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  • Stevenson, N. J.; Tapani, K.; Lauronen, L.; Vanhatalo, S. (2019)
    Neonatal seizures are a common emergency in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). There are many questions yet to be answered regarding the temporal/spatial characteristics of seizures from different pathologies, response to medication, effects on neurodevelopment and optimal detection. The dataset presented in this descriptor contains EEG recordings from human neonates, the visual interpretation of the EEG by the human experts, supporting clinical data and codes to assist access. Multi-channel EEG was recorded from 79 term neonates admitted to the NICU at the Helsinki University Hospital. The median recording duration was 74 min (IQR: 64 to 96 min). The presence of seizures in the EEGs was annotated independently by three experts. An average of 460 seizures were annotated per expert in the dataset; 39 neonates had seizures and 22 were seizure free, by consensus. The dataset can be used as a reference set of neonatal seizures, in studies of inter-observer agreement and for the development of automated methods of seizure detection and other EEG analyses.
  • Rivas, Manuel A.; Graham, Daniel; Sulem, Patrick; Stevens, Christine; Desch, A. Nicole; Goyette, Philippe; Gudbjartsson, Daniel; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Degenhardt, Frauke; Mucha, Soeren; Kurki, Mitja I.; Li, Dalin; D'Amato, Mauro; Annese, Vito; Vermeire, Severine; Weersma, Rinse K.; Halfvarson, Jonas; Paavola-Sakki, Anu Liisa Paulina; Lappalainen, Anne Maarit; Lek, Monkol; Cummings, Beryl; Tukiainen, Taru; Haritunians, Talin; Halme, Leena; Koskinen, Lotta L. E.; Ananthakrishnan, Ashwin N.; Luo, Yang; Heap, Graham A.; Visschedijk, Marijn C.; MacArthur, Daniel G.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Ahmad, Tariq; Anderson, Carl A.; Brant, Steven R.; Duerr, Richard H.; Silverberg, Mark S.; Cho, Judy H.; Palotie, Aarno; Saavalainen, Paivi; Kontula, Kimmo; Farkkila, Martti; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Franke, Andre; Stefansson, Kari; Rioux, John D.; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Daly, Mark J. (2016)
    Protein-truncating variants protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets. Here we used targeted sequencing to conduct a search for protein-truncating variants conferring protection against inflammatory bowel disease exploiting knowledge of common variants associated with the same disease. Through replication genotyping and imputation we found that a predicted protein-truncating variant (rs36095412, p.R179X, genotyped in 11,148 ulcerative colitis patients and 295,446 controls, MAF = up to 0.78%) in RNF186, a single-exon ring finger E3 ligase with strong colonic expression, protects against ulcerative colitis (overall P = 6.89 x 10(-7), odds ratio = 0.30). We further demonstrate that the truncated protein exhibits reduced expression and altered subcellular localization, suggesting the protective mechanism may reside in the loss of an interaction or function via mislocalization and/or loss of an essential transmembrane domain.
  • Auvinen, Anssi; Rannikko, Antti; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula; Mirtti, Tuomas; Kenttämies, Anu; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku; Pettersson, Kim; Tammela, Teuvo L. (2017)
    The current evidence of PSA-based prostate cancer screening shows a reduction in cause-specific mortality, but with substantial overdiagnosis. Recently, new developments in detection of clinically relevant prostate cancer include multiple kallikreins as biomarkers besides PSA, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for biopsy decision. They offer opportunities for improving the outcomes in screening, particularly reduction in overdiagnosis and higher specificity for potentially lethal cancer. A population-based randomized screening trial will be started, with 67,000 men aged 55-67 years at entry. A quarter of the men will be allocated to the intervention arm, and invited to screening. The control arm will receive no intervention. All men in the screening arm will be offered a serum PSA determination. Those with PSA of 3 ng/ml or higher will have an additional multi-kallikrein panel and those with indications of increased risk of clinically relevant prostate cancer will undergo mpMRI. Men with a malignancy-suspect finding in MRI are referred to targeted biopsies. Screening interval is 6 years for men with baseline PSA <1.5 ng/ml, 4 years with PSA 1.5-3.0 and 2 years if initial PSA > 3. The main outcome of the trial is prostate cancer mortality, with analysis at 10 and 15 years. The statistical power is sufficient for detecting a 28% reduction at 10 years and 22% at 15 years. The proposed study has the potential to provide the evidence to justify screening as a public health policy if mortality benefit can be sustained with substantially reduced overdiagnosis.
