Browsing by Subject "Next-generation sequencing"

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  • Veija, Tuukka; Koljonen, Virve; Bohling, Tom; Kero, Mia; Knuutila, Sakari; Sarhadi, Virinder K (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Distinct characteristic features categorize Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) into two subgroups according to the Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Many mutational studies on MCC have been carried out in recent years without identifying a prominent driver mutation. However, there is paucity reporting the expression of cancer genes at the RNA level in MCC tumors. In this study, we studied the RNA expression profiles of 26 MCC tumors, with a goal to identify prospective molecular targets that could improve the treatment strategies of MCC. Methods RNA expression of 50 cancer-related genes in 26 MCC tumors was analyzed by targeted amplicon based next-generation sequencing using the Ion Torrent technology and the expression compared with that of normal, non-cancerous skin samples. Sequencing data were processed using Torrent Suite™ Software. Expression profiles of MCV-negative and MCV-positive tumors were compared. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to study ALK rearrangements and immunohistochemistry to study ALK expression in tumor tissue. Results ALK, CDKN2A, EZH2 and ERBB4 were overexpressed, and EGFR, ERBB2, PDGFRA and FGFR1 were underexpressed in MCC tumors compared to normal skin. In the MCV-negative tumors, MET, NOTCH1, FGFR3, and SMO were overexpressed and JAK3 and NPM1 were under-expressed compared to the MCV-positive tumors. Conclusions High expression of ALK, CDKN2A and EZH2 was recorded in MCC tumors. No ALK fusion was seen by FISH analysis. Overexpression of EZH2 suggests its potential as a drug target in MCC.
  • Veija, T.; Koljonen, V.; Bohling, T.; Kero, M.; Knuutila, S.; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Distinct characteristic features categorize Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) into two subgroups according to the Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. Many mutational studies on MCC have been carried out in recent years without identifying a prominent driver mutation. However, there is paucity reporting the expression of cancer genes at the RNA level in MCC tumors. In this study, we studied the RNA expression profiles of 26 MCC tumors, with a goal to identify prospective molecular targets that could improve the treatment strategies of MCC. METHODS: RNA expression of 50 cancer-related genes in 26 MCC tumors was analyzed by targeted amplicon based next-generation sequencing using the Ion Torrent technology and the expression compared with that of normal, non-cancerous skin samples. Sequencing data were processed using Torrent Suite Software. Expression profiles of MCV-negative and MCV-positive tumors were compared. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed to study ALK rearrangements and immunohistochemistry to study ALK expression in tumor tissue. RESULTS: ALK, CDKN2A, EZH2 and ERBB4 were overexpressed, and EGFR, ERBB2, PDGFRA and FGFR1 were underexpressed in MCC tumors compared to normal skin. In the MCV-negative tumors, MET, NOTCH1, FGFR3, and SMO were overexpressed and JAK3 and NPM1 were under-expressed compared to the MCV-positive tumors. CONCLUSIONS: High expression of ALK, CDKN2A and EZH2 was recorded in MCC tumors. No ALK fusion was seen by FISH analysis. Overexpression of EZH2 suggests its potential as a drug target in MCC.
  • Alburkat, Hussein (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    LCMV Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus is a rodent-borne pathogen belongs to Arenaviridae family. Most of the studies have referred Mus musculus as the main reservoir of the LCMV. It has been detected in pet rodents, laboratory rodents, and wild mice. Humans be infected with LCMV through the ingestion or inhalation of sources contaminated with rodent feces, urine, or both. LCMV infection can be asymptomatic, present with mild symptoms, or it can cause aseptic meningoencephalitis (AME) and teratogenic effects in infants. However, clinical cases of LCMV infection have been rarely reported, and there is only fragmental knowledge on the presence and prevalence of LCMV infections around the world. Likewise, the genetic characteristics of the circulating LCMV strains and impact of LCMV on public health have remained poorly characterized. This study was performed in the Southern Iraq, due to the lack of comprehensive information about LCMV in this area. There were three main aims in this thesis. First, to assess the prevalence of LCMV among the healthy human population in the Nasiriyah region, southern Iraq. Second, to assess whether LCMV infections can be associated with neurological manifestations. Third, to characterize the genetic variation and evolutionary history of LCMV strains circulating in southern Iraq. Serum and CSF samples were collected from patients and healthy people in Nasiriyah governorate in the Southern Iraq. Serum samples were screened for LCMV using Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) to detect IgG and IgM antibodies. Real-time PCR was used to detect LCMV genome. In order to confirm the PCR positive samples, we sequenced these samples by Next-generation sequencing. The serological assay results showed 12.22% IgG prevalence of LCMV among healthy people and 7.36% IgG prevalence among patients with neurological symptoms. The IgM prevalence was 1.25% among the patients with acute infections. From symptomatic patients, we sequenced partial L-segments of two new LCMV strains. The phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of all known LCMV strains suggested that these new LCMV strains from Iraq are genetically distant from the previously known LCMV strains and form a novel sub-cluster within LCMV species. This study is the first survey of LCMV in the Southern Iraq. LCMV appears to be a rather common infection in Iraq. I reported new strains of LCMV that are circulating in the study site and most likely is the causative agent of the central nervous system-associated clinical manifestations in these patients. For future work, I’m aiming the detection of other Arenaviruses spreading in the Southern Iraq.
