Browsing by Subject "NUCLEATION"

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  • Dal Maso, M.; Liao, L.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Sipilä, M.; Hakala, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Ehn, M.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Kulmala, M.; Worsnop, D.; Mentel, T. (2016)
    Aerosol formation from biogenic and anthropogenic precursor trace gases in continental background areas affects climate via altering the amount of available cloud condensation nuclei. Significant uncertainty still exists regarding the agents controlling the formation of aerosol nanoparticles. We have performed experiments in the Julich plant-atmosphere simulation chamber with instrumentation for the detection of sulfuric acid and nanoparticles, and present the first simultaneous chamber observations of nanoparticles, sulfuric acid, and realistic levels and mixtures of biogenic volatile compounds (BVOCs). We present direct laboratory observations of nanoparticle formation from sulfuric acid and realistic BVOC precursor vapour mixtures performed at atmospherically relevant concentration levels. We directly measured particle formation rates separately from particle growth rates. From this, we established that in our experiments, the formation rate was proportional to the product of sulfuric acid and biogenic VOC emission strength. The formation rates were consistent with a mechanism in which nucleating BVOC oxidation products are rapidly formed and activate with sulfuric acid. The growth rate of nanoparticles immediately after birth was best correlated with estimated products resulting from BVOC ozonolysis.
  • Babkovskaia, Natalia; Rannik, Ullar; Phillips, Vaughan; Siebert, Holger; Wehner, Birgit; Boy, Michael (2016)
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the interaction between small-scale turbulence and aerosol and cloud microphysical properties using direct numerical simulations (DNS). We consider the domain located at the height of about 2000aEuro-m from the sea level, experiencing transient high supersaturation due to atmospheric fluctuations of temperature and humidity. To study the effect of total number of particles (N-tot) on air temperature, activation and supersaturation, we vary N-tot. To investigate the effect of aerosol dynamics on small-scale turbulence and vertical air motion, we vary the intensity of turbulent fluctuations and the buoyant force. We find that even a small number of aerosol particles (55.5aEuro-cm(-3)), and therefore a small droplet number concentration, strongly affects the air temperature due to release of latent heat. The system comes to an equilibrium faster and the relative number of activated particles appears to be smaller for larger N-tot. We conclude that aerosol particles strongly affect the air motion. In a case of updraught coursed by buoyant force, the presence of aerosol particles results in acceleration of air motion in vertical direction and increase of turbulent fluctuations.
  • Colombo, Jessica; Antkowiak, Adrien; Kogan, Konstantin; Kotila, Tommi; Elliott, Jenna; Guillotin, Audrey; Lappalainen, Pekka; Michelot, Alphée (2021)
    Actin polymerization provides force for vital processes of the eukaryotic cell, but our understanding of actin dynamics and energetics remains limited due to the lack of high-quality probes. Most current probes affect dynamics of actin or its interactions with actin-binding proteins (ABPs), and cannot track the bound nucleotide. Here, we identify a family of highly sensitive fluorescent nucleotide analogues structurally compatible with actin. We demonstrate that these fluorescent nucleotides bind to actin, maintain functional interactions with a number of essential ABPs, are hydrolyzed within actin filaments, and provide energy to power actin-based processes. These probes also enable monitoring actin assembly and nucleotide exchange with single-molecule microscopy and fluorescence anisotropy kinetics, therefore providing robust and highly versatile tools to study actin dynamics and functions of ABPs.
