Browsing by Subject "NORTH-AMERICA"

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  • Klein, R.; Salminen, Johanna; Mertanen, S. (2015)
    We present a new Late Neoproterozoic paleomagnetic pole for Baltica from an inclined 272 m deep oriented sedimentary drill core in Hailuoto, Western Finland. The depositional age of the Hailuoto sediments is poorly constrained at 570-600 Ma. Three components of magnetization were isolated with thermal and alternating field (AF) demagnetization treatments. The ChRM (characteristic remanence magnetization) component is a high coercivity/unblocking temperature dual polarity component that passes a reversal test. The combined observed ChRM component of the Hailuoto sediments (D = 334.2 degrees; I = 44.4 degrees; alpha(95) = 7 2; k = 16.5) yields a paleomagnetic pole of Plat = 48.7 degrees N and Plon = 241.1 degrees E with A95 = 8.1 degrees. The inclination corrected direction (f = 0.6) of D = 334.4 degrees; I = 57.7 degrees; alpha(95) = 5.8 degrees; k = 25.2 yields a paleomagnetic pole of Plat = 60.5 degrees N and Plon = 247.9 degrees E with A95 = 7.6 degrees. As it is a dual-polarity ChRM carried by both magnetite and hematite, with no resemblance to younger events, we interpret it as a primary component. A paleolatitude for Hailuoto of 383 was calculated from the ChRM. Two secondary components were identified. The first is a low coercivity/blocking temperature component with a remanent magnetization of D = 239.0 degrees; I = 67.3 degrees; alpha(95) = 8.7 degrees (N = 13 samples), which we interpret as drilling-induced remanent magnetization (DIRM). The second secondary component has a remanent magnetization of D = 49.4 degrees; I = 34.9 degrees; alpha(95) = 8.6 degrees (N = 5 samples) and is commonly seen in Fennoscandian formations. The ChRM Hailuoto pole adds to the scattered Ediacaran paleomagnetic data of Baltica and indicate large distances between other late Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian paleomagnetic poles. We present reconstructions of Baltica and Laurentia between 616 and 550 Ma which move Baltica from high latitudes (615 Ma), over the polar region, to low latitudes (550 Ma), and Laurentia from low latitudes (615 Ma) to a polar position (570 Ma) and back to an equatorial position (550 Ma). A low to mid latitude position of Baltica determined by the Hailuoto paleomagnetic pole, and the lack of glaciogenic sediments determined in an earlier study of Hailuoto sediments indicate a warm deposition environment. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Forrest, M.; Eronen, J. T.; Utescher, T.; Knorr, G.; Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.; Hickler, T. (2015)
    There is an increasing need to understand the pre-Quaternary warm climates, how climate-vegetation interactions functioned in the past, and how we can use this information to understand the present. Here we report vegetation modelling results for the Late Miocene (11-7 Ma) to study the mechanisms of vegetation dynamics and the role of different forcing factors that influence the spatial patterns of vegetation coverage. One of the key uncertainties is the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during past climates. Estimates for the last 20 million years range from 280 to 500 ppm. We simulated Late Miocene vegetation using two plausible CO2 concentrations, 280 ppm CO2 and 450 ppm CO2, with a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) driven by climate input from a coupled AOGCM (Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model). The simulated vegetation was compared to existing plant fossil data for the whole Northern Hemisphere. For the comparison we developed a novel approach that uses information of the relative dominance of different plant functional types (PFTs) in the palaeobotanical data to provide a quantitative estimate of the agreement between the simulated and reconstructed vegetation. Based on this quantitative assessment we find that pre-industrial CO2 levels are largely consistent with the presence of seasonal temperate forests in Europe (suggested by fossil data) and open vegetation in North America (suggested by multiple lines of evidence). This suggests that during the Late Miocene the CO2 levels have been relatively low, or that other factors that are not included in the models maintained the seasonal temperate forests and open vegetation.
