Browsing by Subject "New Zealand"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Aaltonen, K (Kela, 2017)
    Studies in social security and health 146
    Tutkimuksessa tarkasteltiin lääkekorvausjärjestelmien lääkkeiden saatavuuteen vaikuttavia piirteitä, erityisesti korvattavuuden ehtoja, disinsentiivejä, korvattavaa valikoimaa ja universalismia, suhteessa lääkeomavastuiden jakautumiseen ja hoitojen käyttämättä jättämiseen kustannussyistä. Aineistoina käytettiin tuote- ja hinnastotietoja, kulutustutkimusaineistoa, postikyselyaineistoa ja apteekkien ostorekistereitä. Yhtäläisyydet liittyivät universalismiin ja korvattavuuden ehtoihin. Korvauksia kohdennettiin molemmissa maissa tarpeeseen liittyvillä mekanismeilla, omavastuukaton avulla sekä korvattavuusrajoituksilla. Erot liittyivät valikoimaan ja disinsentiiveihin. Suomessa korvattiin enemmän hoidollisesti toisiaan lähellä olevia vaihtoehtoja ja uusien lääke­innovaatioiden määrä markkinoilla oli laajempi, mutta omavastuutaso korkeampi. Uudessa-Seelannissa kokonaan korvattavia lääkkeitä oli saatavissa useimpiin terveysongelmiin. Korvattava valikoima oli kuitenkin kontrolloidumpi ja sisälsi enemmän vanhempia lääkkeitä. Suomessa omavastuilla oli regressiivisiä vaikutuksia. Pienemmät tulot ja huonompi terveydentila olivat yhteydessä palveluiden käyttämättä jättämiseen kustannussyistä, mikä vastasi aiemmassa kirjallisuudessa Uudesta-Seelannista julkaistuja tuloksia. Omavastuiden jakautumisen perusteella Uudessa-Seelannissa ikääntyneet henkilöt käyttivät vain harvoin muita kuin kokonaan korvattavia lääkkeitä eivätkä korkeat omavastuut olleet yhteydessä potilaan sosioekonomiseen asemaan. Korkeammasta sairastavuudestaan huolimatta maoreilla (alkuperäiskansa) kuitenkin korkeat omavastuut olivat harvinaisempia, ja he myös ostivat vähemmän lääkkeitä eurooppalaistaustaisiin nähden. Kumpikin järjestelmä sisältää riittävyyteen liittyviä heikkouksia ja vahvuuksia eikä kumpikaan kykene täysin suojaamaan potilaita omavastuiden haitallisilta vaikutuksilta. Sosioekonomisten ja etnisten lääkkeiden käyttöön liittyvien erojen syiden ja seurausten selvittäminen vaatii vielä lisää tutkimusta. - Englanninkielinen julkaisu.
  • Beimforde, Christina; Tuovila, Hanna; Schmidt, Alexander R.; Lee, William; Gube, Matthias; Rikkinen, Jouko (2017)
    Ascomycetes specialised to live on hardened plant exudates occur worldwide, but the number of species so far described is relatively small (c.30). Particularly within the genus Chaenothecopsis (Ascomycota:Mycocaliciales), many species produce their ascomata on hardened but still relatively fresh outpourings of conifer resin or angiosperm exudate. Temperate rainforests of New Zealand provide habitat for several endemic Chaenothecopsis species, including Chaenothecopsis schefflerae, which was previously known from a single sample collected from the exudate of Schefflera digitata (Araliaceae) in the early 1980s. Here we show that C.schefflerae is neither lost nor very rare, but occurs sporadically throughout New Zealand. The fungus does not primarily grow on Schefflera but on exudate of several species of Pseudopanax (Araliaceae),also endemic to the region. We compare the morphology of the new specimens to the type specimen of C. schefflerae and provide a detailed description of the new material. Phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS and LSU rDNA place C.schefflerae together with other morphologically similar Chaenothecopsis species growing on angiosperm exudates.