  • Qi, X. M.; Ding, A. J.; Nie, W.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Herrmann, E.; Xie, Y. N.; Zheng, L. F.; Manninen, H.; Aalto, P.; Sun, J. N.; Xu, Z. N.; Chi, X. G.; Huang, X.; Boy, M.; Virkkula, A.; Yang, X. -Q.; Fu, C. B.; Kulmala, M. (2015)
    Aerosol particles play important roles in regional air quality and global climate change. In this study, we analyzed 2 years (2011-2013) of measurements of submicron particles (6-800 nm) at a suburban site in the western Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of eastern China. The number concentrations (NCs) of particles in the nucleation, Aitken and accumulation modes were 5300 +/- 5500, 8000 +/- 4400, 5800 +/- 3200 cm(-3), respectively. The NCs of total particles are comparable to those at urban/suburban sites in other Chinese megacities, such as Beijing, but about 10 times higher than in the remote western China. Long-range and regional transport largely influenced number concentrations and size distributions of submicron particles. The highest and lowest accumulation-mode particle number concentrations were observed in air masses from the YRD and coastal regions, respectively. Continental air masses from inland brought the highest concentrations of nucleation-mode particles. New particle formation (NPF) events, apparent in 44% of the effective measurement days, occurred frequently in all the seasons except winter. The frequency of NPF in spring, summer and autumn is much higher than other measurement sites in China. Sulfuric acid was found to be the main driver of NPF events. The particle formation rate was the highest in spring (3.6 +/- 2.4 cm(-3) s(-1)), whereas the particle growth rate had the highest values in summer (12.8 +/- 4.4 nm h(-1)). The formation rate was typically high in relatively clean air masses, whereas the growth rate tended to be high in the polluted YRD air masses. The frequency of NPF events and the particle growth rates showed a strong year-to-year difference. In the summer of 2013, associated with a multi-week heat wave and strong photochemical processes, NPF events occurred with larger frequency and higher growth rates compared with the same period in 2012. The difference in the location and strength of the subtropical high pressure system, which influences the air mass transport pathways and solar radiation, seems to be the cause for year-to-year differences. This study reports, up to now, the longest continuous measurement records of submicron particles in eastern China and helps to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the main factors controlling the seasonal and year-to-year variation of the aerosol size distribution and NPF in this region.
  • Kareskoski, Maria; Venhoranta, Heli; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Katila, Terttu (2019)
    Artificial insemination (AI) with cooled stallion semen has increased markedly during the last decades in all countries, but fertility is often lower than when fresh semen or natural mating is used. The objective of this study was to examine field data (1634,cycles 523 Standardbred (SB) mares, 575 Finnhorse (FH) mares, and 90 stallions) using multivariable logistic regression for factors influencing the pregnancy rate (PR) after Al with cooled transported semen from SB and FH stallions. The PR per cycle for the material was 47%: Finnhorses 42% and Standardbreds 53%. When assessed with multivariable logistic regression analyses with a generalized linear mixed model, variables that affected the PR were breed, the number of inseminated estrus cycles, the percentage of progressively motile sperm (PMOT) in the ejaculate/AI dose at the time of shipment, and the number of progressively motile sperm in the Al dose at the time of insemination. In Standardbreds, variables that increased the per cycle PR were the number of Al per estrus cycle (multiple inseminations increasing the probability of pregnancy compared to only one insemination), the number of inseminated cycles, and PMOT in the AI dose at the time of insemination. In Finnhorses, the number of Al per estrus cycle (two and three inseminations increasing the probability of pregnancy compared to only one), the number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate and in the Al dose, and PMOT in the ejaculate/AI dose at the time of shipment increased the per cycle PR. Non-significant factors for the whole material included the type of artificial vagina (open-ended or closed), transport time, place of Al (stud farm or home stable), insemination done by veterinarian or technician, weekday, month, age of the mare (all age classes combined), age of the stallion, ejaculate parameters (sperm concentration, total number of sperm), and insemination dose parameters (volume proportion of seminal plasma, sperm concentration, PMOT, total number of sperm). In conclusion, breed, breeding opportunity in more than one cycle, more than one insemination/estrus, PMOT of the ejaculate/AI dose and the number of progressively motile sperm in the Al dose at the time of insemination are important for the outcome of inseminations with cooled semen. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Talvitie, Topi; Koivisto, Mikko (AAAI Press, 2019)
    Exploring directed acyclic graphs (DAGs) in a Markov equivalence class is pivotal to infer causal effects or to discover the causal DAG via appropriate interventional data. We consider counting and uniform sampling of DAGs that are Markov equivalent to a given DAG. These problems efficiently reduce to counting the moral acyclic orientations of a given undirected connected chordal graph on n vertices, for which we give two algorithms. Our first algorithm requires O(2(n)n(4)) arithmetic operations, improving a previous super-exponential upper bound. The second requires O (k! 2(k) k(2)n) operations, where k is the size of the largest clique in the graph; for bounded-degree graphs this bound is linear in n. After a single run, both algorithms enable uniform sampling from the equivalence class at a computational cost linear in the graph size. Empirical results indicate that our algorithms are superior to previously presented algorithms over a range of inputs; graphs with hundreds of vertices and thousands of edges are processed in a second on a desktop computer.
