Browsing by Subject "NOTCH"

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  • Vroomans, Renske M. A.; Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J. (2018)
    BackgroundSegmentation, the subdivision of the major body axis into repeated elements, is considered one of the major evolutionary innovations in bilaterian animals. In all three segmented animal clades, the predominant segmentation mechanism is sequential segmentation, where segments are generated one by one in anterior-posterior order from a posterior undifferentiated zone. In vertebrates and arthropods, sequential segmentation is thought to arise from a clock-and-wavefront-type mechanism, where oscillations in the posterior growth zone are transformed into a segmental prepattern in the anterior by a receding wavefront. Previous evo-devo simulation studies have demonstrated that this segmentation type repeatedly arises, supporting the idea of parallel evolutionary origins in these animal clades. Sequential segmentation has been studied most extensively in vertebrates, where travelling waves have been observed that reflect the slowing down of oscillations prior to their cessation and where these oscillations involve a highly complex regulatory network. It is currently unclear under which conditions this oscillator complexity and slowing should be expected to evolve, how they are related and to what extent similar properties should be expected for sequential segmentation in other animal species.ResultsTo investigate these questions, we extend a previously developed computational model for the evolution of segmentation. We vary the slope of the posterior morphogen gradient and the strength of gene expression noise. We find that compared to a shallow gradient, a steep morphogen gradient allows for faster evolution and evolved oscillator networks are simpler. Furthermore, under steep gradients, damped oscillators often evolve, whereas shallow gradients appear to require persistent oscillators which are regularly accompanied by travelling waves, indicative of a frequency gradient. We show that gene expression noise increases the likelihood of evolving persistent oscillators under steep gradients and of evolving frequency gradients under shallow gradients. Surprisingly, we find that the evolutions of oscillator complexity and travelling waves are not correlated, suggesting that these properties may have evolved separately.ConclusionsBased on our findings, we suggest that travelling waves may have evolved in response to shallow morphogen gradients and gene expression noise. These two factors may thus also be responsible for the observed differences between different species within both the arthropod and chordate phyla.
  • Kuony, Alison; Michon, Frederic (2017)
    As an element of the lacrimal apparatus, the lacrimal gland (LG) produces the aqueous part of the tear film, which protects the eye surface. Therefore, a defective LG can lead to serious eyesight impairment. Up to now, little is known about LG morphogenesis and subsequent maturation. In this study, we delineated elements of the cellular and molecular events involved in LG formation by using three epithelial markers, namely aSMA, Krt14, and Krt19. While aSMA marked a restricted epithelial population of the terminal end buds (TEBs) in the forming LG, Krt14 was found in the whole embryonic LG epithelial basal cell layer. Interestingly. Krt19 specifically labeled the presumptive ductal domain and subsequently, the luminal cell layer. By combining these markers, the Fucci reporter mouse strain and genetic fate mapping of the Krt14+ population, we demonstrated that LG epithelium expansion is fuelled by a patterned cell proliferation, and to a lesser extent by epithelial reorganization and possible mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. We pointed out that this epithelial reorganization, which is associated with apoptosis, regulated the lumen formation. Finally, we showed that the inhibition of Notch signaling prevented the ductal identity from setting, and led to a LG covered by ectopic TEBs. Taken together our results bring a deeper understanding on LG morphogenesis, epithelial domain identity, and organ expansion.