  • Lucena-Moya, Paloma; Duggan, Ian C. (2017)
    We tested whether variability in zooplankton assemblages was consistent with the categories of estuarine environments proposed by the 'Estuary Environment Classification' system (EEC) (Hume et al., 2007) across a variety of North Island, New Zealand, estuaries. The EEC classifies estuaries in to eight categories (A to F) based primarily on a combination of three abiotic controlling factors: ocean forcing, river forcing and basin morphometry. Additionally, we tested whether Remane's curve, which predicts higher diversities of benthic macrofauna and high and low salinities, can be applied to zooplankton assemblages. We focused on three of the eight EEC categories (B, D and F), which covered the range of estuaries with river inputs dominating (B) to ocean influence dominating (F). Additionally, we included samples from river (FW) and sea (MW) to encompass the entire salinity range. Zooplankton assemblages varied across the categories examined in accordance with a salinity gradient predicted by the EEC. Three groups of zooplankton were distinguishable: the first formed by the most freshwater categories, FW and B, and dominated by rotifers (primarily Bdelloidea) and estuarine copepods (Gladioferans pectinatus), a second group formed by categories D and F, of intermediate salinity, dominated by copepods (Euterpina acutifrons), and a final group including the purely marine category MW and dominated also by E. acutifrons along with other marine taxa. Zooplankton diversity responded to the salinity gradient in a manner expected from Remane's curve. The results of this study support others which have shown salinity to be the main factor driving zooplankton community composition and diversity. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mohan, Vathsala; Cruz, Cristina D.; van Vliet, Arnoud H. M.; Pitman, Andrew R.; Visnovsky, Sandra B.; Rivas, Lucia; Gilpin, Brent; Fletcher, Graham C. (2021)
    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne human pathogen that causes systemic infection, fetal-placental infection in pregnant women causing abortion and stillbirth and meningoencephalitis in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. This study aimed to analyse L. monocytogenes from different sources from New Zealand (NZ) and to compare them with international strains. We used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to study the population structure of the NZ L. monocytogenes isolates and their relationship with the international strains. The NZ isolates formed unique clusters in PFGE, MLST and whole-genome SNP comparisons compared to the international isolates for which data were available. PFGE identified 31 AscI and 29 ApaI PFGE patterns with indistinguishable pulsotypes being present in seafood, horticultural products and environmental samples. Apart from the Asc0002:Apa0002 pulsotype which was distributed across different sources, other pulsotypes were site or factory associated. Wholegenome analysis of 200 randomly selected L. monocytogenes isolates revealed that lineage II dominated the NZ L. monocytogenes populations. MLST comparison of international and NZ isolates with lineage II accounted for 89% (177 of 200) of the total L. monocytogenes population, while the international representation was 45.3% (1674 of 3473). Rarefaction analysis showed that sequence type richness was greater in NZ isolates compared to international trend, however, it should be noted that NZ isolates predominantly came from seafood, horticulture and their respective processing environments or factories, unlike international isolates where there was a good mixture of clinical, food and environmental isolates.
  • Pilla, Rachel M.; Mette, Elizabeth M.; Williamson, Craig E.; Adamovich, Boris V.; Adrian, Rita; Anneville, Orlane; Balseiro, Esteban; Ban, Syuhei; Chandra, Sudeep; Colom-Montero, William; Devlin, Shawn P.; Dix, Margaret A.; Dokulil, Martin T.; Feldsine, Natalie A.; Feuchtmayr, Heidrun; Fogarty, Natalie K.; Gaiser, Evelyn E.; Girdner, Scott F.; González, María J.; Hambright, K. David; Hamilton, David P.; Havens, Karl; Hessen, Dag O.; Hetzenauer, Harald; Higgins, Scott N.; Huttula, Timo H.; Huuskonen, Hannu; Isles, Peter D. F.; Joehnk, Klaus D.; Keller, Wendel Bill; Klug, Jen; Knoll, Lesley B.; Korhonen, Johanna; Korovchinsky, Nikolai M.; Köster, Oliver; Kraemer, Benjamin M.; Leavitt, Peter R.; Leoni, Barbara; Lepori, Fabio; Lepskaya, Ekaterina V.; Lottig, Noah R.; Luger, Martin S.; Maberly, Stephen C.; MacIntyre, Sally; McBride, Chris; McIntyre, Peter; Melles, Stephanie J.; Modenutti, Beatriz; Müller-Navarra, Dörthe C.; Pacholski, Laura; Paterson, Andrew M.; Pierson, Don C.; Pislegina, Helen V.; Plisnier, Pierre-Denis; Richardson, David C.; Rimmer, Alon; Rogora, Michela; Rogozin, Denis Y.; Rusak, James A.; Rusanovskaya, Olga O.; Sadro, Steve; Salmaso, Nico; Saros, Jasmine E.; Sarvala, Jouko; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Schindler, Daniel E.; Shimaraeva, Svetlana V.; Silow, Eugene A.; Sitoki, Lewis M.; Sommaruga, Ruben; Straile, Dietmar; Strock, Kristin E.; Swain, Hilary; Tallant, Jason M.; Thiery, Wim; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Tolomeev, Alexander P.; Tominaga, Koji; Vanni, Michael J.; Verburg, Piet; Vinebrooke, Rolf D.; Wanzenböck, Josef; Weathers, Kathleen; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Zadereev, Egor S.; Zhukova, Tatyana V. (Nature, 2021)
    Scientific Data 8 (2021), 200
    Climate change and other anthropogenic stressors have led to long-term changes in the thermal structure, including surface temperatures, deepwater temperatures, and vertical thermal gradients, in many lakes around the world. Though many studies highlight warming of surface water temperatures in lakes worldwide, less is known about long-term trends in full vertical thermal structure and deepwater temperatures, which have been changing less consistently in both direction and magnitude. Here, we present a globally-expansive data set of summertime in-situ vertical temperature profiles from 153 lakes, with one time series beginning as early as 1894. We also compiled lake geographic, morphometric, and water quality variables that can influence vertical thermal structure through a variety of potential mechanisms in these lakes. These long-term time series of vertical temperature profiles and corresponding lake characteristics serve as valuable data to help understand changes and drivers of lake thermal structure in a time of rapid global and ecological change.
