Browsing by Subject "NORMS"

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  • Salonen, Anne H.; Castren, Sari; Raisamo, Susanna; Orford, Jim; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli (2014)
    Background: Attitudes towards gambling influence gambling behaviour but also reflect the existing gambling policy in a society. However, studies examining general attitudes towards gambling at the population level are scarce. The first aim of this study was to investigate general attitudes of the Finnish population towards gambling. The second aim was to explore the association of socio-demographics, gambling behaviours, being a concerned significant other (CSO) of a problem gambler and perceived health and lifestyle with attitudes towards gambling among the Finnish population. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed by structured telephone interview on a random sample of 15-74-year-old Finns between October 2011 and January 2012. The data (n = 4484) was weighted based on age, gender and region of residence. Attitudes towards gambling were measured with the eight-item version of the Attitude Towards Gambling Scale (ATGS-8). A factor analysis was performed to test the structure of the Finnish version of the ATGS-8. The data were analysed using one-way ANOVA test, t-test and multiple regression analysis. Results: On average, attitudes of Finns towards gambling were negative. The most significant factors associated with positive attitudes towards gambling were male gender, young age, 12 years or more education and net income more than 2000(sic), low score on gambling severity, being a non-CSO of a problem gambler and high alcohol consumption Conclusions: The association between young age, male gender, high net income and risky alcohol consumption, and favourable gambling attitudes was strong, and also reflects risky gambling behaviour. Experiencing gambling-related harms caused by one's own or significant other's excessive gambling seems to indicate unfavourable attitudes towards gambling.
  • Sorsa, Johanna; Fontell, Tuija; Laajasalo, Taina; Aronen, Eeva T. (2019)
    Assessment of behavioral disorders is one of the most commonly encountered tasks in child psychiatry. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is a widespread measurement tool used for assessing conduct problems, though the psychometric properties of the tool have varied in different samples. In this study, the ECBI was evaluated in a Finnish population based sample of children aged 4 to 12 years (n = 1,715). Factor structure and internal consistency of the ECBI and associates of behavioral problems in Finnish children were evaluated. The results showed that a unidimensional one‐factor solution for the ECBI intensity scale was the best fit for the data. The ECBI mean scores were considerably higher in our sample compared to other Nordic countries. Boys scored higher than girls on both ECBI scales, and the mean scores decreased with child's age. Socioeconomic status (SES) was weakly connected to the ECBI scores. Our results highlight the need for country specific reference norms in order to improve the clinical utility of evidence‐based measures for assessing conduct problems.
  • Liebkind, Karmela; Mäkinen, Viivi M; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Renvik (Mähönen), Tuuli Anna; Solheim, Erling (2019)
    Despite the urgent need for promoting positive intergroup relations in schools, research on intergroup relations is not systematically translated into prejudice-reduction interventions. Although prejudice-reduction interventions in schools based on indirect contact have been conducted for decades, they have all been carried out by researchers themselves. In a field experiment in Finland in autumn 2015, we tested for the first time a vicarious contact prejudice-reduction intervention for its effectiveness among adolescents (N = 639) when implemented independently by school teachers instead of researchers. In addition, we tested the extent to which the intervention’s effect depends on initial outgroup attitudes, previous direct outgroup contact experiences, and gender, hypothesizing that the intervention improves outgroup attitudes particularly among adolescents with more negative prior attitudes and less positive prior direct contact, and more among girls than among boys. We found an unanticipated overall deterioration in the outgroup attitudes during intervention in both the experimental and control groups. However, attitudes seemed to deteriorate somewhat less in the experimental than in the control group, and the intervention had a significant positive effect on outgroup attitudes in one experimental subgroup that needed it most: girls who had negative rather than positive outgroup attitudes at the outset. We discuss our results in light of previous research and contextual particularities.
  • Eskelinen, Teppo; Ylonen, Matti (2017)
    Tax havens and tax flight have lately received increasing attention, while interest toward multilateral trade policies has somewhat diminished. We argue that more attention needs to be paid exactly to the interrelations between trade and tax policies. Drawing from two case studies on Panama's trade disputes, we show how World Trade Organization (WTO) rules can be used both to resist attempts to sanction secrecy structures and to promote measures against tax flight. The theory of new constitutionalism can help to explain how trade treaties can 'lock in' tax policies. However, our case studies show that trade policy not only 'locks in' democratic policy-making, but also enables tax havens to use their commercialized sovereignty to resists anti-secrecy measures. What is being 'locked in' are the policy tools, not necessarily the policies. The changing relationship between trade and tax policies can also create new and unexpected tools for tackling tax evasion, underlining the importance of epistemic arbitrage in the context of new constitutionalism. In principle, political actors with sufficient technical and juridical knowledge can shape global tax governance to various directions regardless of their formal position in the world political hierarchies. This should be taken into account when trade treaties are being negotiated or revised.
