Browsing by Subject "NUCLEOTIDE-SEQUENCE"

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  • Domanska, Ausra; Guryanov, Sergey; Butcher, Sarah J. (2021)
    Parechoviruses belong to the genus Parechovirus within the family Picornaviridae and are non-enveloped icosahedral viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome. Parechoviruses include human and animal pathogens classified into six species. Those that infect humans belong to the Parechovirus A species and can cause infections ranging from mild gastrointestinal or respiratory illness to severe neonatal sepsis. There are no approved antivirals available to treat parechovirus (nor any other picornavirus) infections. In this parechovirus review, we focus on the cleaved protein products resulting from the polyprotein processing after translation comparing and contrasting their known or predicted structures and functions to those of other picornaviruses. The review also includes our original analysis from sequence and structure prediction. This review highlights significant structural differences between parechoviral and other picornaviral proteins, suggesting that parechovirus drug development should specifically be directed to parechoviral targets.
  • Virtanen, Jenni; Smura, Teemu; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Knuuttila, Anna; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja (2019)
    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the causative agent of Aleutian disease (AD), which affects mink of all genotypes and also infects other mustelids such as ferrets, martens and badgers. Previous studies have investigated diversity in Finnish AMDV strains, but these studies have been restricted to small parts of the virus genome, and mostly from newly infected farms and free-ranging mustelids. Here, we investigated the diversity and evolution of Finnish AMDV strains by sequencing the complete coding sequences of 31 strains from mink originating from farms differing in their virus history, as well as from free-ranging mink. The data set was supplemented with partial genomes obtained from 26 strains. The sequences demonstrate that the Finnish AMDV strains have considerable diversity, and that the virus has been introduced to Finland in multiple events. Frequent recombination events were observed, as well as variation in the evolutionary rate in different parts of the genome and between different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Mink in the wild carry viruses with high intra-host diversity and are occasionally even co-infected by two different strains, suggesting that free-ranging mink tolerate chronic infections for extended periods of time. These findings highlight the need for further sampling to understand the mechanisms playing a role in the evolution and pathogenesis of AMDV.
  • Virtanen, Jenni; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja (2020)
    Aleutian disease (AD), caused by Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV), causes significant welfare problems to mink, and financial losses to the farmers. As there is no vaccine or treatment available, reliable diagnostics is important for disease control. Here, we set up a probe-based real-time PCR (NS1-probe-PCR) to detect all strains of AMDV. PCR was validated and compared to two other real-time PCR methods (pan-AMDV- and pan-AMDO-PCR) currently used for AMDV diagnostics in Finland. The NS1-probe-PCR had a similar detection limit of 20 copies/reaction based on plasmid dilution series, and similar or better diagnostic sensitivity, when evaluated using spleen samples from mink, and stool samples from mink and foxes. None of the three PCR tests cross-reacted with other parvoviruses. The NS1-probe-PCR also showed a significantly higher specificity than the pan-AMDO-PCR with spleen samples and the best specificity with stool samples. Furthermore, it produced the results more rapidly than the other two PCRs making it a promising tool for both diagnostic and research purposes.