  • Im, Ulas; Christensen, Jesper H.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Sand, Maria; Makkonen, Risto; Geels, Camilla; Anderson, Camilla; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Lopez-Aparicio, Susana; Brandt, Jørgen (2019)
    This modeling study presents the sectoral contributions of anthropogenic emissions in the four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) on air pollution levels and the associated health impacts and costs over the Nordic and the Arctic regions for the year 2015. The Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM) has been used on a 50 km resolution over Europe in tagged mode in order to calculate the response of a 30 % reduction of each emission sector in each Nordic country individually. The emission sectors considered in the study were energy production, non-industrial/commercial heating, industry, traffic, off-road mobile sources and waste management/agriculture. In total, 28 simulations were carried out. Following the air pollution modeling, the Economic Valuation of Air Pollution (EVA) model has been used to calculate the associated premature mortality and their costs. Results showed that more than 80 % of the PM2.5 concentration was attributed to transport from outside these four countries, implying an effort outside the Nordic region in order to decrease the pollutant levels over the area. The leading emission sector in each country was found to be non-industrial combustion (contributing by more than 60 % to the total PM2.5 mass coming from the country itself), except for Sweden, where industry contributed to PM2.5 with a comparable amount to non-industrial combustion. In addition to non-industrial combustion, the next most important source categories were industry, agriculture and traffic. The main chemical constituent of PM2.5 concentrations that comes from the country itself is calculated to be organic carbon in all countries, which suggested that nonindustrial wood burning was the dominant national source of pollution in the Nordic countries. We have estimated the total number of premature mortality cases due to air pollution to be around 4000 in Denmark and Sweden and around 2000 in Finland and Norway. These premature mortality cases led to a total cost of EUR 7 billion in the selected Nordic countries. The assessment of the related premature mortality and associated cost estimates suggested that non-industrial combustion, together with industry and traffic, will be the main sectors to be targeted in emission mitigation strategies in the future.
  • Wetzel, Carlos E.; Bicudo, Denise de C.; Ector, Luc; Lobo, Eduardo A.; Soininen, Janne; Landeiro, Victor L.; Bini, Luis M. (2012)
    Background The regression of similarity against distance unites several ecological phenomena, and thus provides a highly useful approach for illustrating the spatial turnover across sites. Our aim was to test whether the rates of decay in community similarity differ between diatom growth forms suggested to show different dispersal ability. We hypothesized that the diatom group with lower dispersal ability (i.e. periphyton) would show higher distance decay rates than a group with higher dispersal ability (i.e. plankton). Methods/Principal findings Periphyton and phytoplankton samples were gathered at sites distributed over an area of approximately 800 km length in the Negro River, Amazon basin, Brazil, South America (3°08′00″S; 59°54′30″W). Distance decay relationships were then estimated using distance-based regressions, and the coefficients of these regressions were compared among the groups with different dispersal abilities to assess our predictions. We found evidence that different tributaries and reaches of the Negro River harbor different diatom communities. As expected, the rates of distance decay in community similarity were higher for periphyton than for phytoplankton indicating the lower dispersal ability of periphytic taxa. Conclusions/Significance Our study demonstrates that the comparison of distance decay relationships among taxa with similar ecological requirements, but with different growth form and thus dispersal ability provides a sound approach to evaluate the effects of dispersal ability on beta diversity patterns. Our results are also in line with the growing body of evidence indicating that microorganisms exhibit biogeographic patterns. Finally, we underscore that clumbing all microbial taxa into one group may be a flawed approach to test whether microbes exhibit biogeographic patterns.