  • Zhao, Huiying; Eising, Else; de Vries, Boukje; Vijfhuizen, Lisanne S.; Anttila, Verneri; Winsvold, Bendik S.; Kurth, Tobias; Stefansson, Hreinn; Kallela, Kaarlo Mikko; Malik, Rainer; Stam, Anine H.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Ligthart, Lannie; Freilinger, Tobias; Alexander, Michael; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Schreiber, Stefan; Meitinger, Thomas; Aromas, Arpo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Zwart, John-Anker; Quaye, Lydia; Kubisch, Christian; Dichgans, Martin; Wessman, Maija; Stefansson, Kari; Chasman, Daniel I.; Palotie, Aarno; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Ferrari, Michel D.; Terwindt, Gisela M.; van den Maagdenberg, Arn M. J. M.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Int Headache Genetics Consortium (2016)
    Introduction It is unclear whether patients diagnosed according to International Classification of Headache Disorders criteria for migraine with aura (MA) and migraine without aura (MO) experience distinct disorders or whether their migraine subtypes are genetically related. Aim Using a novel gene-based (statistical) approach, we aimed to identify individual genes and pathways associated both with MA and MO. Methods Gene-based tests were performed using genome-wide association summary statistic results from the most recent International Headache Genetics Consortium study comparing 4505 MA cases with 34,813 controls and 4038 MO cases with 40,294 controls. After accounting for non-independence of gene-based test results, we examined the significance of the proportion of shared genes associated with MA and MO. Results We found a significant overlap in genes associated with MA and MO. Of the total 1514 genes with a nominally significant gene-based p value (p(gene-based)0.05) in the MA subgroup, 107 also produced p(gene-based)0.05 in the MO subgroup. The proportion of overlapping genes is almost double the empirically derived null expectation, producing significant evidence of gene-based overlap (pleiotropy) (p(binomial-test) = 1.5x10(-4)). Combining results across MA and MO, six genes produced genome-wide significant gene-based p values. Four of these genes (TRPM8, UFL1, FHL5 and LRP1) were located in close proximity to previously reported genome-wide significant SNPs for migraine, while two genes, TARBP2 and NPFF separated by just 259bp on chromosome 12q13.13, represent a novel risk locus. The genes overlapping in both migraine types were enriched for functions related to inflammation, the cardiovascular system and connective tissue. Conclusions Our results provide novel insight into the likely genes and biological mechanisms that underlie both MA and MO, and when combined with previous data, highlight the neuropeptide FF-amide peptide encoding gene (NPFF) as a novel candidate risk gene for both types of migraine.
  • Zhang, Yan; Ulvmar, Maria H.; Stanczuk, Lukas; Martinez-Corral, Ines; Frye, Maike; Alitalo, Kari; Mäkinen, Taija (2018)
    Incomplete delivery to the target cells is an obstacle for successful gene therapy approaches. Here we show unexpected effects of incomplete targeting, by demonstrating how heterogeneous inhibition of a growth promoting signaling pathway promotes tissue hyperplasia. We studied the function of the lymphangiogenic VEGFR3 receptor during embryonic and postnatal development. Inducible genetic deletion of Vegfr3 in lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) leads to selection of non-targeted VEGFR3(+) cells at vessel tips, indicating an indispensable cell-autonomous function in migrating tip cells. Although Vegfr3 deletion results in lymphatic hypoplasia in mouse embryos, incomplete deletion during post-natal development instead causes excessive lymphangiogenesis. Analysis of mosaically targeted endothelium shows that VEGFR3(-) LECs non-cell-autonomously drive abnormal vessel anastomosis and hyperplasia by inducing proliferation of non-targeted VEGFR3(+) LECs through cell-contactdependent reduction of Notch signaling. Heterogeneity in VEGFR3 levels thus drives vessel hyperplasia, which has implications for the understanding of mechanisms of developmental and pathological tissue growth.
  • Gao, Yaijing; Yan, Yan; Tripathi, Sushil; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Amaral, Ana; Päivinen, Pekka; Domenech-Moreno, Eva; Andersson, Simon; Wong, Iris P. L.; Clevers, Hans; Katajisto, Pekka; Mäkelä, Tomi P. (2020)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In addition to the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways, energy metabolism also regulates intestinal stem cell (ISC) function. Tumor suppressor and kinase STK11 (also called LKB1) regulates stem cells and cell metabolism. We investigated whether loss of LKB1 alters ISC homeostasis in mice. METHODS: We deleted LKB1 from ISCs in mice using Lgr5-regulated CRE-ERT2 (Lkb1(Lgr5-KO) mice) and the traced lineages by using a CRE-dependent TdTomato reporter. Intestinal tissues were collected and analyzed by immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses. We purified ISCs and intestinal progenitors using flow cytometry and performed RNA-sequencing analysis. We measured organoid-forming capacity and ISC percentages using intestinal tissues from Lkb1(Lgr5-KO) mice. We analyzed human Ls174t cells with knockdown of LKB1 or other proteins by immunoblotting, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and the Seahorse live-cell metabolic assay. RESULTS: Some intestinal crypts from Lkb1(Lgr5-KO) mice lost ISCs compared with crypts from control mice. However, most crypts from Lkb1(Lgr5-KO) mice contained functional ISCs that expressed increased levels of Atoh1 messenger RNA (mRNA), acquired a gene expression signature associated with secretory cells, and generated more cells in the secretory lineage compared with control mice. Knockdown of LKB1 in Ls174t cells induced expression of Atoh1 mRNA and a phenotype of increased mucin production; knockdown of ATOH1 prevented induction of this phenotype. The increased expression of Atoh1 mRNA after LKB1 loss from ISCs or Ls174t cells did not involve Notch or Wnt signaling. Knockdown of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) or inhibition with dichloroacetate reduced the up-regulation of Atoh1 mRNA after LKB1 knockdown in Ls174t cells. Cells with LKB1 knockdown had a reduced rate of oxygen consumption, which was partially restored by PDK4 inhibition with dichloroacetate. ISCs with knockout of LKB1 increased the expression of PDK4 and had an altered metabolic profile. CONCLUSIONS: LKB1 represses transcription of ATOH1, via PDK4, in ISCs, restricting their differentiation into secretory lineages. These findings provide a connection between metabolism and the fate determination of ISCs.
