Browsing by Subject "Natural language generation"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Kotola, Mikko Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Image captioning is the task of generating a natural language description of an image. The task requires techniques from two research areas, computer vision and natural language generation. This thesis investigates the architectures of leading image captioning systems. The research question is: What components and architectures are used in state-of-the-art image captioning systems and how could image captioning systems be further improved by utilizing improved components and architectures? Five openly reported leading image captioning systems are investigated in detail: Attention on Attention, the Meshed-Memory Transformer, the X-Linear Attention Network, the Show, Edit and Tell method, and Prophet Attention. The investigated leading image captioners all rely on the same object detector, the Faster R-CNN based Bottom-Up object detection network. Four out of five also rely on the same backbone convolutional neural network, ResNet-101. Both the backbone and the object detector could be improved by using newer approaches. Best choice in CNN-based object detectors is the EfficientDet with an EfficientNet backbone. A completely transformer-based approach with a Vision Transformer backbone and a Detection Transformer object detector is a fast-developing alternative. The main area of variation between the leading image captioners is in the types of attention blocks used in the high-level image encoder, the type of natural language decoder and the connections between these components. The best architectures and attention approaches to implement these components are currently the Meshed-Memory Transformer and the bilinear pooling approach of the X-Linear Attention Network. Implementing the Prophet Attention approach of using the future words available in the supervised training phase to guide the decoder attention further improves performance. Pretraining the backbone using large image datasets is essential to reach semantically correct object detections and object features. The feature richness and dense annotation of data is equally important in training the object detector.
  • Alnajjar, Khalid; Toivonen, Hannu (2021)
    In advertising, slogans are used to enhance the recall of the advertised product by consumers and to distinguish it from others in the market. Creating effective slogans is a resource-consuming task for humans. In this paper, we describe a novel method for automatically generating slogans, given a target concept (e.g. car) and an adjectival property to express (e.g. elegant) as input. Additionally, a key component in our approach is a novel method for generating nominal metaphors, using a metaphor interpretation model, to allow generating metaphorical slogans. The method for generating slogans extracts skeletons from existing slogans. It then fills a skeleton in with suitable words by utilizing multiple linguistic resources (such as a repository of grammatical relations, and semantic and language models) and genetic algorithms to optimize multiple objectives such as semantic relatedness, language correctness and usage of rhetorical devices. We evaluate the metaphor and slogan generation methods by running crowdsourced surveys. On a 5-point Likert scale, we ask online judges to evaluate whether the generated metaphors, along with three other metaphors generated using different methods, highlight the intended property. The slogan generation method is evaluated by asking crowdsourced judges to rate generated slogans from five perspectives: (1) how well is the slogan related to the topic, (2) how correct is the language of the slogan, (3) how metaphoric is the slogan, (4) how catchy, attractive and memorable is it and (5) how good is the slogan overall. Similarly, we evaluate existing expert-made slogans. Based on the evaluations, we analyze the method and provide insights regarding existing slogans. The empirical results indicate that our metaphor generation method is capable of producing apt metaphors. Regarding the slogan generator, the results suggest that the method has successfully produced at least one effective slogan for every evaluated input.
  • Pollak, Senja; Boggia, Michele; Linden, Carl-Gustav; Leppänen, Leo; Zosa, Elaine; Toivonen, Hannu (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021)
  • Toivonen, Hannu; Boggia, Michele; Mind and Matter; Department of Computer Science; Helsinki Institute for Information Technology; Discovery Research Group/Prof. Hannu Toivonen; Language Technology (The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2021)