  • Heikkilä, Outi; Merilahti, Pirjo; Hakanen, Marika; Karelehto, Eveliina; Alanko, Jonna; Sukki, Maria; Kiljunen, Saija; Susi, Petri (2016)
    Background: Coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9) is a pathogenic enterovirus type within the family Picornaviridae. CV-A9 infects A549 human epithelial lung carcinoma cells by attaching to the alpha V beta 6 integrin receptor through a highly conserved Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif, which is located at the exposed carboxy-terminus of the capsid protein VP1 detected in all studied clinical isolates. However, genetically-modified CV-A9 that lacks the RGD motif (CV-A9-RGDdel) has been shown to be infectious in some cell lines but not in A549, suggesting that RGD-mediated integrin binding is not always essential for efficient entry of CV-A9. Methods: Two cell lines, A549 and SW480, were used in the study. SW480 was the study object for the integrin-independent entry and A549 was used as the control for integrin-dependent entry. Receptor levels were quantitated by cell sorting and quantitative PCR. Antibody blocking assay and siRNA silencing of receptor-encoding genes were used to block virus infection. Peptide phage display library was used to identify peptide binders to CV-A9. Immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the virus infection in the cells. Results: We investigated the receptor use and early stages of CV-A9 internalization to SW480 human epithelial colon adenocarcinoma cells. Contrary to A549 infection, we showed that both CV-A9 and CV-A9-RGDdel internalized into SW480 cells and that function-blocking anti-alpha V integrin antibodies had no effect on the binding and entry of CV-A9. Whereas siRNA silencing of beta 6 integrin subunit had no influence on virus infection in SW480, silencing of beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2M) inhibited the virus infection in both cell lines. By using a peptide phage display screening, the virus-binding peptide identical to the N-terminal sequence of HSPA5 protein was identified and shown to block the virus infection in both A549 and SW480 cell lines. HSPA5 was also found to co-localize with CV-A9 at the SW480 cell periphery during the early stages of infection by confocal microscopy. Conclusions: The data suggest that while alpha V beta 6 integrin is essential for CV-A9 in A549 cell line, it is not required in SW480 cell line in which beta 2M and HSPA5 alone are sufficient for CV-A9 infection. This suggests that the choice of CV-A9 receptor(s) is dependent on the tissue/cellular environment.
  • Lyytinen, Outi Leena; Starkova, Daria; Poranen, Minna Marjetta (2019)
    BackgroundCystoviruses have a phospholipid envelope around their nucleocapsid. Such a feature is unique among bacterial viruses (i.e., bacteriophages) and the mechanisms of virion envelopment within a bacterial host are largely unknown. The cystovirus Pseudomonas phage phi6 has an envelope that harbors five viral membrane proteins and phospholipids derived from the cytoplasmic membrane of its Gram-negative host. The phi6 major envelope protein P9 and the non-structural protein P12 are essential for the envelopment of its virions. Co-expression of P9 and P12 in a Pseudomonas host results in the formation of intracellular vesicles that are potential intermediates in the phi6 virion assembly pathway. This study evaluated the minimum requirements for the formation of phi6-specific vesicles and the possibility to localize P9-tagged heterologous proteins into such structures in Escherichia coli.ResultsUsing transmission electron microscopy, we detected membranous structures in the cytoplasm of E. coli cells expressing P9. The density of the P9-specific membrane fraction was lower (approximately 1.13g/cm(3) in sucrose) than the densities of the bacterial cytoplasmic and outer membrane fractions. A P9-GFP fusion protein was used to study the targeting of heterologous proteins into P9 vesicles. Production of the GFP-tagged P9 vesicles required P12, which protected the fusion protein against proteolytic cleavage. Isolated vesicles contained predominantly P9-GFP, suggesting selective incorporation of P9-tagged fusion proteins into the vesicles.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate that the phi6 major envelope protein P9 can trigger formation of cytoplasmic membrane structures in E. coli in the absence of any other viral protein. Intracellular membrane structures are rare in bacteria, thus making them ideal chasses for cell-based vesicle production. The possibility to locate heterologous proteins into the P9-lipid vesicles facilitates the production of vesicular structures with novel properties. Such products have potential use in biotechnology and biomedicine.