  • Lihavainen, Heikki; Asmi, Eija; Aaltonen, Veijo; Makkonen, Ulla; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2015)
    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 degrees C) was -97 +/- 66 mWm(-2) K-1 (mean +/- STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (f(AOD)) and -63 +/- 40 mWm(-2) K-1 when using measurements of the 'dry' aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (f(sigma)). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution.
  • Molgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Soren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas (2015)
    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm(-3). Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.
  • Tonkin-Hill, Gerry; Lees, John A.; Bentley, Stephen D.; Frost, Simon D. W.; Corander, Jukka (2019)
    We present fastbaps, a fast solution to the genetic clustering problem. Fastbaps rapidly identifies an approximate fit to a Dirichlet process mixture model (DPM) for clustering multilocus genotype data. Our efficient model-based clustering approach is able to cluster datasets 10-100 times larger than the existing model-based methods, which we demonstrate by analyzing an alignment of over 110 000 sequences of HIV-1 pol genes. We also provide a method for rapidly partitioning an existing hierarchy in order to maximize the DPM model marginal likelihood, allowing us to split phylogenetic trees into clades and sub-clades using a population genomic model. Extensive tests on simulated data as well as a diverse set of real bacterial and viral datasets show that fastbaps provides comparable or improved solutions to previous model-based methods, while being significantly faster. The method is made freely available under an open source MIT licence as an easy to use R package at https://github.com/gtonkinhill/fastbaps.
  • Qvist, Laura; Niskanen, Markku; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Wutke, Saskia; Aspi, Jouni (2019)
    Background: The Finnhorse was established as a breed more than 110 years ago by combining local Finnish landraces. Since its foundation, the breed has experienced both strong directional selection, especially for size and colour, and severe population bottlenecks that are connected with its initial foundation and subsequent changes in agricultural and forestry practices. Here, we used sequences of the mitochondrial control region and genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the genetic diversity and differentiation of the four Finnhorse breeding sections: trotters, pony-sized horses, draught horses and riding horses. Furthermore, we estimated inbreeding and effective population sizes over time to infer the history of this breed. Results: We found a high level of mitochondrial genetic variation and identified 16 of the 18 haplogroups described in present-day horses. Interestingly, one of these detected haplogroups was previously reported only in the Przewalski’s horse. Female effective population sizes were in the thousands, but declines were evident at the times when the breed and its breeding sections were founded. By contrast, nuclear variation and effective population sizes were small (approximately 50). Nevertheless, inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds. Based on nuclear SNP data, genetic differentiation among the four breeding sections was strongest between the draught horses and the three other sections (FST=0.007–0.018), whereas based on mitochondrial DNA data, it was strongest between the trotters and the pony-sized and riding horses (ΦST= 0.054–0.068). Conclusions: The existence of a Przewalski’s horse haplogroup in the Finnhorse provides new insights into the domestication of the horse, and this finding supports previous suggestions of a close relationship between the Finnhorse and eastern primitive breeds. The high level of mitochondrial DNA variation in the Finnhorse supports its domestication from a large number of mares but also reflects that its founding depended on many local landraces. Although inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds, the small nuclear effective popula- tion sizes of each of its breeding sections can be considered as a warning sign, which warrants changes in breeding practices.
  • Matsuda, Takeru; Uehara, Masatoshi; Hyvärinen, Aapo (2021)
    Many statistical models are given in the form of non-normalized densities with an intractable normalization constant. Since maximum likelihood estimation is computationally intensive for these models, several estimation methods have been developed which do not require explicit computation of the normalization constant, such as noise contrastive estimation (NCE) and score matching. However, model selection methods for general non normalized models have not been proposed so far. In this study, we develop information criteria for non-normalized models estimated by NCE or score matching. They are approximately unbiased estimators of discrepancy measures for non-normalized models. Simulation results and applications to real data demonstrate that the proposed criteria enable selection of the appropriate non-normalized model in a data-driven manner.
