Browsing by Subject "NORTH-ATLANTIC"

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  • Aykanat, Tutku; Ozerov, Mikhail; Vähä, Juha-Pekka; Orell, Panu; Niemelä, Eero; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2019)
    Co-inheritance in life-history traits may result in unpredictable evolutionary trajectories if not accounted for in life-history models. Iteroparity (the reproductive strategy of reproducing more than once) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) is a fitness trait with substantial variation within and among populations. In the Teno River in northern Europe, iteroparous individuals constitute an important component of many populations and have experienced a sharp increase in abundance in the last 20 years, partly overlapping with a general decrease in age structure. The physiological basis of iteroparity bears similarities to that of age at first maturity, another life-history trait with substantial fitness effects in salmon. Sea age at maturity in Atlantic salmon is controlled by a major locus around the vgll3 gene, and we used this opportunity demonstrate that these two traits are co-inherited around this genome region. The odds ratio of survival until second reproduction was up to 2.4 (1.8-3.5 90% CI) times higher for fish with the early-maturing vgll3 genotype (EE) compared to fish with the late-maturing genotype (LL). The L allele was dominant in individuals remaining only one year at sea before maturation, but the dominance was reversed, with the E allele being dominant in individuals maturing after two or more years at sea. Post hoc analysis indicated that iteroparous fish with the EE genotype had accelerated growth prior to first reproduction compared to first-time spawners, across all age groups, whereas this effect was not detected in fish with the LL genotype. These results broaden the functional link around the vgll3 genome region and help us understand constraints in the evolution of life-history variation in salmon. Our results further highlight the need to account for genetic correlations between fitness traits when predicting demographic changes in changing environments.
  • Vihma, Timo; Graversen, Rune G.; Chen, Linling; Handorf, Dörthe; Skific, Natasa; Francis, Jennifer A.; Tyrrell, Nicholas L; Hall, Richard; Hanna, Edward; Uotila, Petteri; Dethloff, Klaus; Karpechko, Alexey; Björnsson, Halldor; Overland, James E. (2020)
    We investigate factors influencing European winter (DJFM) air temperatures for the period 1979-2015 with the focus on changes during the recent period of rapid Arctic warming (1998-2015). We employ meteorological reanalyses analysed with a combination of correlation analysis, two pattern clustering techniques, and back-trajectory airmass identification. In all five selected European regions, severe cold winter events lasting at least 4 days are significantly correlated with warm Arctic episodes. Relationships during opposite conditions of warm Europe/cold Arctic are also significant. Correlations have become consistently stronger since 1998. Large-scale pattern analysis reveals that cold spells are associated with the negative phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO-) and the positive phase of the Scandinavian (SCA+) pattern, which in turn are correlated with the divergence of dry-static energy transport. Warm European extremes are associated with opposite phases of these patterns and the convergence of latent heat transport. Airmass trajectory analysis is consistent with these findings, as airmasses associated with extreme cold events typically originate over continents, while warm events tend to occur with prevailing maritime airmasses. Despite Arctic-wide warming, significant cooling has occurred in northeastern Europe owing to a decrease in adiabatic subsidence heating in airmasses arriving from the southeast, along with increased occurrence of circulation patterns favouring low temperature advection. These dynamic effects dominated over the increased mean temperature of most circulation patterns. Lagged correlation analysis reveals that SCA- and NAO+ are typically preceded by cold Arctic anomalies during the previous 2-3 months, which may aid seasonal forecasting.
  • O'Sullivan, Ronan James; Aykanat, Tutku; Johnston, Susan E.; Kane, Adam; Poole, Russell; Rogan, Ger; Prodöhl, Paulo A.; Primmer, Craig R.; McGinnity, Philip; Reed, Thomas Eric (2019)
    Comparing observed versus theoretically expected evolutionary responses is important for our understanding of the evolutionary process, and for assessing how species may cope with anthropogenic change. Here, we document directional selection for larger female size in Atlantic salmon, using pedigree-derived estimates of lifetime reproductive success as a fitness measure. We show the trait is heritable and, thus, capable of responding to selection. The Breeder's Equation, which predicts microevolution as the product of phenotypic selection and heritability, predicted evolution of larger size. This was at odds, however, with the observed lack of either phenotypic or genetic temporal trends in body size, a so-called "paradox of stasis." To investigate this paradox, we estimated the additive genetic covariance between trait and fitness, which provides a prediction of evolutionary change according to Robertson's secondary theorem of selection (STS) that is unbiased by missing variables. The STS prediction was consistent with the observed stasis. Decomposition of phenotypic selection gradients into genetic and environmental components revealed a potential upward bias, implying unmeasured factors that covary with trait and fitness. These results showcase the power of pedigreed, wild population studies-which have largely been limited to birds and mammals-to study evolutionary processes on contemporary timescales.
