Browsing by Subject "Neurological outcome"

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  • Humaloja, Jaana; Litonius, Erik; Efendijev, Ilmar; Folger, Daniel; Raj, Rahul; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2019)
    Aim: Studies suggest that hyperoxemia increases short-term mortality after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), but the effect of hyperoxemia on long-term outcomes is unclear. We determined the prevalence of early hyperoxemia after CPR and its association with long-term neurological outcome and mortality. Methods: We analysed data from adult cardiac arrest patients treated after CPR in tertiary ICUs during 2005-2013. We retrieved data from the resuscitation and the first arterial blood sample collected after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) (severe hyperoxemia defined as PaO2 > 40 kPa and moderate as PaO2 16-40 kPa). We inspected two outcomes, neurological performance at one year after resuscitation according to the Cerebral Performance Category and one-year mortality. We used logistic regression to test associations between hyperoxemia and the outcome and interaction analyses to test the effect of hyperoxemia exposure on the outcomes in smaller subgroups. Results: Of 1110 patients 11% had severe hyperoxemia, prevalence was 10% for out-of-hospital arrests, 13% for in-hospital arrests and 9% for in-ICU arrests. In total 585(53%) patients had an unfavourable neurological outcome. Compared to normoxemia, severe (Odds ratio [OR] 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-1.30) and moderate hyperoxemia (OR 0.94 95%CI 0.69-1.27) did not associate with neurological outcome. Additionally, hyperoxemia had no association with mortality. In subgroup analyses there were no significant associations between severe hyperoxemia and outcomes regardless of cardiac arrest location, initial rhythm or time-to-ROSC. Conclusion: We found no association between early post-arrest hyperoxemia and unfavourable outcome, Subgroup analysis found no differential effect depending on arrest location, initial rhythm or time-to-ROSC.
  • Calabro, Lorenzo; Bougouin, Wulfran; Cariou, Alain; De Fazio, Chiara; Skrifvars, Markus; Soreide, Eldar; Creteur, Jacques; Kirkegaard, Hans; Legriel, Stephane; Lascarrou, Jean-Baptiste; Megarbane, Bruno; Deye, Nicolas; Taccone, Fabio Silvio (2019)
    Background Although targeted temperature management (TTM) is recommended in comatose survivors after cardiac arrest (CA), the optimal method to deliver TTM remains unknown. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of different TTM methods on survival and neurological outcome after adult CA. Methods We searched on the MEDLINE/PubMed database until 22 February 2019 for comparative studies that evaluated at least two different TTM methods in CA patients. Data were extracted independently by two authors. We used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and a modified Cochrane ROB tools for assessing the risk of bias of each study. The primary outcome was the occurrence of unfavorable neurological outcome (UO); secondary outcomes included overall mortality. Results Our search identified 6886 studies; 22 studies (n = 8027 patients) were included in the final analysis. When compared to surface cooling, core methods showed a lower probability of UO (OR 0.85 [95% CIs 0.75-0.96]; p = 0.008) but not mortality (OR 0.88 [95% CIs 0.62-1.25]; p = 0.21). No significant heterogeneity was observed among studies. However, these effects were observed in the analyses of non-RCTs. A significant lower probability of both UO and mortality were observed when invasive TTM methods were compared to non-invasive TTM methods and when temperature feedback devices (TFD) were compared to non-TFD methods. These results were significant particularly in non-RCTs. Conclusions Although existing literature is mostly based on retrospective or prospective studies, specific TTM methods (i.e., core, invasive, and with TFD) were associated with a lower probability of poor neurological outcome when compared to other methods in adult CA survivors (CRD42019111021).