  • Shikano, Takahito; Laine, Veronika N.; Herczeg, Gabor; Vilkki, Johanna; Merilä, Juha (2013)
  • Katolikova, Marina; Khaitov, Vadim; Vainola, Risto; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr (2016)
    Two blue mussel lineages of Pliocene origin, Mytilus edulis (ME) and M. trossulus (MT), co-occur and hybridize in several regions on the shores of the North Atlantic. The two species were distinguished from each other by molecular methods in the 1980s, and a large amount of comparative data on them has been accumulated since that time. However, while ME and MT are now routinely distinguished by various genetic markers, they tend to be overlooked in ecological studies since morphological characters for taxonomic identification have been lacking, and no consistent habitat differences between lineages have been reported. Surveying a recently discovered area of ME and MT co-occurrence in the White Sea and employing a set of allozyme markers for identification, we address the issue whether ME and MT are true biological species with distinct ecological characteristics or just virtual genetic entities with no matching morphological and ecological identities. We find that: (1) in the White Sea, the occurrence of MT is largely concentrated in harbors, in line with observations from other subarctic regions of Europe; (2) mixed populations of ME and MT are always dominated by purebred individuals, animals classified as hybrids constituting only ca. 18%; (3) in terms of shell morphology, 80% of MT bear a distinct uninterrupted dark prismatic strip under the ligament while 97% of ME lack this character; (4) at sites of sympatry MT is more common on algal substrates while ME mostly lives directly on the bottom. This segregation by the substrate may contribute to maintaining reproductive isolation and decreasing competition between taxa. We conclude that while ME and MT are not fully reproductively isolated, they do represent clearly distinguishable biological, ecological and morphological entities in the White Sea. It remains to be documented whether the observed morphological and ecological differences are of a local character, or whether they have simply been overlooked in other contact zones.
  • Penteriani, Vincenzo; del Mar Delgado, Maria; Pinchera, Francesco; Naves, Javier; Fernandez-Gil, Alberto; Kojola, Ilpo; Härkönen, Sauli; Norberg, Harri; Frank, Jens; Maria Fedriani, Jose; Sahlen, Veronica; Stoen, Ole-Gunnar; Swenson, Jon E.; Wabakken, Petter; Pellegrini, Mario; Herrero, Stephen; Vicente Lopez-Bao, Jose (2016)
    The media and scientific literature are increasingly reporting an escalation of large carnivore attacks on humans in North America and Europe. Although rare compared to human fatalities by other wildlife, the media often overplay large carnivore attacks on humans, causing increased fear and negative attitudes towards coexisting with and conserving these species. Although large carnivore populations are generally increasing in developed countries, increased numbers are not solely responsible for the observed rise in the number of attacks by large carnivores. Here we show that an increasing number of people are involved in outdoor activities and, when doing so, some people engage in risk-enhancing behaviour that can increase the probability of a risky encounter and a potential attack. About half of the well-documented reported attacks have involved risk-enhancing human behaviours, the most common of which is leaving children unattended. Our study provides unique insight into the causes, and as a result the prevention, of large carnivore attacks on people. Prevention and information that can encourage appropriate human behaviour when sharing the landscape with large carnivores are of paramount importance to reduce both potentially fatal human-carnivore encounters and their consequences to large carnivores.
  • Teittinen, Anette; Wang, Jianjun; Stromgard, Simon; Soininen, Janne (2017)
    Aim: Elevational biodiversity patterns are understudied in high-latitude aquatic systems, even though these systems are important for detecting very early impacts of climatic changes on Earth. The aim of this study was to examine the elevational trends in species richness and local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD) of three biofilm microbial groups in freshwater ponds and to identify the key mechanisms underlying these patterns. Location: One hundred and forty-six ponds in subarctic Finland and Norway distributed across the tree line along an elevational gradient of 10-1,038 m a.s.l., spanning from forested landscape to barren boulder fields. Time period: July-August 2015. Major taxa studied: Diatoms, cyanobacteria and non-cyanobacteria. Methods: Generalized linear models were used to identify the most important pond variables explaining richness and LCBD. Structural equation models were used to explore the direct and indirect effects of multiscale drivers on richness and LCBD. Results: Diatom and cyanobacteria richness showed unimodal elevational patterns, whereas non-cyanobacteria richness decreased with increasing elevation. The LCBD-elevation relationship was U-shaped for all three microbial groups. Diatom and cyanobacteria richness and LCBD were best explained by local pond variables, especially by pH. Non-cyanobacteria richness and LCBD were related to pond variables, elevation as a proxy for climatic conditions, and normalized difference vegetation index as a proxy for terrestrial productivity. Main conclusions: Aquatic autotrophs were primarily controlled by environmental filtering, whereas heterotrophic bacteria were also affected by terrestrial productivity and elevation. All studied aspects of microbial diversity were directly or indirectly linked to elevation; therefore, climatic changes may greatly alter aquatic microbial assemblages.
