Browsing by Subject "NORTHERN FINLAND"

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  • Young, T. Kue; Kelly, Janet J.; Friborg, Jeppe; Soininen, Leena; Wong, Kai O. (2016)
    Objectives. To determine and compare the incidence of cancer among the 8 Arctic States and their northern regions, with special focus on 3 cross-national indigenous groups - Inuit, Athabaskan Indians and Sami. Methods. Data were extracted from national and regional statistical agencies and cancer registries, with direct age-standardization of rates to the world standard population. For comparison, the "world average'' rates as reported in the GLOBOCAN database were used. Findings. Age-standardized incidence rates by cancer sites were computed for the 8 Arctic States and 20 of their northern regions, averaged over the decade 2000 - 2009. Cancer of the lung and colon/rectum in both sexes are the commonest in most populations. We combined the Inuit from Alaska, Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Greenland into a "Circumpolar Inuit'' group and tracked cancer trends over four 5-year periods from 1989 to 2008. There has been marked increase in lung, colorectal and female breast cancers, while cervical cancer has declined. Compared to the GLOBOCAN world average, Inuit are at extreme high risk for lung and colorectal cancer, and also certain rare cancers such as nasopharyngeal cancer. Athabaskans (from Alaska and Northwest Territories) share some similarities with the Inuit but they are at higher risk for prostate and breast cancer relative to the world average. Among the Sami, published data from 3 cohorts in Norway, Sweden and Finland show generally lower risk of cancer than non-Sami. Conclusions. Cancer among certain indigenous people in the Arctic is an increasing public health concern, especially lung and colorectal cancer.
  • Nieminen, M.; Hökkä, H.; Laiho, R.; Juutinen, A.; Ahtikoski, A.; Pearson, M.; Kojola, S.; Sarkkola, S.; Launiainen, S.; Valkonen, S.; Penttilä, T.; Lohila, A.; Saarinen, M.; Haahti, K.; Makipää, R.; Miettinen, J.; Ollikainen, M. (2018)
    Environmental and economic performance of forestry on drained peatlands was reviewed to consider whether continuous cover forestry (CCF) could be a feasible alternative to even-aged management (EM). CCF was regarded feasible particularly because continuously maintaining a tree stand with significant transpiration and interception capacity would decrease the need for ditch network maintenance. Managing CCF forests in such a way that the ground water levels are lower than in clear-cut EM forests but higher than in mature EM forests could decrease greenhouse gas emissions and negative water quality impacts caused both by anoxic redox reactions and oxidation and mineralization of deep peat layers. Regeneration studies indicated potential for satisfactory natural regeneration under CCF on drained peatlands. An economic advantage in CCF over EM is that fewer investments are needed to establish the forest stand and sustain its growth. Thus, even if the growth of trees in CCF forests were lower than in EM forests, CCF could at least in some peatland sites turn out to be a more profitable forest management regime. An advantage of CCF from the viewpoint of socially optimal forest management is that it plausibly reduces the negative externalities of management compared to EM. We propose that future research in drained peatland forests should focus on assessing the economic and environmental feasibility of CCF.
  • Kivekäs, Niku; Carpman, Jimmie; Roldin, Pontus; Leppa, Johannes; O'Connor, Ewan; Kristensson, Adam; Asmi, Eija (2016)
    Field observations of new particle formation and the subsequent particle growth are typically only possible at a fixed measurement location, and hence do not follow the temporal evolution of an air parcel in a Lagrangian sense. Standard analysis for determining formation and growth rates requires that the time-dependent formation rate and growth rate of the particles are spatially invariant; air parcel advection means that the observed temporal evolution of the particle size distribution at a fixed measurement location may not represent the true evolution if there are spatial variations in the formation and growth rates. Here we present a zero-dimensional aerosol box model coupled with one-dimensional atmospheric flow to describe the impact of advection on the evolution of simulated new particle formation events. Wind speed, particle formation rates and growth rates are input parameters that can vary as a function of time and location, using wind speed to connect location to time. The output simulates measurements at a fixed location; formation and growth rates of the particle mode can then be calculated from the simulated observations at a stationary point for different scenarios and be compared with the 'true' input parameters. Hence, we can investigate how spatial variations in the formation and growth rates of new particles would appear in observations of particle number size distributions at a fixed measurement site. We show that the particle size distribution and growth rate at a fixed location is dependent on the formation and growth parameters upwind, even if local conditions do not vary. We also show that different input parameters used may result in very similar simulated measurements. Erroneous interpretation of observations in terms of particle formation and growth rates, and the time span and areal extent of new particle formation, is possible if the spatial effects are not accounted for.