  • Babini, Giovanni; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Boccardo, Antonio; De Giorgio, Daria; De Maglie, Marcella; Affatato, Roberta; Ceriani, Sabina; Zani, Davide; Novelli, Deborah; Staszewsky, Lidia; Masson, Serge; Pravettoni, Davide; Latini, Roberto; Belloli, Angelo; Scanziani, Eugenio; Skrifvars, Markus (2019)
    Aim of the study: To evaluate in an established porcine post cardiac arrest model the effect of a mild hypercapnic ventilatory strategy on outcome. Methods: The left anterior descending coronary artery was occluded in 14 pigs and ventricular fibrillation induced and left untreated for 12 min. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed for 5 min prior to defibrillation. After resuscitation, pigs were assigned to either normocapnic (end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) target: 35-40 mmHg) or hypercapnic ventilation (EtCO2 45-50 mmHg). Hemodynamics was invasively measured and EtCO2 was monitored with an infrared capnometer. Blood gas analysis, serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and high sensitive cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) were assessed. Survival and functional recovery were evaluated up to 96 h. Results: Twelve pigs were successfully resuscitated and eight survived up to 96 h, with animals in the hypercapnic group showing trend towards a longer survival. EtCO2 and arterial partial pressure of CO2 were higher in the hypercapnic group compared to the normocapnic one (p <0.01), during the 4-hour intervention. Hypercapnia was associated with higher mean arterial pressure compared to normocapnia (p <0.05). No significant differences were observed in hs-cTnT and in NSE between groups, although the values tended to be lower in the hypercapnic one. Neuronal degeneration was lesser in the frontal cortex of hypercapnic animals compared to the normocapnic ones (p <0.05). Neurological recovery was equivalent in the two groups. Conclusion: Mild hypercapnia after resuscitation was associated with better arterial pressure and lesser neuronal degeneration in this model. Nevertheless, no corresponding improvements in neurological recovery were observed.
  • Tiainen, Marjaana; Poutiainen, Erja; Oksanen, Tuomas; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Pettila, Ville; Skrifvars, Markus; Varpula, Tero; Castren, Maaret (2015)
  • Wihersaari, L.; Reinikainen, M.; Furlan, R.; Mandelli, A.; Vaahersalo, J.; Kurola, J.; Tiainen, M.; Pettilä, V.; Bendel, S.; Varpula, T.; Latini, R.; Ristagno, G.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2022)
    Aim: We compared the prognostic abilities of neurofilament light (NfL) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in patients resuscitated from out-ofhospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of various aetiologies. Methods: We analysed frozen blood samples obtained at 24 and 48 hours from OHCA patients treated in 21 Finnish intensive care units in 2010 and 2011. We defined unfavourable outcome as Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) 3-5 at 12 months after OHCA. We evaluated the prognostic ability of the biomarkers by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROCs [95% confidence intervals]) and compared these with a bootstrap method. Results: Out of 248 adult patients, 12-month outcome was unfavourable in 120 (48.4%). The median (interquartile range) NfL concentrations for patients with unfavourable and those with favourable outcome, respectively, were 689 (146-1804) pg/mL vs. 31 (17-61) pg/mL at 24 h and 1162 (147-4360) pg/mL vs. 36 (21-87) pg/mL at 48 h, p < 0.001 for both. The corresponding NSE concentrations were 13.3 (7.2-27.3) mg/L vs. 8.5 (5.8- 13.2) mg/L at 24 h and 20.4 (8.1-56.6) mg/L vs. 8.2 (5.9-12.1) mg/L at 48 h, p < 0.001 for both. The AUROCs to predict an unfavourable outcome were 0.90 (0.86-0.94) for NfL vs. 0.65 (0.58-0.72) for NSE at 24 h, p < 0.001 and 0.88 (0.83-0.93) for NfL and 0.73 (0.66-0.81) for NSE at 48 h, p < 0.001. Conclusion: Compared to NSE, NfL demonstrated superior accuracy in predicting long-term unfavourable outcome after OHCA.
