Browsing by Subject "NONCODING RNAS"

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  • Piran, Mehran; Karbalaei, Reza; Piran, Mehrdad; Aldahdooh, Jehad; Mirzaie, Mehdi; Ansari-Pour, Naser; Tang, Jing; Jafari, Mohieddin (2020)
    Studying relationships among gene products by expression profile analysis is a common approach in systems biology. Many studies have generalized the outcomes to the different levels of central dogma information flow and assumed a correlation of transcript and protein expression levels. However, the relation between the various types of interaction (i.e., activation and inhibition) of gene products to their expression profiles has not been widely studied. In fact, looking for any perturbation according to differentially expressed genes is the common approach, while analyzing the effects of altered expression on the activity of signaling pathways is often ignored. In this study, we examine whether significant changes in gene expression necessarily lead to dysregulated signaling pathways. Using four commonly used and comprehensive databases, we extracted all relevant gene expression data and all relationships among directly linked gene pairs. We aimed to evaluate the ratio of coherency or sign consistency between the expression level as well as the causal relationships among the gene pairs. Through a comparison with random unconnected gene pairs, we illustrate that the signaling network is incoherent, and inconsistent with the recorded expression profile. Finally, we demonstrate that, to infer perturbed signaling pathways, we need to consider the type of relationships in addition to gene-product expression data, especially at the transcript level. We assert that identifying enriched biological processes via differentially expressed genes is limited when attempting to infer dysregulated pathways.
  • Rinne, Sanni J.; Sipilä, Lauri J.; Sulo, Päivi; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Beziat, Vivien; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Parvaneh, Nima; Balighi, Kamran; Guttman-Yassky, Emma; Sarid, Ronit; Aaltonen, Lauri A.; Aavikko, Mervi (2019)
    Familial clustering of classic Kaposi sarcoma (CKS) is rare with, approximately 100 families reported to date. We studied 2 consanguineous families, 1 Iranian and 1 Israeli, with multiple cases of adult CKS and without overt underlying immunodeficiency. We performed genome-wide linkage analysis and whole-genome sequencing to discover the putative genetic cause for predisposition. A 9-kb homozygous intronic deletion in RP11-259O2.1 in the Iranian family and 2 homozygous variants, 1 in SCUBE2 and the other in CDHR5, in the Israeli family were identified as possible candidates. The presented variants provide a robust starting point for validation in independent samples.
  • Lazaro-Ibanez, Elisa; Lunavat, Taral R.; Jang, Su Chul; Escobedo-Lucea, Carmen; Oliver-De La Cruz, Jorge; Siljander, Pia; Lotvall, Jan; Yliperttula, Marjo (2017)
    Background: Multiple types of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles (MVs) and exosomes (EXOs), are released by all cells constituting part of the cellular EV secretome. The bioactive cargo of EVs can be shuffled between cells and consists of lipids, metabolites, proteins, and nucleic acids, including multiple RNA species from non-coding RNAs to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). In this study, we hypothesized that the mRNA cargo of EVs could differ based on the EV cellular origin and subpopulation analyzed. Methods: We isolated MVs and EXOs from PC-3 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells by differential centrifugation and compared them to EVs derived from the benign PNT2 prostate cells. The relative mRNA levels of 84 prostate cancer-related genes were investigated and validated using quantitative reverse transcription PCR arrays. Results: Based on the mRNA abundance, MVs rather than EXOs were enriched in the analyzed transcripts, providing a snapshot of the tumor transcriptome. LNCaP MVs specifically contained significantly increased mRNA levels of NK3 Homeobox 1 (NKX3-1), transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), and tumor protein 53 (TP53) genes, whereas PC-3 MVs carried increased mRNA levels of several genes including, caveolin-2 (CAV2), glutathione S-transferase pi 1 (GSTP1), pescadillo ribosomal biogenesis factor 1 (PES1), calmodulin regulated spectrin associated protein 1 (CAMSAP1), zinc-finger protein 185 (ZNF185), and others compared to PNT2 MVs. Additionally, ETS variant 1 (ETV1) and fatty acid synthase (FASN) mRNAs identified in LNCaP-and PC-3-derived MVs highly correlated with prostate cancer progression. Conclusions: Our study provides new understandings of the variability of the mRNA cargo of MVs and EXOs from different cell lines despite same cancer origin, which is essential to better understand the the proportion of the cell transcriptome that can be detected within EVs and to evaluate their role in disease diagnosis.
