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  • Brauner, Tomas; Tenkanen, Tuomas V. I.; Tranberg, Anders; Vuorinen, Aleksi; Weir, David J. (2017)
    We derive an effective dimensionally reduced theory for the Standard Model augmented by a real singlet scalar. We treat the singlet as a superheavy field and integrate it out, leaving an effective theory involving only the Higgs and SU(2)(L) x U(1)(y) gauge fields, identical to the one studied previously for the Standard Model. This opens up the possibility of efficiently computing the order and strength of the electroweak phase transition, numerically and nonperturbatively, in this extension of the Standard Model. Understanding the phase diagram is crucial for models of electroweak baryogenesis and for studying the production of gravitational waves at thermal phase transitions.
  • D'Onofrio, Michela; Rummukainen, Kari (2016)
    With the physical Higgs mass the standard model symmetry restoration phase transition is a smooth cross-over. We study the thermodynamics of the cross-over using numerical lattice Monte Carlo simulations of an effective SU(2) x U(1) gauge + Higgs theory, significantly improving on previously published results. We measure the Higgs field expectation value, thermodynamic quantities like pressure, energy density, speed of sound and heat capacity, and screening masses associated with the Higgs and Z fields. While the cross-over is smooth, it is very well defined with a width of only similar to 5 GeV. We measure the cross-over temperature from the maximum of the susceptibility of the Higgs condensate, with the result T-c = 159.5 +/- 1.5 GeV. Outside of the narrow cross-over region the perturbative results agree well with nonperturbative ones.