  • Ojala, Antti E. K.; Salonen, Veli-Pekka; Moskalik, Mateusz; Kubischta, Frauke; Oinonen, Markku (2014)
  • Khaitov, Vadim; Marchenko, Julia; Katolikova, Marina; Väinölä, Risto; Kingston, Sarah E.; Carlon, David B.; Gantsevich, Michael; Strelkov, Petr (2021)
    Cryptic and hybridizing species may lack diagnostic taxonomic characters leaving researchers with semi-diagnostic ones. Identification based on such characters is probabilistic, the probability of correct identification depending on the species composition in a mixed population. Here we test the possibilities of applying a semi-diagnostic conchological character for distinguishing two cryptic species of blue mussels, Mytilus edulis and M. trossulus. These ecologically, stratigraphically and economically important molluscs co-occur and hybridize in many areas of the North Atlantic and the neighboring Arctic. Any cues for distinguishing them in sympatry without genotyping would save much research effort. Recently these species have been shown to statistically differ in the White Sea, where a simple character of the shell was used to distinguish two mussel morphotypes. In this paper, we analyzed the associations between morphotypes and species-specific genotypes based on an abundant material from the waters of the Kola Peninsula (White Sea, Barents Sea) and a more limited material from Norway, the Baltic Sea, Scotland and the Gulf of Maine. The performance of the "morphotype test" for species identification was formally evaluated using approaches from evidence-based medicine. Interspecific differences in the morphotype frequencies were ubiquitous and unidirectional, but their scale varied geographically (from 75% in the White Sea to 15% in the Baltic Sea). In addition, salinity-related variation of this character within M. edulis was revealed in the Arctic Barents Sea. For every studied region, we established relationships between the proportions of the morphotypes in the populations as well as between the proportions of the morphotypes in samples and the probabilities of mussels of different morphotypes being M. trossulus and M. edulis. We provide recommendations for the application of the morphotype test to mussels from unstudied contact zones and note that they may apply equally well to other taxa identified by semi-diagnostic traits.
  • Schenk, Frederik; Väliranta, Minna; Muschitiello, Francesco; Tarasov, Lev; Heikkilä, Maija; Björck, Svante; Brandefelt, Jenny; Johansson, Arne V.; Näslund, Jens-Ove; Wohlfarth, Barbara (2018)
    The Younger Dryas (YD) cold reversal interrupts the warming climate of the deglaciation with global climatic impacts. The sudden cooling is typically linked to an abrupt slowdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) in response to meltwater discharges from ice sheets. However, inconsistencies regarding the YD-response of European summer temperatures have cast doubt whether the concept provides a sufficient explanation. Here we present results from a high-resolution global climate simulation together with a new July temperature compilation based on plant indicator species and show that European summers remain warm during the YD. Our climate simulation provides robust physical evidence that atmospheric blocking of cold westerly winds over Fennoscandia is a key mechanism counteracting the cooling impact of an AMOC-slowdown during summer. Despite the persistence of short warm summers, the YD is dominated by a shift to a continental climate with extreme winter to spring cooling and short growing seasons.
  • Oksman, Mimmi; Weckstrom, Kaarina; Miettinen, Arto; Juggins, Stephen; Divine, Dmitry V.; Jackson, Rebecca; Telford, Richard; Korsgaard, Niels J.; Kucera, Michal (2017)
    The transition from the last ice age to the present-day interglacial was interrupted by the Younger Dryas (YD) cold period. While many studies exist on this climate event, only few include high-resolution marine records that span the YD. In order to better understand the interactions between ocean, atmosphere and ice sheet stability during the YD, more high-resolution proxy records from the Arctic, located proximal to ice sheet outlet glaciers, are required. Here we present the first diatom-based high-resolution quantitative reconstruction of sea surface conditions from central-eastern Baffin Bay, covering the period 14.0-10.2 kyr BP. Our record reveals warmer sea surface conditions and strong interactions between the ocean and the West Greenland ice margin during the YD. These warmer conditions were caused by increased Atlantic-sourced water inflow combined with amplified seasonality. Our results emphasize the importance of the ocean for ice sheet stability under the current changing climate.