  • Harmoinen, Katri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    New Zealand is an isolated landmass laying in the Southwest Pacific waters, far away from any major islands or continents. It was the last major landmass to be colonized by people, discovered by the first Polynesian explorers around a thousand years ago. Historically, New Zealand lacked all native mammals (apart from three species of bats) and so has developed a plethora of bird species and other endemic wildlife. The absence of mammalian predators, combined with the continuous isolation for millions of years, has led the evolution of some very unique and charismatic species. One of these species is the iconic symbol of New Zealand – the kiwi (Apteryx spp). The biggest challenge to the New Zealand wildlife has been the introduction of mammalian species to the New Zealand ecosystem. There are 25 species of introduced mammals in New Zealand today that are regarded as pests. The devastation caused by these species is the main cause for the dramatic decline of the endemic New Zealand wildlife, including the iconic kiwi. Nationally, kiwi continue to decline by more than 2% annually and there are estimates of the species going extinct from the wild within 50 years. Since the first more permanent human settlement, more than 50% of the New Zealand breeding birds have gone extinct. In this thesis, the relation between kiwi and introduced mammalian species around the township of Whakatāne, New Zealand, was studied. During summer 2018-2019, three out of eight monitored kiwi chicks were predated by a suspected mustelid/mustelids and DNA swabs were obtained from the bite sites. Volunteer pest trappers were then asked to bring in all their catches in an attempt to catch the individual/individuals responsible for the predations. Molecular tools including microsatellites were used to create ID profiles in an attempt to match the profiles to those obtained from the kiwi chicks. In the second part of the study, the stoats’ stomachs were analysed as part of a diet study. A new, kiwi specific DNA probe was trialled and the remaining stomach contents were sequenced for other native wildlife species. Out of the three predated kiwi chicks, all of them were confirmed to be stoat predations. Unfortunately, none of the stoat ID profiles obtained matched the profile of the kiwi chick Ranui who was the only chick a good micro-satellite profile was obtained for. This confirmed that the stoat/stoats responsible for the predation of Ranui was not caught as part of this study. In the diet part of this thesis, we trialled the kiwi specific probe but could not identify any kiwi DNA in the stoat stomach contents. The DNA sequencing however revealed five other species: tomtit (lat. Petroica macrocephala, 100%), common chaffinch (lat. Frigilla coelebs, 100%), tui (lat. Prosthemadera novaseelandiae, 96%), European hare (lat. Lepus europaeus,100%) and copper skink (lat. Cyclodina aenea, 100%). These findings shed new light on the extent introduced mammalian species contribute to the species loss taking place in the New Zealand forests today. The use of molecular techniques and tools in conservation offers an often faster, cost-efficient and more reliable alternative to traditional monitoring methods of introduced species. The rapid development of these tools has seen New Zealand taking critical steps towards one day becoming predator free. The ambitious goal to rid New Zealand of target introduced species (mustelids, possums and rats) by year 2050 (Predator Free 2050), has been compared as the New Zealand equivalent of putting the man on the moon.
  • Mason, Euan G.; Whyte, A. Graham D. (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1997)
    A sensitive framework has been developed for modelling young radiata pine survival, its growth and its size class distribution, from time of planting to age 5 or 6 years. The data and analysis refer to the Central North Island region of New Zealand. The survival function is derived from a Weibull probability density function, to reflect diminishing mortality with the passage of time in young stands. An anamorphic family of trends was used, as very little between-tree competition can be expected in young stands. An exponential height function was found to fit best the lower portion of its sigmoid form. The most appropriate basal area/ha exponential function included an allometric adjustment which resulted in compatible mean height and basal area/ha models. Each of these equations successfully represented the effects of several establishment practices by making coefficients linear functions of site factors, management activities and their interactions. Height and diameter distribution modelling techniques that ensured compatibility with stand values were employed to represent the effects of management practices on crop variation. Model parameters for this research were estimated using data from site preparation experiments in the region and were tested with some independent data sets.