  • Lihavainen, Heikki; Asmi, Eija; Aaltonen, Veijo; Makkonen, Ulla; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2015)
    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 degrees C) was -97 +/- 66 mWm(-2) K-1 (mean +/- STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (f(AOD)) and -63 +/- 40 mWm(-2) K-1 when using measurements of the 'dry' aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (f(sigma)). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution.
  • Hakkila, Matti; Abrego, Nerea; Ovaskainen, Otso; Monkkonen, Mikko (2018)
    Protected areas are meant to preserve native local communities within their boundaries, but they are not independent from their surroundings. Impoverished habitat quality in the matrix might influence the species composition within the protected areas through biotic homogenization. The aim of this study was to determine the impacts of matrix quality on species richness and trait composition of bird communities from the Finnish reserve area network and whether the communities are being subject of biotic homogenization due to the lowered quality of the landscape matrix. We used joint species distribution modeling to study how characteristics of the Finnish forest reserves and the quality of their surrounding matrix alter species and trait compositions of forest birds. The proportion of old forest within the reserves was the main factor in explaining the bird community composition, and the bird communities within the reserves did not strongly depend on the quality of the matrix. Yet, in line with the homogenization theory, the beta-diversity within reserves embedded in low-quality matrix was lower than that in high-quality matrix, and the average abundance of regionally abundant species was higher. Influence of habitat quality on bird community composition was largely explained by the species' functional traits. Most importantly, the community specialization index was low, and average body size was high in areas with low proportion of old forest. We conclude that for conserving local bird communities in northern Finnish protected forests, it is currently more important to improve or maintain habitat quality within the reserves than in the surrounding matrix. Nevertheless, we found signals of bird community homogenization, and thus, activities that decrease the quality of the matrix are a threat for bird communities.
  • Veikkolainen, Toni Henri Kristian; Kukkonen, Ilmo Tapio (2019)
    Radiogenic heat production in Finland has been previously studied using airborne gamma-ray surveys and glacial till measurements alike. For the first time, this paper presents a detailed survey on the spatial variation in radiogenic heat production determined using outcrop samples obtained from all important lithologies of the country. The dataset of 6465 samples represents mostly Mesoarchean (about 2.7 Ga), Paleoproterozoic (ca. 2.2-1.8 Ga) and Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1.6-1.3 Ga) rocks. Nearly all data are from Precambrian Fennoscandian Shield area, but heat production appears to be highly variable, and above global Archean and Proterozoic averages. Spot readings show an arithmetic average of 1.34 +/- 1.19 mu Wm(-3), and a range from 0.02 to 19.4 mu Wm(-3). The interpolated areal average of the whole area is 1.42 +/- 1.41 mu Wm(-3). The high standard deviation of data is related to the geochemical characteristics of uranium (U), thorium (Th) and potassium (K) resulting in a skewed distribution of heat production. Mesoproterozoic anorogenic rapakivi granites, and late Paleoproterozoic Svecofennian granitoids show the highest heat production values in the range of 3-5 mu Wm(-3). The results show no distinct dependencies of heat production with geological age, metamorphic grade nor seismic P-wave velocity, but an increasing trend of heat production with SiO2 content and decreasing trends of heat production with Fe2O3 content and with rock density are evident. Surface heat flow (44 borehole data values) correlates weakly with heat production (r = 0.35). The general heterogeneity of heat production calls for supporting information from other geophysical methods for better understanding of the thermal state of the lithosphere in Finland and beyond.
  • Lingaiah, Shilpa; Arffman, Riikka K.; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Piltonen, Terhi (2021)
    Objectives Altered intestinal permeability and gut barrier dysfunction have been suggested to play a role in the pathogenetic mechanism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine and metabolic condition in reproductive-aged women. However, data on intestinal permeability and dysbiosis of the gut microbiota in PCOS is still limited, with conflicting results. To this end, the concentrations of gastrointestinal permeability and gut dysbiosis markers were analysed in women with PCOS. Design Case-control study. Setting General community. Participants 104 women with PCOS and 203 body mass index (BMI) matched control women at age 46. Primary and secondary outcome measures Serum levels of zonulin, fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2), urinary levels of indican, and hormonal and metabolic parameters. Results Serum levels of zonulin (128.0 +/- 17.0 vs 130.9 +/- 14.0 ng/mL, p=0.13) and FABP2 (1.5 +/- 0.9 vs 1.5 +/- 0.7 ng/mL, p=0.63) and urinary levels of indican (9.5 +/- 5.5 vs 8.4 +/- 4.2 mg/dL, p=0.07) were comparable in women with PCOS and controls in the whole study population. Likewise, when the study population was divided into different BMI groups as normal weight, overweight and obese, the levels of the above markers were comparable between the study groups. After BMI adjustment, zonulin levels correlated with the levels of high-sensitivity C reactive protein and homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (p
