Browsing by Subject "Neotropical"

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  • Ariza, Gloria Maria; Jacome, Jorge; Kotze, D. Johan (2021)
    The tropical dry forest (TDF) ecosystem is characterised by strong seasonality exasperated periodically by the El Nino/southern oscillation (ENSO). The environment produced by this event could constrain the survival of small organisms, such as insects. Carabid beetles were collected in a TDF in Armero, Colombia, during wet and dry seasons in both El Nino and non-El Nino periods. A series of traits linked to desiccation resistance were measured to characterise their adaptation to the TDF environment and to investigate changes experienced by carabid beetles during both episodes in quantitative (assemblage) and qualitative (traits) parameters. We found no difference in the presence of traits between El Nino and non-El Nino episodes, but carabid assemblages changed significantly in composition and assemblage structure between these episodes. During both periods, small-sized and nocturnal species dominated the assemblages, but in terms of number of individuals, medium and large-sized, and visual hunter species dominated. Calosoma alternans and Megacephala affinis were the most abundant species with high dispersal capacity. Carabid beetles exhibited morphological traits well-adapted to drought experienced in TDF, including when it is exasperated by ENSO. However, long-term studies can help to elucidate the real effects of ENSO and to confirm the adaptation of carabid beetles to cope with this extreme environment.
  • Reis, Camila Alves; Dias, Cleyssian; Araripe, Juliana; Aleixo, Alexandre; Anciaes, Marina; Sampaio, Iracilda; Schneider, Horacio; do Rego, Pericles Sena (2020)
    We used molecular tools and a multilocus approach to investigate the phylogeography of Lepidothrix coronata across most of its ample range. We sequenced six DNA fragments to produce phylogenies, molecular dating estimates, analyses of the dynamics of the demographic history of the species and a biogeographic analysis to estimate the events and changes in the ancestral distribution of the species. The results indicated the presence of four well-established lineages, with high levels of divergence. These lineages are delineated by well-defined geographic barriers, with one lineage, restricted to the west of the Andes, being the first to diverge from the complex. The other three lineages are exclusive to the Amazonian distribution of the species, with two being found north of the Amazon River, and the third, south of the Amazon. Some of the relationships found between these lineages were distinct from those described in previous studies. Important disagreements were found between the mtDNA phylogeny and that of the multilocus analysis, in relation to the lineages located to the west of the Andes. We propose that past introgression events may have influenced shifts in the relationships between lineages, despite the fact that the groups were well defined in both the phylogenies. The biogeographic analysis indicates that the lineages arose through successive vicariance events, which had a primary role in the diversification of the group. Two or three genetically structured subclades were also found within each Amazonian lineage, although these subclades are not isolated by an obvious geographic barrier.