  • Li, Qing; Wojciechowski, Robert; Simpson, Claire L.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Hoehn, Rene; Vitart, Veronique; Hewitt, Alex W.; Oexle, Konrad; Makela, Kari-Matti; MacGregor, Stuart; Pirastu, Mario; Fan, Qiao; Cheng, Ching-Yu; St Pourcain, Beat; McMahon, George; Kemp, John P.; Northstone, Kate; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Sanfilippo, Paul G.; Lu, Yi; Wang, Ya Xing; Hayward, Caroline; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Bencic, Goran; Wright, Alan F.; Wedenoja, Juho; Zeller, Tanja; Schillert, Arne; Mirshahi, Alireza; Lackner, Karl; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K. H.; Ried, Janina S.; Gieger, Christian; Murgia, Federico; Wilson, James F.; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Amin, Najaf; Karssen, Lennart; Oostra, Ben A.; Zhou, Xin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Tai, E. Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Barathi, Veluchamy; Zheng, Yingfeng; Siantar, Rosalynn Grace; Neelam, Kumari; Shin, Youchan; Lam, Janice; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Venturini, Cristina; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Lehtimaki, Terho; Kahonen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Evans, David M.; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L.; Mitchell, Paul; Klein, Barbara; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Meitinger, Thomas; Jonas, Jost B.; Baird, Paul N.; Mackey, David A.; Wong, Tien Yin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Parssinen, Olavi; Stambolian, Dwight; Hammond, Christopher J.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Williams, Cathy; Paterson, Andrew D.; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; CREAM Consortium (2015)
  • Sork, Helena; Corso, Giulia; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Johansson, Henrik J.; Nordin, Joel Z.; Wiklander, Oscar P. B.; Lee, Yi Xin Fiona; Westholm, Jakub Orzechowski; Lehtiö, Janne; Wood, Matthew J. A.; Mager, Imre; El Andaloussi, Samir (2018)
    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) mediate cell-to-cell communication by delivering or displaying macromolecules to their recipient cells. While certain broad-spectrum EV effects reflect their protein cargo composition, others have been attributed to individual EV-loaded molecules such as specific miRNAs. In this work, we have investigated the contents of vesicular cargo using small RNA sequencing of cells and EVs from HEK293T, RD4, C2C12, Neuro2a and C17.2. The majority of RNA content in EVs (49-96%) corresponded to rRNA-, coding-and tRNA fragments, corroborating with our proteomic analysis of HEK293T and C2C12 EVs which showed an enrichment of ribosome and translation-related proteins. On the other hand, the overall proportion of vesicular small RNA was relatively low and variable (2-39%) and mostly comprised of miRNAs and sequences mapping to piRNA loci. Importantly, this is one of the few studies, which systematically links vesicular RNA and protein cargo of vesicles. Our data is particularly useful for future work in unravelling the biological mechanisms underlying vesicular RNA and protein sorting and serves as an important guide in developing EVs as carriers for RNA therapeutics.
  • Aure, Miriam Ragle; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Fleischer, Thomas; Zhu, Qian; Overgaard, Jens; Alsner, Jan; Tramm, Trine; Louhimo, Riku; Alnaes, Grethe I. Grenaker; Perala, Merja; Busato, Florence; Touleimat, Nizar; Tost, Joerg; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Troyanskaya, Olga G.; Lingjaerde, Ole Christian; Sahlberg, Kristine Kleivi; Kristensen, Vessela N. (2013)
  • Wang, Xiao-Jun; Gao, Jing; Yu, Qin; Zhang, Min; Hu, Wei-Dong (2022)
    BackgroundThe competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network-mediated regulatory mechanisms in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) remain largely unknown. This study aimed to integrate multi-omics profiles, including the transcriptome, regulome, genome and pharmacogenome profiles, to elucidate prioritised ceRNA characteristics, pathways and drug candidates in SCLC. MethodWe determined the plasma messenger RNA (mRNA), microRNA (miRNA), long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and circular RNA (circRNA) expression levels using whole-transcriptome sequencing technology in our SCLC plasma cohort. Significantly expressed plasma mRNAs were then overlapped with the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) tissue mRNA data (GSE 40275, SCLC tissue cohort). Next, we applied a multistep multi-omics (transcriptome, regulome, genome and pharmacogenome) integration analysis to first construct the network and then to identify the lncRNA/circRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA characteristics, genomic alterations, pathways and drug candidates in SCLC. ResultsThe multi-omics integration-based prioritisation of SCLC ceRNA regulatory networks consisted of downregulated mRNAs (CSF3R/GAA), lncRNAs (AC005005.4-201/DLX6-AS1-201/NEAT1-203) and circRNAs (hsa_HLA-B_1/hsa_VEGFC_8) as well as upregulated miRNAs (hsa-miR-4525/hsa-miR-6747-3p). lncRNAs (lncRNA-AC005005.4-201 and NEAT1-203) and circRNAs (circRNA-hsa_HLA-B_1 and hsa_VEGFC_8) may regulate the inhibited effects of hsa-miR-6747-3p for CSF3R expression in SCLC, while lncRNA-DLX6-AS1-201 or circRNA-hsa_HLA-B_1 may neutralise the negative regulation of hsa-miR-4525 for GAA in SCLC. CSF3R and GAA were present in the genomic alteration, and further identified as targets of FavId and Trastuzumab deruxtecan, respectively. In the SCLC-associated pathway analysis, CSF3R was involved in the autophagy pathways, while GAA was involved in the glucose metabolism pathways. ConclusionsWe identified potential lncRNA/cirRNA-miRNA-mRNA ceRNA regulatory mechanisms, pathways and promising drug candidates in SCLC, providing novel potential diagnostics and therapeutic targets in SCLC.
