Browsing by Subject "Neolithic"

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  • Vybornov, Aleksandr A.; Vasilyeva, Irina N.; Kulkova, Marianna A.; Oinonen, Markku; Possnert, Goran; Nesterova, Larisa A. (2020)
    Introduction. The territory of the Northern Caspian region plays an important role in the study of the Neolithic of Eastern Europe. The main criterion of this period is clay pottery. One of the difficult issues is the time of the ceramic technology appearance. Methods and materials. The study of the pottery technology of the Neolithic population of the Northern Caspian region is carried out in the framework of the historical and cultural approach to the study of ceramics, according to the method of A. Bobrinsky. The technique is based on binocular microscopy, tracology and experiment in the form of physical modeling. The basis for identifying technological traces on ceramics is the comparative analysis of the vessels under study with the base of standards. It is made by means of physical modeling in field and laboratory conditions. The age of the Neolithic monuments was determined using traditional methods in radiocarbon laboratories in Russia and Ukraine, as well as using AMS at universities in Sweden and Finland. Analysis. Over the past 10 years, more than 68 radiocarbon dates on different materials such as charcoal, bones, organics from ceramics, charred crusts, humus have been obtained. They give the possibility to determine the time of appearance and spread of the earliest pottery in the Northern Caspian region. This is the middle 7th millennium BC. The chronological framework for the development of the Neolithic in the Northern Caspian region is ca. 6600-5500 BC. The paper establishes the main and specific features of ceramic traditions. Results. The technical and technological analysis allows to reveal the genesis, the features of dynamics and further development of pottery in this region. The complex of results obtained allows to attribute the Neolithic sites of the Caspian region to the earliest pottery areal in Eastern Europe.
  • Alenius, Teija; Mökkönen, Teemu; Holmqvist, Elisabeth; Ojala, Antti (2017)
    Two high-resolution pollen and charcoal analyses were constructed from sediments obtained from a small bay in eastern Finland in order to gain information on human activity during the Neolithic Stone Age, 5200-1800 BC. We used measurements of loss on ignition (LOI), magnetic susceptibility, and geochemical analyses to describe the sedimentological characteristics. Palaeomagnetic dating and measurements of Cs-137 activity were supported by C14 datings. The analyses revealed human activity between 4400 and 3200 BC, which is synchronous with archaeological cultures defined through different stages of Comb Ware pottery types and Middle Neolithic pottery types with asbestos as a primary temper. Direct evidence of Hordeum cultivation was dated to 4040-3930 cal BC. According to the pollen data, more significant effort was put into the production of fibres from hemp than the actual cultivation of food.
  • Ahola, Marja Elina; Kirkinen, Tuija Kristiina; Vajanto, Krista; Ruokolainen, Janne (2018)
    The Late Neolithic Corded Ware Culture (c. 2800–2300 BC) of Northern Europe is characterised by specific sets of grave goods and mortuary practices, but the organic components of these grave sets are poorly represented in the archaeological record. New microscopic analyses of soil samples collected during the 1930s from the Perttulanmäki grave in western Finland have, however, revealed preserved Neolithic animal hairs. Despite mineralisation, the species of animal has been successfully identified and offers the oldest evidence for domestic goat in Neolithic Finland, indicating a pastoral herding economy. The mortuary context of the goat hair also suggests that animals played a significant role in the Corded Ware belief system.
  • Holmqvist, Elisabeth; Larsson, Åsa M.; Kriiska, Aivar; Palonen, Vesa; Pesonen, Petro; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Kouki, Paula; Räisänen, Jyrki (2018)
    The Neolithic Corded Ware Culture (CWC) complex spread across the Baltic Sea region ca. 2900/2800-2300/2000 BCE. Whether this cultural adaptation was driven by migration or diffusion remains widely debated. To gather evidence for contact and movement in the CWC material culture, grog-tempered CWC pots from 24 archaeological sites in southern Baltoscandia (Estonia and the southern regions of Finland and Sweden) were sampled for geochemical and micro-structural analyses. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) were used for geochemical discrimination of the ceramic fabrics to identify regional CWC pottery manufacturing traditions and ceramic exchange. Major and minor element concentrations in the ceramic body matrices of 163 individual vessels and grog temper (crushed pottery) present in the ceramic fabrics were measured by SEM-EDS. Furthermore, the high-sensitivity PIXE technique was applied for group confirmation. The combined pot and grog matrix data reveal eight geochemical clusters. At least five geochemical groups appeared to be associated with specific find locations and regional manufacturing traditions. The results indicated complex inter-site and cross-Baltic Sea pottery exchange patterns, which became more defined through the grog data, i.e., the previous generations of pots. The CWC pottery exhibited high technological standards at these latitudes, which, together with the identified exchange patterns and the existing evidence of mobility based on human remains elsewhere in the CWC complex, is indicative of the relocation of skilled potters, possibly through exogamy. An analytical protocol for the geochemical discrimination of grog-tempered pottery, and its challenges and possibilities, is presented. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.