  • Lu, Yiqun; Yan, Chao; Fu, Yueyun; Chen, Yan; Liu, Yiliang; Yang, Gan; Wang, Yuwei; Bianchi, Federico; Chu, Biwu; Zhou, Ying; Yin, Rujing; Baalbaki, Rima; Garmash, Olga; Deng, Chenjuan; Wang, Weigang; Liu, Yongchun; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Jiang, Jingkun; Kulmala, Markku; Wang, Lin (2019)
    Gaseous sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is known as one of the key precursors for atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) processes, but its measurement remains challenging. Therefore, a proxy method that is able to derive gaseous sulfuric acid concentrations from parameters that can be measured relatively easily and accurately is highly desirable for the atmospheric chemistry community. Although such methods are available for clean atmospheric environments, a proxy that works well in a polluted atmosphere, such as that found in Chinese megacities, is yet to be developed. In this study, the gaseous sulfuric acid concentration was measured in February-March 2018, in urban Beijing using a nitrate based -long time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (LToF-CIMS). A number of atmospheric parameters were recorded concurrently including the ultraviolet radiation B (UVB) intensity, the concentrations of O-3, NOx (sum of NO and NO2), SO2, and HONO, and aerosol particle number size distributions. A proxy for atmospheric daytime gaseous sulfuric acid concentration was derived via a statistical analysis method using the UVB intensity, [SO2], the condensation sink (CS), [O-3], and [HONO] (or [NOx]) as the predictor variables, where square brackets denote the concentrations of the corresponding species. In this proxy method, we considered the formation of gaseous sulfuric acid from reactions of SO2 and OH radicals during the daytime, and the loss of gaseous sulfuric acid due to its condensation onto the preexisting particles. In addition, we explored the formation of OH radicals from the conventional gas-phase photochemistry using O-3 as a proxy and from the photolysis of HONO using HONO (and subsequently NOx) as a proxy. Our results showed that the UVB intensity and [SO2] are dominant factors in the production of gaseous sulfuric acid, and that the simplest proxy could be constructed with the UVB intensity and [SO2] alone. When the OH radical production from both homogenously and heterogeneously formed precursors were considered, the relative errors were reduced by up to 20 %.
  • Alfaouri, Dina; Passananti, Monica; Kangasluoma, Juha; Zanca, Tommaso; Ahonen, Lauri; Kubecka, Jakub; Myllys, Nanna; Vehkamäki, Hanna (2022)
    Sulfuric acid and dimethylamine vapours in the atmosphere can form molecular clusters, which participate in new particle formation events. In this work, we have produced, measured, and identified clusters of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine using an electrospray ionizer coupled with a planar-differential mobility analyser, connected to an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI–DMA–APi-TOF MS). This set-up is suitable for evaluating the extent of fragmentation of the charged clusters inside the instrument. We evaluated the fragmentation of 11 negatively charged clusters both experimentally and using a statistical model based on quantum chemical data. The results allowed us to quantify the fragmentation of the studied clusters and to reconstruct the mass spectrum by removing the artifacts due to the fragmentation.
  • Pusfitasari, Eka Dian; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Heiskanen, Ilmari; Jussila, Matti; Hartonen, Kari; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2022)
    A wide variety of nitrogen-containing compounds are present in the environment, which contributes to air pollution and new particle formation, for example. These eventually affect human health and the climate. With all this consideration, there is a growing interest in the development of efficient and reliable methods to determine these compounds in the atmosphere. In this study, titanium hydrogen phosphate-modified Mobil Composition of Matter No. 41 was used as sorbent material for in-tube extraction (ITEX) sampling system, to selectively collect nitrogen-containing compounds from natural air samples. The effect of sampling accessories, based on adsorbent coatings (with Tenax-GR as an adsorbent material) and polytetrafluoroethylene filters, was studied to improve the selectivity of the sampling system and to remove particles. Aerial drone with miniaturized air sampling system was employed for the reliable collection of nitrogen-containing compounds in both gas phase and aerosol particles. A total of 170 air samples were collected in July 2020 at the SMEAR II station, Finland to evaluate nitrogen-containing compounds diurnal patterns and vertical profiles (0.25, 5, 50, and 150 m). More than twenty nitrogen-containing compounds, such as aliphatic amines, imines, imidazoles, and pyridines, were identified, quantified or semi-quantified. The average concentrations of detected aliphatic amines at the altitude of 50 m were up to 40.4 ng m−3 (dimethylamine) in gas phase and 128 ng m−3 (ethylamine) in aerosol particles. Among nitrogen-containing compounds detected, pyridine gave the highest average concentration of 746 ng m−3 in gas phase and 644 ng m−3 in particle phase.