  • Barnosky, Anthony D.; Hadly, Elizabeth A.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Head, Jason; Polly, P. David; Lawing, A. Michelle; Eronen, Jussi T.; Ackerly, David D.; Alex, Ken; Biber, Eric; Blois, Jessica; Brashares, Justin; Ceballos, Gerardo; Davis, Edward; Dietl, Gregory P.; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Doremus, Holly; Fortelius, Mikael; Greene, Harry W.; Hellmann, Jessica; Hickler, Thomas; Jackson, Stephen T.; Kemp, Melissa; Koch, Paul L.; Kremen, Claire; Lindsey, Emily L.; Looy, Cindy; Marshall, Charles R.; Mendenhall, Chase; Mulch, Andreas; Mychajliw, Alexis M.; Nowak, Carsten; Ramakrishnan, Uma; Schnitzler, Jan; Das Shrestha, Kashish; Solari, Katherine; Stegner, Lynn; Stegner, M. Allison; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Wake, Marvalee H.; Zhang, Zhibin (2017)
    Conservation of species and ecosystems is increasingly difficult because anthropogenic impacts are pervasive and accelerating. Under this rapid global change, maximizing conservation success requires a paradigm shift from maintaining ecosystems in idealized past states toward facilitating their adaptive and functional capacities, even as species ebb and flow individually. Developing effective strategies under this new paradigm will require deeper understanding of the long-term dynamics that govern ecosystem persistence and reconciliation of conflicts among approaches to conserving historical versus novel ecosystems. Integrating emerging information from conservation biology, paleobiology, and the Earth sciences is an important step forward on the path to success. Maintaining nature in all its aspects will also entail immediately addressing the overarching threats of growing human population, overconsumption, pollution, and climate change.
  • Bernor, Raymond L.; Kaya, Ferhat; Kaakinen, Anu; Saarinen, Juha; Fortelius, Mikael (2021)
    Nearly five decades ago Berggren and Van Couvering proposed an Old World "Hipparion Datum" wherein a North American Hipparion extended its range across Eurasia and Africa as an "instantaneous prochoresis" populating the Old World. Four decades ago Woodburne and Bernor examined European and North African hipparion assemblages and proposed a number of distinct hipparion lineages, sharply departing from the mono-generic paradigm of previous work. Through the 1980s until now, hipparion systematic studies have delineated multiple superspecific groups of hipparions. Herein, we define 10 recognizable genus-rank Eurasian and African taxa delineating their chronologic occurrences, geographic extent and where data exists, their body mass and paleodietary preferences. Our study supports the current interpretation that a species of North American Cormohipparion extended its range into the Old World in the early late Miocene. Regional first occurrences of Cormohipparion are recognized in the Potwar Plateau, Pakistan and Sinap Tepe, Turkey 10.8 Ma. The slightly derived lineage Hippotherium is recorded earlier in the Pannonian C of the Vienna Basin, 11.4-11.0 Ma marking the chronologic "Hipparion" Datum at the lower boundary of Mammal Neogene (MN) Unit 9. Within MN 9, 11.2-9.9 Ma, Cormohipparion underwent a minor diversification whereas Hippotherium diversified in Central and Western Europe and China and Sivalhippus (S. nagriensis) originated in the Indian