  • Ruotsalainen, Pilvi; Penttinen, Reetta; Mattila, Sari; Jalasvuori, Matti (2019)
    ABSTRACTThe possibility to modify gut bacterial flora has become an important goal, and various approaches are used to achieve desirable communities. However, the genetic engineering of existing microbes in the gut, which are already compatible with the rest of the community and host immune system, has not received much attention. Here, we discuss and experimentally evaluate the possibility to use modified and mobilizable CRISPR-Cas9-endocing plasmid as a tool to induce changes in bacterial communities. This plasmid system (briefly midbiotic) is delivered from bacterial vector into target bacteria via conjugation. Compared to, for example, bacteriophage-based applications, the benefits of conjugative plasmids include their independence of any particular receptor(s) on host bacteria and their relative immunity to bacterial defense mechanisms (such as restriction-modification systems) due to the synthesis of the complementary strand with host-specific epigenetic modifications. We show that conjugative plasmid in association with a mobilizable antibiotic resistance gene targeting CRISPR-plasmid efficiently causes ESBL-positive transconjugants to lose their resistance, and multiple gene types can be targeted simultaneously by introducing several CRISPR RNA encoding segments into the transferred plasmids. In the rare cases where the midbiotic plasmids failed to resensitize bacteria to antibiotics, the CRISPR spacer(s) and their adjacent repeats or larger regions were found to be lost. Results also revealed potential caveats in the design of conjugative engineering systems as well as workarounds to minimize these risks.
  • Reyes, Aurelio; Kazak, Lawrence; Wood, Stuart R.; Yasukawa, Takehiro; Jacobs, Howard T.; Holt, Ian J. (2013)
  • Nordenstedt, Noora; Marcenaro, Delfia; Chilagane, Daudi; Mwaipopo, Beatrice; Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Nchimbi-Msolla, Susan; Njau, Paul J. R.; Mbanzibwa, Deusdedith R.; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2017)
    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an annual grain legume that was domesticated in Mesoamerica (Central America) and the Andes. It is currently grown widely also on other continents including Africa. We surveyed seedborne viruses in new common bean varieties introduced to Nicaragua (Central America) and in landraces and improved varieties grown in Tanzania (eastern Africa). Bean seeds, harvested from Nicaragua and Tanzania, were grown in insect-controlled greenhouse or screenhouse, respectively, to obtain leaf material for virus testing. Equal amounts of total RNA from different samples were pooled (30-36 samples per pool), and small RNAs were deep-sequenced (Illumina). Assembly of the reads (21-24 nt) to contiguous sequences and searches for homologous viral sequences in data-bases revealed Phaseolus vulgaris endornavirus 1 (PvEV-1) and PvEV-2 in the bean varieties in Nicaragua and Tanzania. These viruses are not known to cause symptoms in common bean and are considered non-pathogenic. The small-RNA reads from each pool of samples were mapped to the previously characterized complete PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 sequences (genome lengths ca. 14 kb and 15 kb, respectively). Coverage of the viral genomes was 87.9-99.9%, depending on the pool. Coverage per nucleotide ranged from 5 to 471, confirming virus identification. PvEV-1 and PvEV-2 are known to occur in Phaseolus spp. in Central America, but there is little previous information about their occurrence in Nicaragua, and no information about occurrence in Africa. Aside from Cowpea mild mosaic virus detected in bean plants grown from been seeds harvested from one region in Tanzania, no other pathogenic seedborne viruses were detected. The low incidence of infections caused by pathogenic viruses transmitted via bean seeds may be attributable to new, virus-resistant CB varieties released by breeding programs in Nicaragua and Tanzania.
  • Mäntynen, Sari; Sundberg, Lotta-Riina; Poranen, Minna Marjetta (2018)
    Cystoviridae is a family of bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) with a tri-segmented dsRNA genome. It includes a single genus Cystovirus, which has presently only one recognised virus species, Pseudomonas virus phi6. However, a large number of additional dsRNA phages have been isolated from various environmental samples, indicating that such viruses are more widespread and abundant than previously recognised. Six of the additional dsRNA phage isolates (Pseudomonas phages phi8, phi12, phi13, phi2954, phiNN and phiYY) have been fully sequenced. They all infect Pseudomonas species, primarily plant pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains. Due to the notable genetic and structural similarities with Pseudomonas phage phi6, we propose that these viruses should be included into the Cystovirus genus (and consequently into the Cystoviridae family). Here, we present an updated taxonomy of the family Cystoviridae and give a short overview of the properties of the type member phi6 as well as the putative new members of the family.