kidney immune cells from 52 nephrectomy patients with multi-parameter flow cytometry. Additionally, we studied the transcriptomic and mutation profiles of 20 clear cell RCC (ccRCC) tumors with bulk RNA sequencing and a customized pan-cancer gene panel. The tumor samples clustered into two distinct subgroups defined by the abundance of intratumoral CD3+ T cells (CD3(high), 25/52) and NK cells (NKhigh, 27/52). CD3(high) tumors had an overall higher frequency of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and PD-1 expression on the CD8+ T cells compared to NKhigh tumors. The tumor infiltrating T and NK cells had significantly elevated expression levels of LAG-3, PD-1, and HLA-DR compared to the circulating immune cells. Transcriptomic analysis revealed increased immune signaling (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha via NF-kappa B, and T cell receptor signaling) and kidney metabolism pathways in the CD3(high) subgroup. Genomic analysis confirmed the typical ccRCC mutation profile including VHL, PBRM1, and SETD2 mutations, and revealed PBRM1 as a uniquely mutated gene in the CD3(high) subgroup. Approximately half of the RCC tumors have a high infiltration of NK cells associated with a lower number of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes, lower PD-1 expression, a distinct transcriptomic and mutation profile, providing insights to the immunological heterogeneity of RCC which may impact treatment responses to immunological therapies.