Browsing by Subject "Nanoemulsion"

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  • Ho, Minh Thao; Abik, Felix; Mikkonen, Kirsi S. (2022)
    Nanoemulsion-based systems are widely applied in food industries for protecting active ingredients against oxidation and degradation and controlling the release rate of active core ingredients under particular conditions. Visualizing the interface morphology and measuring the interfacial interaction forces of nanoemulsion droplets are essential to tailor and design intelligent nanoemulsion-based systems. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is being established as an important technique for interface characterization, due to its unique advantages over traditional imaging and surface force-determining approaches. However, there is a gap in knowledge about the applicability of AFM in characterizing the droplet interface properties of nanoemulsions. This review aims to describe the fundamentals of the AFM technique and nanoemulsions, mainly focusing on the recent use of AFM to investigate nanoemulsion properties. In addition, by reviewing interfacial studies on emulsions in general, perspectives for the further development of AFM to study nanoemulsions are also discussed.
  • Calligaris, Sonia; Plazzotta, Stella; Valoppi, Fabio; Anese, Monica (2018)
    Combinations of ultrasound (US) and high-pressure homogenization (HPH) at low-medium energy densities were studied as alternative processes to individual US and HPH to produce Tween 80 and whey protein stabilized nanoemulsions, while reducing the energy input. To this aim, preliminary trials were performed to compare emulsification efficacy of single and combined HPH and US treatments delivering low-medium energy densities. Results highlighted the efficacy of US-HPH combined process in reducing the energy required to produce nanoemulsions stabilized with both Tween 80 and whey protein isolate. Subsequently, the effect of emulsifier content (1-3% w/w), oil amount (10-20% w/w) and energy density (47-175 MJ/m(3)) on emulsion mean particle diameter was evaluated by means of a central composite design. Particles of 140-190 nm were obtained by delivering 175 MJ/m(3) energy density at emulsions containing 3% (w/w) Tween 80 and 10% (w/w) oil. In the case of whey protein isolate stabilized emulsions, a reduced emulsifier amount (1% w/w) and intermediate energy density (120 MJ/m(3)) allowed a minimum droplet size around 220-250 nm to be achieved. Results showed that, in both cases, at least 50% of the energy density should be delivered by HPH to obtain the minimum particle diameter.
  • Gul, Uzma; Khan, Muhammad Imran; Madni, Asadullah; Sohail, Muhammad Farhan; Rehman, Mubashar; Rasul, Akhtar; Peltonen, Leena (2022)
    In this article, formulation studies for terbinafine hydrochloride nanoemulsions, prepared by high-energy ultrasonication technique, are described. Pseudo-ternary phase diagram was constructed in order to find out the optimal ratios of oil and surfactant/co-solvent mixture for nanoemulsion production. Clove and olive oils were selected as oil phase. Based on the droplet size evaluation, maximum nanoemulsion region were determined for formulation development. Further characterization included polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, morphology, pH, viscosity, refractive index, ex vivo skin permeation, skin irritation, and histopathological examination. Droplet sizes of optimized formulations were in colloidal range. PDI values below 0.35 indicated considerably homogeneous nanoemulsions. Zeta potential values were from 13.2 to 18.1 mV indicating good stability, which was also confirmed by dispersion stability studies. Ex vivo permeation studies revealed almost total skin permeation of terbinafine hydrochloride from the nanoemulsions (96-98%) in 6 hours whereas commercial product reached only 57% permeation at the same time. Maximum drug amounts were seen in epidermis and dermis layers. Skin irritation and histopathological examination demonstrated dermatologically safe formulations. In conclusion, olive oil and clove oil-based nanoemulsion systems have potential to serve as promising carriers for topical terbinafine hydrochloride delivery.