  • Levanova, Alesia; Lampi, Mirka; Kalke, Kiira; Hukkanen, Veijo; Poranen, Minna; Eskelin , Katri (2022)
    RNA molecules provide promising new possibilities for the prevention and treatment of viral infections and diseases. The rapid development of RNA biology and medicine requires advanced methods for the purification of RNA molecules, which allow fast and efficient RNA processing, preferably under non-denaturing conditions. Asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) enables gentle separation and purification of macromolecules based on their diffusion coefficients. The aim of the study was to develop an AF4 method for efficient purification of enzymatically produced antiviral small interfering (si)RNA molecules and to evaluate the overall potential of AF4 in the separation of short single-stranded (ss) and double-stranded (ds) RNA molecules. We show that AF4 separates monomeric ssRNA from dsRNA molecules of the same size and monomeric ssRNA from multimeric forms of the same ssRNA. The developed AF4 method enabled the separation of enzymatically produced 27-nt siRNAs from partially digested substrate dsRNA, which is potentially toxic for mammalian cells. The recovery of AF4-purified enzymatically produced siRNA molecules was about 70%, which is about 20% higher than obtained using anion-exchange chromatography. The AF4-purified siRNAs were not toxic for mammalian cells and fully retained their biological activity as confirmed by efficient inhibition of herpes simplex virus 1 replication in cell culture. Our work is the first to develop AF4 methods for the separation of short RNA molecules.
  • Es-Haghi, Masoumeh; Godakumara, Kasun; Haling, Annika; Lattekivi, Freddy; Lavrits, Arina; Viil, Janeli; Andronowska, Aneta; Nafee, Tamer; James, Victoria; Jaakma, Ülle; Salumets, Andres; Fazeli, Alireza (2019)
    Background Successful establishment of pregnancy hinges on appropriate communication between the embryo and the uterus prior to implantation, but the nature of this communication remains poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the endometrium is receptive to embryo-derived signals in the form of RNA. Methods We have utilized a non-contact co culture system to simulate the conditions of pre implantation environment of the uterus. We bioorthogonally tagged embryonic RNA and tracked the transferred transcripts to endometrium. Transferred transcripts were separated from endometrial transcripts and sequenced. Changes in endometrial transcripts were quantified using quantitative PCR. Results We show that three specific transcripts are transferred to endometrial cells. We subsequently demonstrate a role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in this process, as EVs obtained from cultured trophoblast spheroids incubated with endometrial cells induced down-regulation of all the three identified transcripts in endometrial cells. Finally, we show that EVs/nanoparticles captured from conditioned culture media of viable embryos as opposed to degenerating embryos induce ZNF81 down-regulation in endometrial cells, hinting at the functional importance of this intercellular communication. Conclusion Ultimately, our findings demonstrate the existence of an RNA-based communication which may be of critical importance for the establishment of pregnancy.
  • Sablok, Gaurav; Yang, Kun; Chen, Rui; Wen, Xiaopeng (2017)
    Among several smallRNAs classes, microRNAs play an important role in controlling the post-transcriptional events. Next generation sequencing has played a major role in extending the landscape of miRNAs and revealing their spatio-temporal roles in development and abiotic stress. Lateral evolution of these smallRNAs classes have widely been seen with the recently emerging knowledge on tRNA derived smallRNAs. In the present perspective, we discussed classification, identification and roles of tRNA derived smallRNAs across plants and their potential involvement in abiotic and biotic stresses.
  • Barreiro, Karina; Holthofer, Harry (2017)
    Proteomic and genomic techniques have reached full maturity and are providing unforeseen details for the comprehensive understanding of disease pathologies at a fraction of previous costs. However, for kidney diseases, many gaps in such information remain to inhibit major advances in the prevention, treatment and diagnostics of these devastating diseases, which have enormous global impact. The discovery of ubiquitous extracellular vesicles (EV) in all bodily fluids is rapidly increasing the fundamental knowledge of disease mechanisms and the ways in which cells communicate with distant locations in processes of cancer spread, immunological regulation, barrier functions and general modulation of cellular activity. In this review, we describe some of the most prominent research streams and findings utilizing urinary extracellular vesicles as highly versatile and dynamic tools with their extraordinary protein and small regulatory RNA species. While being a highly promising approach, the relatively young field of EV research suffers from a lack of adherence to strict standardization and carefully scrutinized methods for obtaining fully reproducible results. With the appropriate guidelines and standardization achieved, urine is foreseen as forming a unique, robust and easy route for determining accurate and personalized disease signatures and as providing highly useful early biomarkers of the disease pathology of the kidney and beyond.