  • Rosenström, Tom; Gjerde, Line C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Aggen, Steven H.; Czajkowski, Nikolai Olavi; Gillespie, Nathan A.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Torvik, Fartein K.; Ystrom, Eivind (2019)
    Background Normative and pathological personality traits have rarely been integrated into a joint large-scale structural analysis with psychiatric disorders, although a recent study suggested they entail a common individual differences continuum. Methods We explored the joint factor structure of 11 psychiatric disorders, five personality-disorder trait domains (DSM-5 Section III), and five normative personality trait domains (the 'Big Five') in a population-based sample of 2796 Norwegian twins, aged 19-46. Results Three factors could be interpreted: (i) a general risk factor for all psychopathology, (ii) a risk factor specific to internalizing disorders and traits, and (iii) a risk factor specific to externalizing disorders and traits. Heritability estimates for the three risk factor scores were 48% (95% CI 41-54%), 35% (CI 28-42%), and 37% (CI 31-44%), respectively. All 11 disorders had uniform loadings on the general factor (congruence coefficient of 0.991 with uniformity). Ignoring sign and excluding the openness trait, this uniformity of factor loadings held for all the personality trait domains and all disorders (congruence 0.983). Conclusions Based on our findings, future research should investigate joint etiologic and transdiagnostic models for normative and pathological personality and other psychopathology.
  • Kangasluoma, Juha; Ahonen, Lauri R.; Laurila, Tiia M.; Cai, Runlong; Enroth, Joonas; Mazon, Stephany Buenrostro; Korhonen, Frans; Aalto, Pasi P.; Kulmala, Markku; Attoui, Michel; Petäjä, Tuukka (2018)
    Measurement of atmospheric sub-10 nm nanoparticle number concentrations has been of substantial interest recently, which, however, is subject to considerable uncertainty. We report a laboratory characterization of a high flow differential mobility particle sizer (HFDMPS), which is based on the Half-mini type differential mobility analyzer (DMA) and nano condensation nuclei counter (A11), and show the first results from atmospheric observations. The HFDMPS utilizes the state-of-the-art aerosol technology, and is optimized for sub-10 nm particle size distribution measurements by a moderate resolution DMA, optimized and characterized low-loss particle sampling line and minimal dilution in the detector. We present an exhaustive laboratory calibration to the HFDMPS and compare the measured size data to the Hyytiala long-term DMPS and Neutral cluster and ion spectrometer. The HFDMPS detects about two times higher 3-10 nm particle concentrations than the long-term DMPS, and the counting uncertainties are halved as compared to the long-term DMPS. The HFDMPS did not observe any sub-2.5 nm particles in Hyytiala, and the reason for that was shown to be the inability of diethylene glycol to condense on such small biogenic particles. Last, we discuss the general implications of our results to the sub-10 nm DMPS based measurements.
  • Mamali, D.; Mikkilä, J.; Henzing, B.; Spoor, R.; Ehn, M.; Petäjä, T.; Russchenberg, H.; Biskos, G. (2018)
    Long-term measurements of PM2.5 mass concentrations and aerosol particle size distributions from 2008 to 2015, as well as hygroscopicity measurements conducted over one year (2008-2009) at Cabauw, The Netherlands, are compiled here in order to provide a comprehensive dataset for understanding the trends and annual variabilities of the atmospheric aerosol in the region. PM2.5 concentrations have a mean value of 14.4 mu g m(-3) with standard deviation 2.1 mu g m(-3), and exhibit an overall decreasing trend of -0.74 mu g m(-3) year(-1). The highest values are observed in winter and spring and are associated with a shallower boundary layer and lower precipitation, respectively, compared to the rest of the seasons. Number concentrations of particles smaller than 500 nm have a mean of 9.2 x 10(3) particles cm(-3) and standard deviation 4.9x10(3) particles cm(-3), exhibiting an increasing trend between 2008 and 2011 and a decreasing trend from 2013 to 2015. The particle number concentrations exhibit highest values in spring and summer (despite the increased precipitation) due to the high occurrence of nucleation-mode particles, which most likely are formed elsewhere and are transported to the observation station. Particle hygroscopicity measurements show that, independently of the air mass origin, the particles are mostly externally mixed with the more hydrophobic mode having a mean hygroscopic parameter kappa of 0.1 while for the more hydrophilic mode kappa is 0.35. The hygroscopicity of the smaller particles investigated in this work (i.e., particles having diameters of 35 nm) appears to increase during the course of the nucleation events, reflecting a change in the chemical composition of the particles. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Fujikawa, Kazuo; Tureanu, Anca (2018)
    The idea that the Majorana neutrino should be identified as a Bogoliubov quasiparticle is applied to the seesaw mechanism for the three generations of neutrinos in the Standard Model. A relativistic analog of the Bogoliubov transformation in the present context is a CP-preserving canonical transformation but modifies charge conjugation properties in such a way that the C-noninvariant fermion number-violating term (condensate) is converted to a Dirac mass term. Puzzling aspects associated with the charge conjugation of chiral Weyl fermions are clarified.