  • Konyagin, Sergei; Queffelec, Herve; Saksman, Eero; Seip, Kristian (2022)
    We prove that the norm of the Riesz projection from L-infinity(T-n) to L-p(T-n) is 1 for all n >= 1 only if p 2. We then note that the dual of H-1 (T-infinity) contains, via the Bohr lift, the space of Dirichlet series in BMOA of the right half-plane. We give several conditions showing how this BMOA space relates to other spaces of Dirichlet series. Finally, relating the partial sum operator for Dirichlet series to Riesz projection on T, we compute its L-p norm when 1 < p < infinity, and we use this result to show that the L-infinity norm of the N th partial sum of a bounded Dirichlet series over d-smooth numbers is of order log log N.
  • Rainio, Anna Pauliina; Hofmann, Riikka (2021)
    Background: Teachers' limiting conceptualizations of students influence students' learning opportunities. We analyze teachers' professional conversations to understand how dialogues can expand teachers' conceptualizations. Methods: We examine professional dialogues from nine whole-school intervention meetings. Drawing on discursive psychology and activity theoretical notions of learning the study conceptualizes teachers' collective assumptions as a lived ideology actively sustained by stabilization discourses. We analyze the discursive devices through which the teachers' talk about their students limits/expands their sense of what is possible in their teaching and their dialogic effects. Findings: Our analysis finds a range of discursive strategies that sustain or re-stabilize the lived ideology. Even when challenged by contrary evidence (e.g., surprises), dilemmatic tensions and reframing repair actions are found to close potential dialogic openings. Importantly, we identify a form of discourse that avoids immediate closure, characterized by sustained reflection on the students' challenges developing a need to change. We term this reflexive noticing: it is enabled through sustained puzzle, constructing dilemmas as origin of change and discursive consciousness of stabilization. Contribution: We illustrate why contrary evidence often fails to shift limiting conceptualizations about students and show the discursive mechanisms generating possibility knowledge. Implications for teacher learning are discussed.
  • Kuorikoski, Jaakko; Marchionni, Caterina (2014)
    We examine the diversity of strategies of modelling networks in (micro) economics and (analytical) sociology. Field-specific conceptions of what explaining (with) networks amounts to or systematic preference for certain kinds of explanatory factors are not sufficient to account for differences in modelling methodologies. We argue that network models in both sociology and economics are abstract models of network mechanisms and that differences in their modelling strategies derive to a large extent from field-specific conceptions of the way in which a good model should be a general one. Whereas the economics models aim at unification, the sociological models aim at a set of mechanism schemas that are extrapolatable to the extent that the underlying psychological mechanisms are general. These conceptions of generality induce specific biases in mechanistic explanation and are related to different views of when knowledge from different fields should be seen as relevant. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Puohiniemi, Martti; Verkasalo, Markku (2020)
    Finland changed from an industrial society to an information society in 1991-2015. Due to economic fluctuations, diffusion of digitalization and media turbulence the period changed Finnish society a lot. We studied the impact of this on basic human values with Schwartz's approach, and concentrated on zeitgeist effects. We developed a definition of zeitgeist effects and a set of hypotheses, based on the literature, to study how major societal changes influence values. Also, we found theoretical similarities between value consensus, democratization and the fragmentation of media use that we analyzed. Data (N = 7.172) were collected in five waves. We measured changes in the ten values, and used the two value dimensions based on factor analysis, also. Moreover, we used the Schwartz value map to illustrate value changes in social groups. The combination of the latter two methods offer a parsimonious way to get an overview of value change over a longer period of time, but single values suit better for the analysis of short-term changes. Our hypotheses received support regarding overall change that is small, as well as regarding zeitgeist effects in the 1990s, the disappearance of them in the new millennium, and how the values of social groups started to change in different directions in the era of social media. The above changes including the disappearance of zeitgeist effects in the new millennium were linked to societal events, e.g. fragmentation of media use. Moreover, we found that in a complex society zeitgeist effects might mirror simultaneous impact of several events.