  • Efendijev, Ilmar; Folger, Daniel; Raj, Rahul; Reinikainen, Matti; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Litonius, Erik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2018)
    Background: Despite the significant socioeconomic burden associated with cardiac arrest (CA), data on CA patients' long-term outcome and healthcare-associated costs are limited. The aim of this study was to determine one-year survival, neurological outcome and healthcare-associated costs for ICU-treated CA patients. Methods: This is a single-centre retrospective study on adult CA patients treated in Finnish tertiary hospital's ICUs between 2005 and 2013. Patients' personal identification number was used to crosslink data between several nationwide databases in order to obtain data on one-year survival, neurological outcome, and healthcare-associated costs. Healthcare-associated costs were calculated for every patient stratified by cardiac arrest location (OHCA = out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, IHCA = all in-hospital cardiac arrest, ICU-CA = in-ICU cardiac arrest) and initial cardiac rhythm. Cost-effectiveness was estimated by dividing total healthcare-associated costs for all patients from the respective group by the number of survivors and survivors with favourable neurological outcome. Results: The study population included 1,024 ICU-treated CA patients. The sum of costs for all patients was (sic)50,847,540. At one-year after CA, 58% of OHCAs, 44% of IHCAs, and 39% of ICU-CAs were alive. Of one-year survivors 97% of OHCAs, 88% of IHCAs, and 93% of ICU-CAs had favourable neurological outcome. Effective cost per one-year survivor was (sic)76,212 for OHCAs, (sic)144,168 for IHCAs, and (sic)239,468 for ICU-CAs. Effective cost per one-year survivor with favourable neurological outcome was (sic)81,196 for OHCAs, (sic)164,442 for IHCAs, and _(sic)257,207 for ICU-CAs. Conclusions: In-ICU CA patients had the lowest one-year survival with the effective cost per survivor three times higher than for OHCAs.
  • Tiainen, Marjaana; Vaahersalo, Jukka; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Hästbacka, Johanna; Grönlund, Juha; Pettilä, Ville (2018)
    Background: Data on long-term functional outcome and quality of life (QoL) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) are limited. We assessed long-term functional outcome and health-related QoL of OHCA survivors regardless of arrest aetiology. Methods: All adult unconscious OHCA patients treated in 21 Finnish ICUs between March 2010 and February 2011 were followed. Barthel Index (BI), activities of daily living (ADL), accommodation, help needed and received, working status, car driving and self-experienced cognitive deficits were assessed in 1-year survivors (N = 206, 40.9% of the original FINNRESUSCI cohort) with a structured telephone interview. Health-related QoL and more complex ADL-functions were evaluated by EQ-5D and instrumental ADL questionnaires. Results: Good outcome, defined as Cerebral Performance Categories 1 or 2, had been reached by 90.3% of survivors. The median BI score was 100, and 91.3% of survivors were independent in basic ADL-functions. The great majority of survivors were living at home, only 8.7% lived in a sheltered home or needed institutionalized care. Of home-living survivors 71.4% scored high in instrumental ADL assessment. The majority (72.6%) of survivors who were working previously had returned to work. Health-related QoL was similar as in age-and gender-adjusted Finnish population. Conclusions: Long-term functional outcome was good in over 90% of patients surviving OHCA, with health-related quality of life similar to that of an age and gender matched population.
  • FINNRESUSCI Study Grp; Wihersaari, Lauri; Tiainen, Marjaana; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Bendel, Stepani; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Vaahersalo, Jukka; Romppanen, Jarkko; Pettilä, Ville; Reinikainen, Matti (2019)
    Aim of the study: We evaluated the impact of patient age and time from collapse to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) on the prognostic accuracy of neuron specific enolase (NSE) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: Using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, we measured serum concentrations of NSE in 249 patients who were admitted to intensive care units after resuscitation from OHCA. In each quartile according to age and time to ROSC, we evaluated the ability of NSE at 48 h after OHCA to predict poor outcome (Cerebral Performance Category 3-5) at 12 months. Results: The outcome at 12 months was poor in 121 (49%) patients. The prognostic performance of NSE was excellent (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, AUROC, 0.91 [95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.00]) in the youngest quartile (18-56 years), but worsened with increasing age, and was poor (AUROC 0.53 [0.37-0.70]) in the oldest quartile (72 years or more). The prognostic performance of NSE was worthless (AUROC 0.45 [0.30-0.61]) in the quartile with the shortest time to ROSC (1-13 min), but improved with increasing time to ROSC, and was good (AUROC 0.84 [0.74-0.95]) in the quartile with the longest time to ROSC (29 min or over). Conclusion: NSE at 48 h after OHCA is a useful predictor of 12-month-prognosis in young patients and in patients with a long time from collapse to ROSC, but not in old patients or patients with a short time to ROSC.