Subcontinent. Whereas Cormohipparion did not survive into the late Vallesian, MN10 (9.9-8.9 Ma), Hippotherium and Sivalhippus did and the Cremohipparion and Hipparion s.s. lineages originated. During the early and middle Turolian (MN11-12, 8.9-6.8 Ma) Hippotherium, Sivalhippus, Cremohipparion and Hipparion persisted and new lineages, Eurygnathohippus, Plesiohipparion, Baryhipparion and Shanxihippus originated. An initial extinction interval occurred at the end of the Miocene, MN13 (6.8-5.3 Ma) wherein all but one endemic species of Hippotherium, H. malpassi (Italy), Hipparion and several species of Cremohipparion became extinct. Lineage and species reduction continued across the MioPliocene boundary so that by the beginning of the Pliocene (MN14, 5.3 Ma) only African species of Eurygnathohippus, Chinese Plesiohipparion houfenense and Proboscidipparion sinense remained. The later Pliocene (MN15-16, ca. 5.0-2.5 Ma) documents the persistence of endemic Chinese Baryhipparion insperatum, modest diversification of African Eurygnatohippus spp. and Chinese Plesiohipparion and Proboscidipparion spp. Eurygnathohippus made a limited geographic extension into the Indian subcontinent during MN16, whereas Pleisohipparion and Proboscidipparion extended their ranges into Eurasia during MN15 and MN16. The latest occurring hipparions are Proboscidipparion sinense at 1.0 Ma in China and Eurygnathohippus cornelianus in Africa 300 kg), with the smaller forms being predominately grass feeders and larger ones being mixed feeders. Decreased hipparion lineage and species diversity in the Pliocene was accompanied by increased average body size and hypsodonty probably in response to more seasonal Eurasian and African environments. There is no evidence that hipparions ever adapted to cold and dry Old World Pleistocene environments.
  • Kröger, Björn; Hints, Linda; Lehnert, Oliver (2017)
    The widespread growth of reefs formed by a framework of biogenic constructors and frame-lacking carbonate mounds began on Baltica during Ordovician time. Previously, Ordovician reef and mound development on Baltica was considered to be sporadic and local. A review of all known bioherm localities across the Baltic Basin reveals a more consistent pattern. Ordovician bioherms grew in a wide E-W-aligned belt across the Baltic Basin and occur in several places in Norway. Substantial reef development began simultaneously across the region during the late Sandbian - early Katian interval and climaxed during the late Katian Pirgu age. The current spatiotemporal distribution of bioherms is a result of interdependent factors that involve original drivers of reef development such as relative sea level, climate during the time of deposition and effects of post-depositional erosion. Oceanographic conditions were likely more favourable during times of cooler global climates, low sea level and glacial episodes. At the same time, the likelihood that bioherms are preserved from long-term erosion is higher when deposited during low sea level in deeper parts of the basin. A main factor controlling the timing of the reef and mound evolution was Baltica's shift toward palaeotropical latitudes during Late Ordovician time. The time equivalence between initial reef growth and the Guttenberg isotope carbon excursion (GICE) suggests that global climatic conditions were important.