  • Alanne, Tommi; Meroni, Aurora; Tuominen, Kimmo (2017)
    We consider an extension of the Standard Model with the global symmetry-breaking pattern SO(5)/SO(4), where the Higgs boson arises as a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. The scalar content of the theory consists of a Standard-Model-like Higgs field and an extra real scalar field. The flavor sector of the model is extended by two right-handed neutrinos compatible with the observed light-neutrino phenomenology, and we find that the correct vacuum alignment determines the mass of the heavier neutrino eigenstate to be around 80 TeV. The new singlet-scalar state generates dynamically a Majorana mass term for the heavy-neutrino states. We show how the model leads to the correct baryon asymmetry of the Universe via leptogenesis in the case of two degenerate or hierarchical heavy neutrinos.
  • Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Esau, I.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Kouznetsov, R. D. (2010)
  • Bondarenko, Andriy; Brevig, Ole Fredrik; Saksman, Eero; Seip, Kristian; Zhao, Jing (2018)
    The 2kth pseudomoments of the Riemann zeta function (s) are, following Conrey and Gamburd, the 2kth integral moments of the partial sums of (s) on the critical line. For fixed k>1/2, these moments are known to grow like (logN)k2, where N is the length of the partial sum, but the true order of magnitude remains unknown when k1/2. We deduce new Hardy-Littlewood inequalities and apply one of them to improve on an earlier asymptotic estimate when k. In the case k1 and the question of whether the lower bound (logN)k22 known from earlier work yields the true growth rate. Using ideas from recent work of Harper, Nikeghbali and Radziwi and some probabilistic estimates of Harper, we obtain the somewhat unexpected result that these pseudomements are bounded below by logN to a power larger than k22 when k
  • Rytilä-Manninen, Minna; Frojd, Sari; Haravuori, Henna; Lindberg, Nina; Marttunen, Mauri; Kettunen, Kirsi; Therman, Sebastian (2016)
    Background: The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) is a questionnaire that is widely used to measure subjective psychopathology. In this study we investigated the psychometric properties of the SCL-90 among adolescent inpatients and community youth matched on age and gender. Methods: The final SCL-90 respondents comprised three subsets: 201 inpatients at admission, of whom 152 also completed the instrument at discharge, and 197 controls. The mean age at baseline was 15.0 years (SD 1.2), and 73 % were female. Differential SCL-90 item functioning between the three subsets was assessed with an iterative algorithm, and the presence of multidimensionality was assessed with a number of methods. Confirmatory factor analyses for ordinal items compared three latent factor models: one dimension, nine correlated dimensions, and a one-plus-nine bifactor model. Sensitivity to change was assessed with the bifactor model's general factor scores at admission and discharge. The accuracy of this factor in detecting the need for treatment used, as a gold standard, psychiatric diagnoses based on clinical records and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime (K-SADS-PL) interview. Results: Item measurement properties were largely invariant across subsets under the unidimensional model, with standardized factor scores at admission being 0.04 higher than at discharge and 0.06 higher than those of controls. Determination of the empirical number of factors was inconclusive, reflecting a strong main factor and some multidimensionality. The unidimensional factor model had very good fit, but the bifactor model offered an overall improvement, though subfactors accounted for little item variance. The SCL-90s ability to identify those with and without a psychiatric disorder was good (AUC = 83 %, Glass's. = 1.4, Cohen's d = 1.1, diagnostic odds ratio 12.5). Scores were also fairly sensitive to change between admission and discharge (AUC 72 %, Cohen's d = 0.8). Conclusions: The SCL-90 proved mostly unidimensional and showed sufficient item measurement invariance, and is thus a useful tool for screening overall psychopathology in adolescents. It is also applicable as an outcome measure for adolescent psychiatric patients. SCL-90 revealed significant gender differences in subjective psychopathology among both inpatients and community youth.