Browsing by Subject "Neuroplasticity"

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  • Nair, Preethy Sasidharan; Kuusi, Tuire; Ahvenainen, Minna; Philips, Anju K.; Järvelä, Irma (2019)
    Musical training and performance require precise integration of multisensory and motor centres of the human brain and can be regarded as an epigenetic modifier of brain functions. Numerous studies have identified structural and functional differences between the brains of musicians and non-musicians and superior cognitive functions in musicians. Recently, music-listening and performance has also been shown to affect the regulation of several genes, many of which were identified in songbird singing. MicroRNAs affect gene regulation and studying their expression may give new insights into the epigenetic effect of music. Here, we studied the effect of 2 hours of classical music-performance on the peripheral blood microRNA expressions in professional musicians with respect to a control activity without music for the same duration. As detecting transcriptomic changes in the functional human brain remains a challenge for geneticists, we used peripheral blood to study music-performance induced microRNA changes and interpreted the results in terms of potential effects on brain function, based on the current knowledge about the microRNA function in blood and brain. We identified significant (FDR
  • Kraus, Christoph; Castrén, Eero; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert (2017)
    Serotonin modulates neuroplasticity, especially during early life, and dysfunctions in both systems likewise contribute to pathophysiology of depression. Recent findings demonstrate that serotonin reuptake inhibitors trigger reactivation of juvenile-like neuroplasticity. How these findings translate to clinical antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder remains unclear. With this review, we link preclinical with clinical work on serotonin and neuroplasticity to bring two pathophysiologic models in clinical depression closer together. Dysfunctional developmental plasticity impacts on later-life cognitive and emotional functions, changes of synaptic serotonin levels and receptor levels are coupled with altered synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in patients reveals disease-state-specific reductions of gray matter, a marker of neuroplasticity, and reversibility upon selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Translational evidence from magnetic resonance imaging in animals support that reduced densities and sizes of neurons and reduced hippocampal volumes in depressive patients could be attributable to changes of serotonergic neuroplasticity. Since ketamine, physical exercise or learning enhance neuroplasticity, combinatory paradigms with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors could enhance clinical treatment of depression. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.