  • Shah, V.; Jaegle, L.; Gratz, L. E.; Ambrose, J. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Selin, N. E.; Song, S.; Campos, T. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, M.; Stechman, D.; Stell, M.; Festa, J.; Stutz, J.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Riemer, D. D.; Blake, N. J.; Cantrell, C. A.; Mauldin III, R. L. (2016)
    We collected mercury observations as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) aircraft campaign over the southeastern US between 1 June and 15 July 2013. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret these observations and place new constraints on bromine radical initiated mercury oxidation chemistry in the free troposphere. We find that the model reproduces the observed mean concentration of total atmospheric mercury (THg) (observations: 1.49 +/- 0.16 ngm(-3), model: 1.51 +/- 0.08 ngm(-3)), as well as the vertical profile of THg. The majority (65 %) of observations of oxidized mercury (Hg(II)) were below the instrument's detection limit (detection limit per flight: 58-228 pgm(-3)), consistent with model-calculated Hg(II) concentrations of 0-196 pgm(-3). However, for observations above the detection limit we find that modeled Hg(II) concentrations are a factor of 3 too low (observations: 212 +/- 112 pgm-3, model: 67 +/- 44 pgm(-3)). The high-est Hg(II) concentrations, 300-680 pgm(-3), were observed in dry (RH <35 %) and clean air masses during two flights over Texas at 5-7 km altitude and off the North Carolina coast at 1-3 km. The GEOS-Chem model, back trajectories and observed chemical tracers for these air masses indicate subsidence and transport from the upper and middle troposphere of the subtropical anticyclones, where fast oxidation of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) to Hg(II) and lack of Hg(II) removal lead to efficient accumulation of Hg(II). We hypothesize that the most likely explanation for the model bias is a systematic underestimate of the Hg(0) + Br reaction rate. We find that sensitivity simulations with tripled bromine radical concentrations or a faster oxidation rate constant for Hg(0) + Br, result in 1.5-2 times higher modeled Hg(II) concentrations and improved agreement with the observations. The modeled tropospheric lifetime of Hg(0) against oxidation to Hg(II) decreases from 5 months in the base simulation to 2.8-1.2 months in our sensitivity simulations. In order to maintain the modeled global burden of THg, we need to increase the in-cloud reduction of Hg(II), thus leading to faster chemical cycling between Hg(0) and Hg(II). Observations and model results for the NOMADSS campaign suggest that the subtropical anticyclones are significant global sources of Hg(II).
  • Elmberg, Johan; Arzel, Celine; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Holopainen, Sari; Nummi, Petri; Poysa, Hannu; Sjoberg, Kjell (2020)
    Understanding drivers of variation and trends in biodiversity change is a general scientific challenge, but also crucial for conservation and management. Previous research shows that patterns of increase and decrease are not always consistent at different spatial scales, calling for approaches combining the latter. We here explore the idea that functional traits of species may help explaining divergent population trends. Complementing a previous community level study, we here analyse data about breeding waterbirds on 58 wetlands in boreal Fennoscandia, covering gradients in latitude as well as trophic status. We used linear mixed models to address how change in local abundance over 25 years in 25 waterbird species are associated with life history traits, diet, distribution, breeding phenology, and habitat affinity. Mean abundance increased in 10 species from 1990/1991 to 2016, whereas it decreased in 15 species. Local population increases were associated with species that are early breeders and have small clutches, an affinity for luxurious wetlands, an herbivorous diet, and a wide breeding range rather than a southern distribution. Local decreases, by contrast, were associated with species having large clutches and invertivorous diet, as well as being late breeders and less confined to luxurious wetlands. The three species occurring on the highest number of wetlands all decreased in mean abundance. The fact that early breeders have done better than late fits well with previous research about adaptability to climate change, that is, response to earlier springs. We found only limited support for the idea that life history traits are good predictors of wetland level population change. Instead, diet turned out to be a strong candidate for an important driver of population change, as supported by a general decrease of invertivores and a concomitant increase of large herbivores. In a wider perspective, future research needs to address whether population growth of large-bodied aquatic herbivores affects abundance of co-occurring invertivorous species, and if so, if this is due to habitat alteration, or to interference or exploitative competition.
  • Rikkinen, Jouko; Beimforde, Christina; Seyfullah, Leyla; Perrichot, Vincent; Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidt, Alexander (2016)
    A novel species of ascomycetes is described from resin of Araucaria humboldtensis on Mont Humboldt in New Caledonia. The fungus is placed in the new genus Resinogalea Rikkinen & A.R. Schmidt, with the species name R. humboldtensis Rikkinen & A.R. Schmidt. It has only been found growing on semi-hardened resin flows on branches of its endemic and endangered conifer host. The morphology and anatomy of the new fungus are compared with those of ecologically similar taxa, including Bruceomyces castoris. The new family Bruceomycetaceae Rikkinen & A.R. Schmidt is described to accommodate Resinogalea and Bruceomyces.
