Browsing by Subject "Negation"

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  • Yang, Fan (2019)
    In this paper, we axiomatize the negatable consequences in dependence and independence logic by extending the systems of natural deduction of the logics given in [22) and [11]. We prove a characterization theorem for negatable formulas in independence logic and negatable sentences in dependence logic, and identify an interesting class of formulas that are negatable in independence logic. Dependence and independence atoms, first-order formulas belong to this class. We also demonstrate our extended system of independence logic by giving explicit derivations for Armstrong's Axioms and the Geiger-Paz-Pearl axioms of dependence and independence atoms. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Mönkkönen, Ilkka (2018)
    The purpose of this article is to find out the factors that explain the variation among the different negators in contrastive constructions, X (and) not Y and not X but Y, in Old English prose and glosses. An attempt is also made to answer the question why such structures are used, and why they are more common in some texts than in others. The data consists of a select corpus. The results indicate that in early West Saxon the negators in such constructions are mainly nalles and naes, while the negator na occurs less frequently. The exclusive use of the negator na by aelfric simplifies the system of negators in late West Saxon. Contrastive constructions are mainly employed as rhetorical means for emphasis. They are favoured in texts that are intended to influence people. The results suggest that the variation is partly idiolectal and genre-based, and partly diachronic.