  • Morello, Francesca; Borshagovski, Daniel; Survila, Mantas; Tikker, Laura; Sadik-Ogli, Samir; Kirjavainen, Anna; Estartús, Nuri; Knaapi, Laura; Lahti, Laura; Törönen, Petri; Mazutis, Linas; Delogu, Alessio; Salminen, Marjo; Achim, Kaia; Partanen, Juha (2020)
    Tegmental nuclei in the ventral midbrain and anterior hindbrain control motivated behavior, mood, memory, and movement. These nuclei contain inhibitory GABAergic and excitatory glutamatergic neurons, whose molecular diversity and development remain largely unraveled. Many tegmental neurons originate in the embryonic ventral rhombomere 1 (r1), where GABAergic fate is regulated by the transcription factor (TF) Tal1. We used single-cell mRNA sequencing of the mouse ventral r1 to characterize the Tal1-dependent and independent neuronal precursors. We describe gene expression dynamics during bifurcation of the GABAergic and glutamatergic lineages and show how active Notch signaling promotes GABAergic fate selection in postmitotic precursors. We identify GABAergic precursor subtypes that give rise to distinct tegmental nuclei and demonstrate that Sox14 and Zfpm2, two TFs downstream of Tal1, are necessary for the differentiation of specific tegmental GABAergic neurons. Our results provide a framework for understanding the development of cellular diversity in the tegmental nuclei.
  • Noisa, Parinya; Raivio, Taneli; Cui, Wei (2015)
    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are able to proliferate in vitro indefinitely without losing their ability to differentiate into multiple cell types upon exposure to appropriate signals. Particularly, the ability of hESCs to differentiate into neuronal subtypes is fundamental to develop cell-based therapies for several neuro degenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and Parkinson's disease. In this study, we differentiated hESCs to dopaminergic neurons via an intermediate stage, neural progenitor cells (NPCs). hESCs were induced to neural progenitor cells by Dorsomorphin, a small molecule that inhibits BMP signalling. The resulting neural progenitor cells exhibited neural bipolarity with high expression of neural progenitor genes and possessed multipotential differentiation ability. CBF1 and bFGF responsiveness of these hES-NP cells suggested their similarity to embryonic neural progenitor cells. A substantial number of dopaminergic neurons were derived from hES-NP cells upon supplementation of FGF8 and SHH, key dopaminergic neuron inducers. Importantly, multiple markers of midbrain neurons were detected, including NURR1, PITX3, and EN1, suggesting that hESC-derived dopaminergic neurons attained the midbrain identity. Altogether, this work underscored the generation of neural progenitor cells that retain the properties of embryonic neural progenitor cells. These cells will serve as an unlimited source for the derivation of dopaminergic neurons, which might be applicable for treating patients with Parkinson's disease.
