Browsing by Subject "National identity"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Khromova-Borisova, Fekla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In the history of art and culture, there are unique events that change our perception of the world. Within the Brazilian cultural context, the Anthropophagite Manifesto (1928) is definitely such a case. The ideas Andrade presents in this manifesto remain a crucial milestone that modified the perception of Brazilian culture and intercultural relations of Brazil and Europe in the postcolonial framework. Andrade’s unique theory of cultural cannibalism outlived almost one century, yet it still revolutionizes and shakes traditional notions of culture. No matter what aspect of Brazilian culture is taken for analysis, the idea of cultural cannibalism remains a universal solution for defining Brazilian national identity. It all started in 1928 when Brazilian modernist writer Oswald de Andrade decided to create an art manifesto, inspired by the canvas of his wife Tarsila do Amaral Abaporu. He proposed the metaphor of anthropophagus as a figure representing the Amerindian who, in their encounter with the European other, by means of consumption of European flesh, absorbed European cultural commodities and traits, becoming a profoundly hybrid entity. In the present work, I analyze the manifesto and discuss the main ideas it conveys. Despite the truly revolutionary idea of cultural anthropophagy, Brazil went through a search for defining its national identity, and an overall spark of nationalism was present in the early 20th century in Brazil. It was precisely little after 1928 that the regime of Estado Novo proclaimed nationalism a central element vital for the development of the country. Thus, in my thesis, I offer an overview of the main aspects that surrounded the notion of nation in the early 20th century in Brazil: such as Brasilidade, mestizaje, and Brazilian jeitinho. The intersection of nationalism and Modernism was a fundamental phenomenon for 20th century Brazil. Hence, I pinpoint the main artistic tendencies and movements that encompassed and problematized the notions of national and foreign, as well as modern and outdated. The track of the manifesto rewrites the relationship between the colonized and colonizer. Oswald de Andrade turns the cannibal figure into a tool for revising the hierarchical structure of tradition and the opposition of the Old World, the Portuguese crown, and the New World, Brazil. Andrade displaces the colonial hierarchical relations of Europe and Brazil and applies them in the postcolonial context of his modernity. Assigning the same structural paradigm to a new timeframe reveals the inevitable subaltern state of Brazil even 100 years after its independence. Anthropophagite Manifesto gave rise to ideas that were unusually ahead of their time. The metaphor of the cannibal achieved an iconic status because it successfully reconciled the traditional ideas of identity and attempted to eliminate the colonial trauma by assigning the agency in the process of transculturation to Brazil. Since the publication of the manifesto, Andrade’s ideas gained new layers and revealed new meanings for considering Brazilian culture. Thus, I discuss the process of accretion of cultural cannibalism with new interpretations. For the first time in the history of analysis of the Anthropophagite Manifesto, the notion of agency in the postcolonial context is considered, which reveals the nature of the idea of anthropophagy as a solution for the colonial hierarchal structure of cultures and postcolonial trauma.
  • Stuklis, Elizabeth (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Historically, Latvia has held a marginal position within the political geography of Europe. Yet, with the restoration of the state and in moving away from the Soviet Union, Latvia reorientated its national identity towards Europe and the West. In doing so, the European Union (EU) was one of the main foreign policy objectives. In the accession process to the EU, Latvia underwent a process of Europeanization, with changes at the domestic level and was placed in an inferior position to the EU. Since 2004, Latvia has further integrated into the EU, yet different geopolitical events have also created tensions between Latvia and the EU. Considering these developments, this thesis explores how Latvia has discursively constructed its national identity in relation to the EU over the last ten years. The theoretical framework of poststructuralism assumes that national identity is discursively and relationally constructed in a complex relationship to the Other. Adding to this, the concept of liminality which refers to the in-between space between the Self/Other is utilised. Through poststructuralism, foreign policy draws on national identity constructions and national identity is constructed through foreign policy. Therefore, in order to analyse Latvia’s national identity in relation to the EU, the thesis will examine the discussions on EU related topics within the annual foreign policy debate held in the Latvian parliament of the Saeima from 2011 to 2021. In examining the empirical material, the thesis utilizes Lene Hansen’s methodology of poststructuralist discourse analysis and approach of deconstructing articulations of differentiation within relational identity. In conducting the poststructuralist discourse analysis, three main findings of Latvia’s national identity construction in relation to the EU are identified. Firstly, Latvia’s national identity is on an equal level with the EU, but as shaped through its national context. Secondly, the Latvian Self is placed in an inferior position to the EU, as Latvia remains within the liminal space and becoming fully European is unreachable. Thirdly, the Latvian Self is superior to the EU, as Latvia goes beyond and against the positionings of the EU. These results indicate the historical continuity of Latvia’s liminality and how marginal actors contribute to their own ambiguous position. Latvia’s contemporary national identity is articulated as being ‘Europe but not quite Europe’, as the Self is constructed to the Other through shades of differentiation. Latvia reinforces its own liminal identity as the EU continues to define what it means to be ‘European’.
  • Orlando, Giulia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of the multi-ethnicity and the multilingualism on the formation of the national identity in Kazakhstan. The dissertation is founded on the fieldwork conducted in the summer of 2017 in Almaty, on the collected material, as well as on the consultation of the academic literature and the pertaining statistics. The study primarily focuses on a preliminary analysis of the historical background, which illustrates the founding reasons behind the plurality of ethnic groups and languages within the Kazakh territory. Subsequently, it is taken into account the current state of affairs, the developments and the policies implemented. Upon examination of the general framework, and in reference to a well-established theoretical system, the author demonstrates the intrinsic nature of the multiethnic and multi-linguistic scenario. On this ground, it is assessed the correlation between these factors and the process of nation-building. In consideration of that, the author states an unavoidable inclusiveness of the national identity developed from the independence. She infers, also looking at the official statistics, a gradual reduction of the relevance of the minority groups, though a substantial permanence of the distinctive plurality of the population. The results of this analysis can be used for further researches on the correlation between the ethnic/linguistic situation and the future development of the national identity.
  • Lind, Alina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Due to historical and political reasons, a lot of Belarusians face a challenge regarding the understanding of their national identity. This thesis aims at analysing the ways tourism advertisements contribute to the nation’s representation to Belarusians. The study’s objectives concentrate on the formulation of the most recurring cultural representations of Belarusian nation portrayed in the advertisements and evaluation of their contribution to nation-building processes. In the following thesis, I am answering the research questions regarding the markers of cultural representation (e.g., signs, symbols) seen in tourism advertising contributing to Belarusian identity, their cultural connotations, and the differences in the representation of such symbols in governmental and private Belarusian tourist advertisements. Since the thesis is analysing Belarusian national identity features, I also provide a historical and political background of the republic since the thirteenth century. By doing so, the reader gets a comprehensive picture of the events that influenced the problem of national identity and the topicality of this issue nowadays. The data consist of 44 images and snapshots taken from Belarusian online travel resources. As a rule, these images have a direct connection to traditions, myths, and national heritage of the republic. The materials were classified according to their references to geography, leisure practices, cultural heritage, and social relationships. Such references facilitate the classification of the data and allow to identify the national identity markers in a structured way. In this research, I applied the semiology analysis method that analyses denotative and connotative meanings of an image. This method helps to identify “symbols” depicted in the tourist advertisements regarding Belarusian national identity which involves reading between the lines and understanding the historical and cultural “baggage” of the nation in question. This study demonstrated the most representative markers of cultural representation used in the tourist advertisements of Belarus, the way they “speak” to the citizens, and shape Belarusian national identity in the modern context.