  • Thakur, Roseline C.; Dada, Lubna; Beck, Lisa J.; Quelever, Lauriane L. J.; Chan, Tommy; Marbouti, Marjan; He, Xu-Cheng; Xavier, Carlton; Sulo, Juha; Lampilahti, Janne; Lampimäki, Markus; Tham, Yee Jun; Sarnela, Nina; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Norkko, Alf; Kulmala, Markku; Sipilä, Mikko; Jokinen, Tuija (2022)
    Several studies have investigated new particle formation (NPF) events from various sites ranging from pristine locations, including forest sites, to urban areas. However, there is still a dearth of studies investigating NPF processes and subsequent aerosol growth in coastal yet semi-urban sites, where the tropospheric layer is a concoction of biogenic and anthropogenic gases and particles. The investigation of factors leading to NPF becomes extremely complex due to the highly dynamic meteorological conditions at the coastline especially when combined with both continental and oceanic weather conditions. Herein, we engage in a comprehensive study of particle number size distributions and aerosol-forming precursor vapors at the coastal semi-urban site in Helsinki, Finland. The measurement period, 25 June-18 August 2019, was timed with the recurring cyanobacterial summer bloom in the Baltic Sea region and coastal regions of Finland. Our study recorded several regional/local NPF and aerosol burst events during this period. Although the overall anthropogenic influence on sulfuric acid (SA) concentrations was low during the measurement period, we observed that the regional or local NPF events, characterized by SA concentrations on the order of 10(7) molec. cm(-3), occurred mostly when the air mass traveled over the land areas. Interestingly, when the air mass traveled over the Baltic Sea, an area enriched with algae and cyanobacterial blooms, high iodic acid (IA) concentration coincided with an aerosol burst or a spike event at the measurement site. Further, SA-rich bursts were seen when the air mass traveled over the Gulf of Bothnia, enriched with cyanobacterial blooms. The two most important factors affecting aerosol precursor vapor concentrations, and thus the aerosol formation, were speculated to be (1) the type of phytoplankton species and intensity of bloom present in the coastal regions of Finland and the Baltic Sea and (2) the wind direction. During the events, most of the growth of sub-3 nm particles was probably due to SA, rather than IA or methane sulfonic acid (MSA); however much of the particle growth remained unexplained indicative of the strong role of organics in the growth of particles, especially in the 3-7 nm particle size range. Further studies are needed to explore the role of organics in NPF events and the potential influence of cyanobacterial blooms in coastal locations.
  • Chan, Tommy; Cai, Runlong; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Liu, Yiliang; Zhou, Ying; Vanhanen, Joonas; Dada, Lubna; Chao, Yan; Liu, Yongchun; Wang, Lin; Kulmala, Markku; Kangasluoma, Juha (2020)
    Accurate measurements of the size distribution of atmospheric aerosol nanoparticles are essential to build an understanding of new particle formation and growth. This is particularly crucial at the sub-3 nm range due to the growth of newly formed nanoparticles. The challenge in recovering the size distribution is due its complexity and the fact that not many instruments currently measure at this size range. In this study, we used the particle size magnifier (PSM) to measure atmospheric aerosols. Each day was classified into one of the following three event types: a new particle formation (NPF) event, a non-event or a haze event. We then compared four inversion methods (stepwise, kernel, Hagen-Alofs and expectation-maximization) to determine their feasibility to recover the particle size distribution. In addition, we proposed a method to pretreat the measured data, and we introduced a simple test to estimate the efficacy of the inversion itself. Results showed that all four methods inverted NPF events well; however, the stepwise and kernel methods fared poorly when inverting non-events or haze events. This was due to their algorithm and the fact that, when encountering noisy data (e.g. air mass fluctuations or low sub-3 nm particle concentrations) and under the influence of larger particles, these methods overestimated the size distribution and reported artificial particles during inversion. Therefore, using a statistical hypothesis test to discard noisy scans prior to inversion is an important first step toward achieving a good size distribution. After inversion, it is ideal to compare the integrated concentration to the raw estimate (i.e. the concentration difference at the lowest supersaturation and the highest supersaturation) to ascertain whether the inversion itself is sound. Finally, based on the analysis of the inversion methods, we provide procedures and codes related to the PSM data inversion.