  • Hou, Meiting; Venalainen, Ari K.; Wang, Linping; Pirinen, Pentti; Gao, Yao; Jin, Shaofei; Zhu, Yuxiang; Qin, Fuying; Hu, Yonghong (2020)
    Spring greening in boreal forest ecosystems has been widely linked to increasing temperature, but few studies have attempted to unravel the relative effects of climate variables such as maximum temperature (TMX), minimum temperature (TMN), mean temperature (TMP), precipitation (PRE) and radiation (RAD) on vegetation growth at different stages of growing season. However, clarifying these effects is fundamental to better understand the relationship between vegetation and climate change. This study investigated spatio-temporal divergence in the responses of Finland's boreal forests to climate variables using the plant phenology index (PPI) calculated based on the latest Collection V006 MODIS BRDF-corrected surface reflectance products (MCD43C4) from 2002 to 2018, and identified the dominant climate variables controlling vegetation change during the growing season (May-September) on a monthly basis. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to quantify the response of PPI to climate variables and distinguish the separate impacts of different variables. The study results show the dominant effects of temperature on the PPI in May and June, with TMX, TMN and TMP being the most important explanatory variables for the variation of PPI depending on the location, respectively. Meanwhile, drought had an unexpectedly positive impact on vegetation in few areas. More than 50 % of the variation of PPI could be explained by climate variables for 68.5 % of the entire forest area in May and 87.7 % in June, respectively. During July to September, the PPI variance explained by climate and corresponding spatial extent rapidly decreased. Nevertheless, the RAD was found be the most important explanatory variable to July PPI in some areas. In contrast, the PPI in August and September was insensitive to climate in almost all of the regions studied. Our study gives useful insights on quantifying and identifying the relative importance of climate variables to boreal forest, which can be used to predict the possible response of forest under future warming.
  • Seppälä, Sini; Henriques, Sergio; Draney, Michael L.; Foord, Stefan; Gibbons, Alastair T.; Gomez, Luz A.; Kariko, Sarah; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Milne, Marc; Vink, Cor J.; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Background The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is the most widely used information source on the extinction risk of species. One of the uses of the Red List is to evaluate and monitor the state of biodiversity and a possible approach for this purpose is the Red List Index (RLI). For many taxa, mainly hyperdiverse groups, it is not possible within available resources to assess all known species. In such cases, a random sample of species might be selected for assessment and the results derived from it extrapolated for the entire group - the Sampled Red List Index (SRLI). The current contribution is the second in four papers that will constitute the baseline of a future spider SRLI encompassing 200 species distributed across the world. New information A sample of 200 species of spiders were randomly selected from the World Spider Catalogue, an updated global database containing all recognised species names for the group. The 200 selected species where divided taxonomically at the family level and the familes were ordered alphabetically. In this publication, we present the conservation profiles of 45 species belonging to the families alphabetically arranged between Gnaphosidae and Nemesiidae, which encompassed Gnaphosidae, ldiopidae, Linyphiidae, Liocranidae, Lycosidae, Micropholcommatidae, Mysmenidae and Nemesiidae.
  • Gafforov, Yusufjon; Ordynets, Alexander; Langer, Ewald; Yarasheva, Manzura; de Mello Gugliotta, Adriana; Schigel, Dmitry; Pecoraro, Lorenzo; Zhou, Yu; Cai, Lei; Zhou, Li-Wei (2020)
    Uzbekistan, located in Central Asia, harbors high diversity of woody plants. Diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi in the country, however, remained poorly known. This study summarizes the wood-inhabiting basidiomycte fungi (poroid and corticoid fungi plus similar taxa such as Merismodes, Phellodon, and Sarcodon) (Agaricomycetes, Basidiomycota) that have been found in Uzbekistan from 1950 to 2020. This work is based on 790 fungal occurrence records: 185 from recently collected specimens, 101 from herbarium specimens made by earlier collectors, and 504 from literature-based records. All data were deposited as a species occurrence record dataset in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility and also summarized in the form of an annotated checklist in this paper. All 286 available specimens were morphologically examined. For 138 specimens, the 114 ITS and 85 LSU nrDNA sequences were newly sequenced and used for phylogenetic analysis. In total, we confirm the presence of 153 species of wood-inhabiting poroid and corticioid fungi in Uzbekistan, of which 31 species are reported for the first time in Uzbekistan, including 19 that are also new to Central Asia. These 153 fungal species inhabit 100 host species from 42 genera of 23 families. Polyporales and Hymenochaetales are the most recorded fungal orders and are most widely distributed around the study area. This study provides the first comprehensively updated and annotated the checklist of wood-inhabiting poroid and corticioid fungi in Uzbekistan. Such study should be expanded to other countries to further clarify species diversity of wood-inhabiting fungi around Central Asia.
