Browsing by Subject "Networks"

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  • Podpecan, Vid; Ramšak, Živa; Gruden, Kristina; Toivonen, Hannu; Lavrac, Nada (2019)
  • Viholainen, Tuomo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The purpose of this thesis is to gain insight into the effects of different transaction and price setting methods and network structures in an intermediation network setting on profit allocation between their agents. The paper will be formulated as a literature review, and while every discussed intermediation model is not covered in detail, the goal is still to provide a clear outline on the topic. The focus is mostly in network models with exogenously determined connections between agents that restrict the trade, although search models, where the trade is restricted by randomizing the encounters between agents, are also discussed. The presented models are divided into three categories based on the restrictions placed on their intermediaries. First, we will look at models where intermediaries are not allowed to trade with each other. Next are models where intermediaries are allowed to trade with each other, causing intermediation chains to form. Lastly, we look at models where intermediaries are not exogenously separated from buyers. We will see that the results of intermediation network models are very sensitive to changes in the models' premises. Two largest contributors to the profit distribution between the agents in the models are the way the bargaining game between trading partners is modelled and how connections between agents in the model are restricted, which is directly tied to the restrictions on the trading partners of the intermediaries. The former on the other hand splits the models roughly into two categories, one utilizing a predetermined surplus split between the trade partners and the other using a strategic bargaining game. A pre-determined surplus split, depending on how even it is, usually favours agents further along the chain. The results of having a strategic bargaining game are largely dependent on positions of the agents in the network, where agents who can exploit competition between other agents can usually extract higher profits. In some models, the ability of intermediaries to make a positive profit is also tied to their necessity for the efficiency of the trade.
  • Godenhjelm, Sebastian; Johanson, Jan-Erik (2018)
    The delivery of public services in collaborative agency networks has given rise to an increasing use of projects in administering policy and service delivery. Projects are assumed to provide mechanisms by which flexibility can be achieved and innovative solutions produced. The aim of the article is to advance the understanding of collaboration between stakeholders and its effect on innovation. It analyses stakeholders' influence on the creation of project innovations in 275 European Union-funded projects by using content analyses and logistic regression analyses. The results show that projects can act as hubs where valuable information is produced but that few projects produce innovations. Project stakeholder network, knowledge dissemination and project influence, as well as sources of advice, play a role in predicting project innovations. The article concludes that the overly optimistic view of collaboration as a remedy for a lack of innovation in the public sector can be questioned. Points for practitioners The results of the article help practitioners to compose public sector development projects that foster innovation. The results suggest that it pays to include representatives of research and education facilities among project staff as their inclusion predicts the possibilities of achieving innovations. The empirical findings provide insight into project innovation and indicate which practices to avoid. It is suggested that when managed correctly, stakeholder inclusion has an effect on public sector project innovation.
  • Kuorikoski, Jaakko; Marchionni, Caterina (2014)
    We examine the diversity of strategies of modelling networks in (micro) economics and (analytical) sociology. Field-specific conceptions of what explaining (with) networks amounts to or systematic preference for certain kinds of explanatory factors are not sufficient to account for differences in modelling methodologies. We argue that network models in both sociology and economics are abstract models of network mechanisms and that differences in their modelling strategies derive to a large extent from field-specific conceptions of the way in which a good model should be a general one. Whereas the economics models aim at unification, the sociological models aim at a set of mechanism schemas that are extrapolatable to the extent that the underlying psychological mechanisms are general. These conceptions of generality induce specific biases in mechanistic explanation and are related to different views of when knowledge from different fields should be seen as relevant. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.