  • Xie, Hong-Bin; Elm, Jonas; Halonen, Roope; Myllys, Nanna; Kurten, Theo; Kulmala, Markku; Vehkamäki, Hanna (2017)
    Monoethanolamine (MEA), a potential atmospheric pollutant from the capture unit of a leading CO2 capture technology, could be removed by participating H2SO4-based new particle formation (NPF) as simple amines. Here we evaluated the enhancing potential of MEA on H2SO4-based NPF by examining the formation of molecular clusters of MEA and H2SO4 using combined quantum chemistry calculations and kinetics modeling. The results indicate that MEA at the parts per trillion (ppt) level can enhance H2SO4-based NPF. The enhancing potential of MEA is less than that of dimethylamine (DMA), one of the strongest enhancing agents, and much greater than methylamine (MA), in contrast to the order suggested solely by their basicity (MEA <MA <DMA). The unexpectedly high enhancing potential is attributed to the role of -OH of MEA in increasing cluster binding free energies by acting as both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor. After the initial formation of one H2SO4 and one MEA cluster, the cluster growth mainly proceeds by first adding one H2SO4, and then one MEA, which differs from growth pathways in H2SO4-DMA and H2SO4-MA systems. Importantly, the effective removal rate of MEA due to participation in NPF is comparable to that of oxidation by hydroxyl radicals at 278.15 K, indicating NPF as an important sink for MEA.
  • Kalivitis, N.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kouvarakis, G.; Stavroulas, I.; Bougiatioti, A.; Nenes, A.; Manninen, Hanna; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Mihalopoulos, N. (2015)
    While cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production associated with atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) is thought to be frequent throughout the continental boundary layers, few studies on this phenomenon in marine air exist. Here, based on simultaneous measurement of particle number size distributions, CCN properties and aerosol chemical composition, we present the first direct evidence on CCN production resulting from NPF in the eastern Mediterranean atmosphere. We show that condensation of both gaseous sulfuric acid and organic compounds from multiple sources leads to the rapid growth of nucleated particles to CCN sizes in this environment during the summertime. Sub-100 nm particles were found to be substantially less hygroscopic than larger particles during the period with active NPF and growth (the value of kappa was lower by 0.2-0.4 for 60 nm particles compared with 120 nm particles), probably due to enrichment of organic material in the sub-100 nm size range. The aerosol hygroscopicity tended to be at minimum just before the noon and at maximum in the afternoon, which was very likely due to the higher sulfate-to-organic ratios and higher degree of oxidation of the organic material during the afternoon. Simultaneous with the formation of new particles during daytime, particles formed during the previous day or even earlier were growing into the size range relevant to cloud droplet activation, and the particles formed in the atmosphere were possibly mixed with long-range-transported particles.
  • Sipilä, M.; Sarnela, N.; Jokinen, T.; Junninen, H.; Hakala, J.; Rissanen, M. P.; Praplan, A.; Simon, M.; Kürten, A.; Bianchi, F.; Dommen, J.; Curtius, J.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D.R. (2015)
    Atmospheric amines may play a crucial role in formation of new aerosol particles via nucleation with sulfuric acid. Recent studies have revealed that concentrations below 1 pptV can significantly promote nucleation of sulfuric acid particles. While sulfuric acid detection is relatively straightforward, no amine measurements to date have been able to reach the critical sub-pptV concentration range and atmospheric amine concentrations are in general poorly characterized. In this work we present a proof-of-concept of an instrument capable of detecting dimethyl amine (DMA) with concentrations even down to 70 ppqV (parts per quadrillion, 0.07 pptV) for a 15 min integration time. Detection of ammonia and amines other than dimethyl amine is discussed. We also report results from the first ambient measurements performed in spring 2013 at a boreal forest site. While minute signals above the signal-to-noise ratio that could be attributed to trimethyl or propyl amine were observed, DMA concentration never exceeded the detection threshold of ambient measurements (150 ppqV), thereby questioning, though not excluding, the role of DMA in nucleation at this location.