  • Tsuruta, Aki; Aalto, Tuula; Backman, Leif; Krol, Maarten C.; Peters, Wouter; Lienert, Sebastian; Joos, Fortunat; Miller, Paul A.; Zhang, Wenxin; Laurila, Tuomas; Hatakka, Juha; Leskinen, Ari; Lehtinen, Kari E. J.; Peltola, Olli; Vesala, Timo; Levula, Janne; Dlugokencky, Ed; Heimann, Martin; Kozlova, Elena; Aurela, Mika; Lohila, Annalea; Kauhaniemi, Mari; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J. (2019)
    We estimated the CH4 budget in Finland for 2004?2014 using the CTE-CH4 data assimilation system with an extended atmospheric CH4 observation network of seven sites from Finland to surrounding regions (Hyytiälä, Kj?lnes, Kumpula, Pallas, Puijo, Sodankylä, and Utö). The estimated average annual total emission for Finland is 0.6?±?0.5 Tg CH4 yr?1. Sensitivity experiments show that the posterior biospheric emission estimates for Finland are between 0.3 and 0.9 Tg CH4 yr?1, which lies between the LPX-Bern-DYPTOP (0.2 Tg CH4 yr?1) and LPJG-WHyMe (2.2 Tg CH4 yr?1) process-based model estimates. For anthropogenic emissions, we found that the EDGAR v4.2 FT2010 inventory (0.4 Tg CH4 yr?1) is likely to overestimate emissions in southernmost Finland, but the extent of overestimation and possible relocation of emissions are difficult to derive from the current observation network. The posterior emission estimates were especially reliant on prior information in central Finland. However, based on analysis of posterior atmospheric CH4, we found that the anthropogenic emission distribution based on a national inventory is more reliable than the one based on EDGAR v4.2 FT2010. The contribution of total emissions in Finland to global total emissions is only about 0.13%, and the derived total emissions in Finland showed no trend during 2004?2014. The model using optimized emissions was able to reproduce observed atmospheric CH4 at the sites in Finland and surrounding regions fairly well (correlation > 0.75, bias
  • Ostrom, Emilie; Putian, Zhou; Schurgers, Guy; Mishurov, Mikhail; Kivekas, Niku; Lihavainen, Heikki; Ehn, Mikael; Rissanen, Matti P.; Kurten, Theo; Boy, Michael; Swietlicki, Erik; Roldin, Pontus (2017)
    In this study, the processes behind observed new particle formation (NPF) events and subsequent organicdominated particle growth at the Pallas AtmosphereEcosystem Supersite in Northern Finland are explored with the one-dimensional column trajectory model ADCHEM. The modeled sub-micron particle mass is up to similar to 75% composed of SOA formed from highly oxidized multifunctional organic molecules (HOMs) with low or extremely low volatility. In the model the newly formed particles with an initial diameter of 1.5 nm reach a diameter of 7 nm about 2 h earlier than what is typically observed at the station. This is an indication that the model tends to overestimate the initial particle growth. In contrast, the modeled particle growth to CCN size ranges (> 50 nm in diameter) seems to be underestimated because the increase in the concentration of particles above 50 nm in diameter typically occurs several hours later compared to the observations. Due to the high fraction of HOMs in the modeled particles, the oxygen-to-carbon (O V C) atomic ratio of the SOA is nearly 1. This unusually high O V C and the discrepancy between the modeled and observed particle growth might be explained by the fact that the model does not consider any particle-phase reactions involving semi-volatile organic compounds with relatively low O V C. In the model simulations where condensation of low-volatility and extremely low-volatility HOMs explain most of the SOA formation, the phase state of the SOA (assumed either liquid or amorphous solid) has an insignificant impact on the evolution of the particle number size distributions. However, the modeled particle growth rates are sensitive to the method used to estimate the vapor pressures of the HOMs. Future studies should evaluate how heterogeneous reactions involving semi-volatility HOMs and other less-oxidized organic compounds can influence the SOA composition-and size-dependent particle growth.
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Kuitunen, Markku; Hjort, Jan; Vaso, Asta; Kuitunen, Tuomo; Lensu, Anssi (2016)
    We explained vascular plant species richness patterns in a 286 km(2) fragmented landscape with a notable human influence. The objective of this study was two-fold: to test the relative importance of landscape, topography and geodiversity measures, and to compare three different landscape-type variables in species richness modeling. Moreover, we tested if results differ when only native species are considered. We used generalized linear modeling based variation partitioning and generalized additive models with different explanatory variable sets. Landscape and topography explained the majority of the variation but the relative importance of topography and geodiversity was higher in explaining native species richness than in explaining total species richness. Differences between the three landscape type variables were small and they provided complementary information. Finally, topography and geodiversity often direct human action and can be ultimate causes behind both landscape variability and species richness patterns.