  • Helbig, Manuel; Waddington, James M.; Alekseychik, Pavel; Amiro, Brian; Aurela, Mika; Barr, Alan G.; Black, T. Andrew; Carey, Sean K.; Chen, Jiquan; Chi, Jinshu; Desai, Ankur R.; Dunn, Allison; Euskirchen, Eugenie S.; Flanagan, Lawrence B.; Friborg, Thomas; Garneau, Michelle; Grelle, Achim; Harder, Silvie; Heliasz, Michal; Humphreys, Elyn R.; Ikawa, Hiroki; Isabelle, Pierre-Erik; Iwata, Hiroki; Jassal, Rachhpal; Korkiakoski, Mika; Kurbatova, Juliya; Kutzbach, Lars; Lapshina, Elena; Lindroth, Anders; Lofvenius, Mikaell Ottosson; Lohila, Annalea; Mammarella, Ivan; Marsh, Philip; Moore, Paul A.; Maximov, Trofim; Nadeau, Daniel F.; Nicholls, Erin M.; Nilsson, Mats B.; Ohta, Takeshi; Peichl, Matthias; Petrone, Richard M.; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Quinton, William L.; Roulet, Nigel; Runkle, Benjamin R. K.; Sonnentag, Oliver; Strachan, Ian B.; Taillardat, Pierre; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Turner, Jessica; Ueyama, Masahito; Varlagin, Andrej; Vesala, Timo; Wilmking, Martin; Zyrianov, Vyacheslav; Schulze, Christopher (2020)
    Peatlands and forests cover large areas of the boreal biome and are critical for global climate regulation. They also regulate regional climate through heat and water vapour exchange with the atmosphere. Understanding how land-atmosphere interactions in peatlands differ from forests may therefore be crucial for modelling boreal climate system dynamics and for assessing climate benefits of peatland conservation and restoration. To assess the biophysical impacts of peatlands and forests on peak growing season air temperature and humidity, we analysed surface energy fluxes and albedo from 35 peatlands and 37 evergreen needleleaf forests-the dominant boreal forest type-and simulated air temperature and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) over hypothetical homogeneous peatland and forest landscapes. We ran an evapotranspiration model using land surface parameters derived from energy flux observations and coupled an analytical solution for the surface energy balance to an atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) model. We found that peatlands, compared to forests, are characterized by higher growing season albedo, lower aerodynamic conductance, and higher surface conductance for an equivalent VPD. This combination of peatland surface properties results in a similar to 20% decrease in afternoon ABL height, a cooling (from 1.7 to 2.5 degrees C) in afternoon air temperatures, and a decrease in afternoon VPD (from 0.4 to 0.7 kPa) for peatland landscapes compared to forest landscapes. These biophysical climate impacts of peatlands are most pronounced at lower latitudes (similar to 45 degrees N) and decrease toward the northern limit of the boreal biome (similar to 70 degrees N). Thus, boreal peatlands have the potential to mitigate the effect of regional climate warming during the growing season. The biophysical climate mitigation potential of peatlands needs to be accounted for when projecting the future climate of the boreal biome, when assessing the climate benefits of conserving pristine boreal peatlands, and when restoring peatlands that have experienced peatland drainage and mining.