  • Cai, Runlong; Attoui, Michel; Jiang, Jingkun; Korhonen, Frans; Hao, Jiming; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kangasluoma, Juha (2018)
    Classifying sub-3 nm particles effectively with relatively high penetration efficiencies and sizing resolutions is important for atmospheric new particle formation studies. A high-resolution supercritical differential mobility analyzer (half-mini DMA) was recently improved to classify aerosols at a sheath flow rate less than 100 L/min. In this study, we characterized the transfer functions, the penetration efficiencies, and the sizing resolution of the new half-mini DMA at the aerosol flow rate of 2.5-10 L/min and the sheath flow rate of 25-250 L/min using tetra-alkyl ammonium ions and tungsten oxide particles. The transfer functions of the new half-mini DMA at an aerosol flow rate lower than 5 L/min and a sheath flow rate lower than 150 L/min agree well with predictions using a theoretical diffusing transfer function. The penetration efficiencies can be approximated using an empirical formula. When classifying 1.48 nm molecular ions at an aerosol-to-sheath flow ratio of 5/50 L/min, the penetration efficiency, the sizing resolution, and the multiplicative broadening factor of the new half-mini DMA are 0.18, 6.8, and 1.11, respectively. Compared to other sub-3 nm DMAs applied in atmospheric measurements (e.g. the mini-cyDMA, the TSI DMA 3086, the TSI nanoDMA 3085, and the Grimm S-DMA), the new half-mini DMA characterized in this study is able to classify particles at higher aerosol and sheath flow rates, leading to a higher sizing resolution at the same aerosol-to-sheath flow ratio. Accordingly, the new half-mini DMA can reduce the uncertainties in atmospheric new particle formation measurement if coupled with an aerosol detector that could work at the corresponding high aerosol flow rate. (c) 2018 American Association for Aerosol Research
  • Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Molteni, Ugo; Trostl, Jasmin; Junninen, Heikki; Henne, Stephan; Sipilä, Mikko; Herrmann, Erik; Rossi, Michel J.; Kulmala, Markku; Hoyle, Christopher R.; Baltensperger, Urs; Dommen, Josef (2017)
    The ion composition at high altitude (3454 m a.s.l.) was measured with an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight mass spectrometer (APi-TOF) during a period of 9 months, from August 2013 to April 2014. The negative mass spectra were dominated by the ions of sulfuric, nitric, malonic, and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) as well as SO5. The most prominent positive ion peaks were from amines. The other cations were mainly organic compounds clustered with a nitrogen-containing ion, which could be either NH4+ or an aminium. Occasionally the positive spectra were characterized by groups of compounds each differing by a methylene group. In the negative spectrum, sulfuric acid was always observed during clear sky conditions following the diurnal cycle of solar irradiation. On many occasions we also saw a high signal of sulfuric acid during nighttime when clusters up to the tetramer were observed. A plausible reason for these events could be evaporation from particles at low relative humidity. A remarkably strong correlation between the signals of SO5 and CH3SO3- was observed for the full measurement period. The presence of these two ions during both the day and the night suggests a non-photochemical channel of formation which is possibly linked to halogen chemistry. Halogenated species, especially Br- and IO3-, were frequently observed in air masses that originated mainly from the Atlantic Ocean and occasionally from continental areas based on back trajectory analyses. We found I2O5 clustered with an ion, a species that was proposed from laboratory and modeling studies. All halogenated ions exhibited an unexpected diurnal behavior with low values during daytime. New particle formation (NPF) events were observed and characterized by (1) highly oxygenated molecules (HOMs) and low sulfuric acid or (2) ammonia-sulfuric acid clusters. We present characteristic spectra for each of these two event types based on 26 nucleation episodes. The mass spectrum of the ammonia-sulfuric acid nucleation event compares very well with laboratory measurements reported from the CLOUD chamber. A source receptor analysis indicates that NPF events at the Jungfraujoch take place within a restricted period of time of 24-48 h after air masses have had contact with the boundary layer. This time frame appears to be crucial to reach an optimal oxidation state and concentration of organic molecules necessary to facilitate nucleation.