  • Greenough, Mark A.; Lane, Darius J. R.; Balez, Rachelle; Anastacio, Helena Targa Dias; Zeng, Zhiwen; Ganio, Katherine; McDevitt, Christopher A.; Acevedo, Karla; Belaidi, Abdel Ali; Koistinaho, Jari; Ooi, Lezanne; Ayton, Scott; Bush, Ashley (2022)
    Mutations in presenilin 1 and 2 (PS1 and PS2) cause autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Ferroptosis has been implicated as a mechanism of neurodegeneration in AD since neocortical iron burden predicts Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. We found that loss of the presenilins dramatically sensitizes multiple cell types to ferroptosis, but not apoptosis. FAD causal mutations of presenilins similarly sensitizes cells to ferroptosis. The presenilins promote the expression of GPX4, the selenoprotein checkpoint enzyme that blocks ferroptosis by quenching the membrane propagation of lethal hydroperoxyl radicals. Presenilin gamma-secretase activity cleaves Notch-1 to signal LRP8 expression, which then controls GPX4 expression by regulating the supply of selenium into the cell since LRP8 is the uptake receptor for selenoprotein P. Selenium uptake is thus disrupted by presenilin FAD mutations, suppressing GPX4 expression. Therefore, presenilin mutations may promote neurodegeneration by derepressing ferroptosis, which has implications for disease-modifying therapeutics.
  • Bauer, Michael; Flatt, Justin W.; Seiler, Daria; Cardel, Bettina; Emmenlauer, Mario; Boucke, Karin; Suomalainen, Maarit; Hemmi, Silvio; Greber, Urs F. (2019)
    Adenoviruses (AdVs) cause respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal tract infection and inflammation in immunocompetent people and life-threatening disease upon immunosuppression. AdV vectors are widely used in gene therapy and vaccination. Incoming particles attach to nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) of post-mitotic cells, then rupture and deliver viral DNA (vDNA) to the nucleus or misdeliver to the cytosol. Our genome-wide RNAi screen in AdV-infected cells identified the RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligase Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) as a proviral host factor for AdV infection. Mib1 is implicated in Notch-Delta signaling, ciliary biogenesis, and RNA innate immunity. Mib1 depletion arrested incoming AdVs at NPCs. Induced expression of full-length but not ligase-defective Mib1 in knockout cells triggered vDNA uncoating from NPC-tethered virions, nuclear import, misdelivery of vDNA, and vDNA expression. Mib1 is an essential host factor for AdV uncoating in human cells, and it provides a new concept for licensing virion DNA delivery through the NPC.
  • Kivela, Riikka; Salmela, Ida; Nguyen, Yen Hoang; Petrova, Tatiana V.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Wiener, Zoltan; Alitalo, Kari (2016)
    The remarkable adaptive and regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is regulated by several transcription factors and pathways. Here we show that the transcription factor Prox1 is an important regulator of myoblast differentiation and of slow muscle fibre type. In both rodent and human skeletal muscles Prox1 is specifically expressed in slow muscle fibres and in muscle stem cells called satellite cells. Prox1 activates the NFAT signalling pathway and is necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of the gene program of slow muscle fibre type. Using lineage-tracing we show that Prox1-positive satellite cells differentiate into muscle fibres. Furthermore, we provide evidence that Prox1 is a critical transcription factor for the differentiation of myoblasts via bi-directional crosstalk with Notch1. These results identify Prox1 as an essential transcription factor that regulates skeletal muscle phenotype and myoblast differentiation by interacting with the NFAT and Notch pathways.
  • de Back, Walter; Zimm, Roland; Brusch, Lutz (2013)
    Background: Replacement of dysfunctional beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by transdifferentiation of pancreatic acinar cells has been proposed as a regenerative therapy for diabetes. Adult acinar cells spontaneously revert to a multipotent state upon tissue dissociation in vitro and can be stimulated to redifferentiate into beta-cells. Despite accumulating evidence that contact-mediated signals are involved, the mechanisms regulating acinar-to-islet cell transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. Results: In this study, we propose that the crosstalk between two contact-mediated signaling mechanisms, lateral inhibition and lateral stabilization, controls cell fate stability and transdifferentiation of pancreatic cells. Analysis of a mathematical model combining gene regulation with contact-mediated signaling reveals the multistability of acinar and islet cell fates. Inhibition of one or both modes of signaling results in transdifferentiation from the acinar to the islet cell fate, either by dedifferentiation to a multipotent state or by direct lineage switching. Conclusions: This study provides a theoretical framework to understand the role of contact-mediated signaling in pancreatic cell fate control that may help to improve acinar-to-islet cell transdifferentiation strategies for beta-cell neogenesis.