  • Duporte, Geoffroy; Riva, Matthieu; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Heikkinen, Enna; Barreira, Luis M. F.; Myllys, Nanna; Heikkinen, Liine; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Ehn, Mikael; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa (2017)
    Amines are recognized as key compounds in new particle formation (NPF) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In addition, ozonolysis of a-pinene contributes substantially to the formation of biogenic SOAs in the atmosphere. In the present study, ozonolysis of a-pinene in the presence of dimethylamine (DMA) was investigated in a flow tube reactor. Effects of amines on SOA formation and chemical composition were examined. Enhancement of NPF and SOA formation was observed in the presence of DMA. Chemical characterization of gas and particle-phase products by high-resolution mass spectrometric techniques revealed the formation of nitrogen containing compounds. Reactions between ozonolysis reaction products of a-pinene, such as pinonaldehyde or pinonic acid, and DMA were observed. Possible reaction pathways are suggested for the formation of the reaction products. Some of the compounds identified in the laboratory study were also observed in aerosol samples (PM1) collected at the SMEAR II station (Hyytiala, Finland) suggesting that DMA might affect the ozonolysis of a-pinene in ambient conditions.
  • Valadbeigi, Younes; Kurten, Theo (2019)
    HClO4 is an important catalyst in organic chemistry, and also acts as a reservoir or sink species in atmospheric chlorine chemistry. In this study, we computationally investigate the interactions of Bronsted (H2SO4, HClO4, HNO3) and Lewis acids (BH3, BF3, BCl3, BBr3, B(OH)(3)) with HClO4 using the omega B97xD method and the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. Different isomers of clusters with up to 4 molecules (tetramer) were optimized, and the most stable structures were determined. The enthalpies, Delta H, and Gibbs free energies, Delta G, of cluster formation were calculated in the gas phase at 298 K. Atoms in molecules (AIM) calculations find B-O bond critical points only in the (BH3)(n)HClO4 clusters, while formation of other clusters was based on hydrogen bonding interactions. (H2SO4)HClO4 and (B(OH)(3))HClO4, with formation enthalpies of -14.1 and -12.0 kcal mol(-1), were the most stable, and (BCl3)HClO4 with a formation enthalpy of -2.9 kcal mol(-1), was the least stable cluster among the dimers. Clustering of the Lewis and Bronsted acids with HClO4 enhanced its acidity, so that clustering of four HClO4 molecules and formation of (HClO4)(4) increases the acidity of HClO4 by about 35 kcal mol(-1). The most acidic dimer cluster found in the study was (BBr3)HClO4, with Delta H-acid of 275 kcal mol(-1); 26 kcal mol(-1) stronger than that of the HClO4 monomer.
  • Kulmala, Markku; Nieminen, Tuomo; Nikandrova, Anna; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Manninen, Hanna E.; Kajos, Maija K.; Kolari, Pasi; Lauri, Antti; Petaja, Tuukka; Krejci, Radovan; Hansson, Hans-Christen; Swietlicki, Erik; Lindroth, Anders; Christensen, Torben R.; Arneth, Almut; Hari, Pertti; Back, Jaana; Vesala, Timo; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2014)
  • Nikandrova, Anna; Tabakova, Ksenia; Manninen, Antti J.; Väänänen, Riikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; O'Connor, Ewan (2018)
    Understanding the distribution of aerosol layers is important for determining long-range transport and aerosol radiative forcing. In this study we combine airborne in situ measurements of aerosol with data obtained by a ground-based high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and radiosonde profiles to investigate the temporal and vertical variability of aerosol properties in the lower troposphere. The HSRL was deployed in Hyytiala, southern Finland, from January to September 2014 as a part of the U.S. DOE ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) mobile facility during the BAECC (Biogenic Aerosols - Effects on Cloud and Climate) Campaign. Two flight campaigns took place in April and August 2014 with instruments measuring the aerosol size distribution from 10 nm to 5 mu m at altitudes up to 3800 m. Two case studies with several aerosol layers present were selected from the flight campaigns for further investigation: one clear-sky and one partly cloudy case. During the clear-sky case, turbulent mixing ensured small temporal and spatial variability in the measured aerosol size distribution in the boundary layer, whereas mixing was not as homogeneous in the boundary layer during the partly cloudy case. The elevated layers exhibited larger temporal and spatial variability in aerosol size distribution, indicating a lack of mixing. New particle formation was observed in the boundary layer during the clear-sky case, and nucleation mode particles were also seen in the elevated layers that were not mixing with the boundary layer. Interpreting local measurements of elevated layers in terms of long-range transport can be achieved using back trajectories from Lagrangian models, but care should be taken in selecting appropriate arrival heights, since the modelled and observed layer heights did not always coincide. We conclude that higher confidence in attributing elevated aerosol layers to their air mass origin is attained when back trajectories are combined with lidar and radiosonde profiles.
  • Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; van der Gon, Hugo A. C. Denier; Amann, Markus (2016)
    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening emission regulations. However, there are significant uncertainties in these current emission estimates and the key actions for decreasing the uncertainties are pointed out.
  • Kivekäs, Niku; Carpman, Jimmie; Roldin, Pontus; Leppa, Johannes; O'Connor, Ewan; Kristensson, Adam; Asmi, Eija (2016)
    Field observations of new particle formation and the subsequent particle growth are typically only possible at a fixed measurement location, and hence do not follow the temporal evolution of an air parcel in a Lagrangian sense. Standard analysis for determining formation and growth rates requires that the time-dependent formation rate and growth rate of the particles are spatially invariant; air parcel advection means that the observed temporal evolution of the particle size distribution at a fixed measurement location may not represent the true evolution if there are spatial variations in the formation and growth rates. Here we present a zero-dimensional aerosol box model coupled with one-dimensional atmospheric flow to describe the impact of advection on the evolution of simulated new particle formation events. Wind speed, particle formation rates and growth rates are input parameters that can vary as a function of time and location, using wind speed to connect location to time. The output simulates measurements at a fixed location; formation and growth rates of the particle mode can then be calculated from the simulated observations at a stationary point for different scenarios and be compared with the 'true' input parameters. Hence, we can investigate how spatial variations in the formation and growth rates of new particles would appear in observations of particle number size distributions at a fixed measurement site. We show that the particle size distribution and growth rate at a fixed location is dependent on the formation and growth parameters upwind, even if local conditions do not vary. We also show that different input parameters used may result in very similar simulated measurements. Erroneous interpretation of observations in terms of particle formation and growth rates, and the time span and areal extent of new particle formation, is possible if the spatial effects are not accounted for.
  • Cai, Runlong; Yang, Dongsen; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Shi, Linlin; Korhonen, Frans; Ma, Yan; Hao, Jiming; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zheng, Jun; Kangasluoma, Juha; Jiang, Jingkun (2018)
    Measuring particle size distribution accurately down to approximately 1 nm is needed for studying atmospheric new particle formation. The scanning particle size magnifier (PSM) using diethylene glycol as a working fluid has been used for measuring sub-3 nm atmospheric aerosol. A proper inversion method is required to recover the particle size distribution from PSM raw data. Similarly to other aerosol spectrometers and classifiers, PSM inversion can be deduced from a problem described by the Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. We tested the performance of the stepwise method, the kernel function method (Lehtipalo et al., 2014), the H&A linear inversion method (Hagen and Alofs, 1983), and the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm. The stepwise method and the kernel function method were used in previous studies on PSM. The H&A method and the expectation-maximization algorithm were used in data inversion for the electrical mobility spectrometers and the diffusion batteries, respectively (Maher and Laird, 1985). In addition, Monte Carlo simulation and laboratory experiments were used to test the accuracy and precision of the particle size distributions recovered using four inversion methods. When all of the detected particles are larger than 3 nm, the stepwise method may report false sub-3 nm particle concentrations because an infinite resolution is assumed while the kernel function method and the H&A method occasionally report false sub-3 nm particles because of the unstable least squares method. The accuracy and precision of the recovered particle size distribution using the EM algorithm are the best among the tested four inversion methods. Compared to the kernel function method, the H&A method reduces the uncertainty while keeping a similar computational expense. The measuring uncertainties in the present scanning mode may contribute to the uncertainties of the recovered particle size distributions. We suggest using the EM algorithm to retrieve the particle size distributions using the particle number concentrations recorded by the PSM. Considering the relatively high computation expenses of the EM algorithm, the H&A method is recommended for preliminary data analysis. We also gave practical suggestions on PSM operation based on the inversion analysis.