  • Tran, Quoc Ty; Jatsenko, Tatjana; Poolamets, Olev; Tsuiko, Olga; Lubenets, Dmitri; Reimand, Tiia; Punab, Margus; Peters, Maire; Salumets, Andres (2019)
    PurposeThe purpose of this study was to develop a feasible approach for single sperm isolation and chromosome analysis by next-generation sequencing (NGS).MethodsSingle sperm cells were isolated from semen samples of normozoospermic male and an infertile reciprocal translocation (RcT) carrier with the 46,XY,t(7;13)(p12;q12.1) karyotype using the optimized fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) technique. Genome profiling was performed using NGS.ResultsFollowing whole-genome amplification, NGS,and quality control, the final chromosome analysis was performed on 31 and 6 single cell samples derived from the RcT carrier and normozoospermic male, respectively. All sperm cells from normozoospermic male showed a normal haploid 23-chromosome profile. For the RcT carrier, the sequencing data revealed that 64.5% of sperm cells harbored different variants of chromosome aberrations, involving deletion of 7p or 7q, duplication of 7p, and duplication of 13q, which is concordant with the expected chromosome segregation patterns observed in balanced translocation carriers. In one sample, a duplication of 9q was also detected.ConclusionsWe optimized FACS protocol for simple and efficient isolation of single human sperm cells that subsequently enabled a successful genome-wide chromosome profiling and identification of segmental aneuploidies from these individual cells, following NGS analysis. This approach may be useful for analyzing semen samples of infertile men or chromosomal aberration carriers to facilitate the reproductive risk assessment.
  • Riesgo, Ana; Andrade, Sonia C. S.; Sharma, Prashant P.; Novo, Marta; Perez-Porro, Alicia R.; Vahtera, Varpu; Gonzalez, Vanessa L.; Kawauchi, Gisele Y.; Giribet, Gonzalo (2012)
    Traditionally, genomic or transcriptomic data have been restricted to a few model or emerging model organisms, and to a handful of species of medical and/or environmental importance. Next-generation sequencing techniques have the capability of yielding massive amounts of gene sequence data for virtually any species at a modest cost. Here we provide a comparative analysis of de novo assembled transcriptomic data for ten non-model species of previously understudied animal taxa.
  • Alhopuro, Pia; Vainionpää, Reetta; Anttonen, Anna-Kaisa; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Nevanlinna, Heli; Pöyhönen, Minna (2020)
    Germline mutations in theBRCA1andBRCA2genes cause hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC). Mutations in these genes are usually inherited, and reports ofde novo BRCA1/2mutations are rare. To date, only one patient with low-levelBRCA1mutation mosaicism has been published. We report on a breast cancer patient with constitutional somatic mosaicism of aBRCA2mutation.BRCA2mutation c.9294C>G, p.(Tyr3098Ter) was detected in 20% of reads in DNA extracted from peripheral blood using next-generation sequencing (NGS). TheBRCA2mutation was subsequently observed at similar levels in normal breast tissue, adipose tissue, normal right fallopian tube tissue and ovaries of the patient, suggesting that this mutation occurred early in embryonic development. This is the first case to report constitutional mosaicism for aBRCA2mutation and shows thatBRCA2mosaicism can underlie early-onset breast cancer. NGS forBRCA1/2should be considered for patients whose tumors harbor aBRCA1/2mutation and for individuals suggestive of genetic predisposition but without a family history of HBO.
  • Tšuiko, Olga; Dmitrijeva, Tuuli; Kask, Katrin; Tammur, Pille; Tõnisson, Neeme; Salumets, Andres; Jatsenko, Tatjana (2019)
    Balanced translocation carriers are burdened with fertility issues due to improper chromosome segregation in gametes, resulting in either implantation failure, miscarriage or birth of a child with chromosomal disorders. At the same time, these individuals are typically healthy with no signs of developmental problems, hence they often are unaware of their condition. Yet, because of difficulties in conceiving, balanced translocation carriers often turn to assisted reproduction, some of whom may also undergo preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) to improve the likelihood of achieving a successful pregnancy.
  • Tšuiko, Olga; Dmitrijeva, Tuuli; Kask, Katrin; Tammur, Pille; Tõnisson, Neeme; Salumets, Andres; Jatsenko, Tatjana (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Balanced translocation carriers are burdened with fertility issues due to improper chromosome segregation in gametes, resulting in either implantation failure, miscarriage or birth of a child with chromosomal disorders. At the same time, these individuals are typically healthy with no signs of developmental problems, hence they often are unaware of their condition. Yet, because of difficulties in conceiving, balanced translocation carriers often turn to assisted reproduction, some of whom may also undergo preimplantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (PGT-A) to improve the likelihood of achieving a successful pregnancy. Case report We describe a female patient, who pursued in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment coupled with PGT-A following two consecutive miscarriages, unaware of her genetic condition. PGT-A was performed on blastocyst-stage embryos and the results of comprehensive chromosome screening from a first IVF cycle demonstrated reciprocal segmental aberrations on chromosome 7 and chromosome 10 in two out of four embryos. Due to distinct embryo profiles, the couple was then referred for genetic counselling and subsequent parental karyotyping revealed the presence of a previously undetected balanced translocation in the mother. Conclusions These results confirm previous reports that genome-wide PGT-A can facilitate the identification of balanced translocation carriers in IVF patients, providing explanation for poor reproductive outcome and allowing adjustments in treatment strategies.
  • Trotta, Luca; Norberg, Anna; Taskinen, Mervi; Beziat, Vivien; Degerman, Sofie; Wartiovaara-Kautto, Ulla; Välimaa, Hannamari; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Seppänen, Mikko; Saarela, Janna; Koskenvuo, Minna; Martelius, Timi (2018)
    Background: The telomere biology disorders (TBDs) include a range of multisystem diseases characterized by mucocutaneous symptoms and bone marrow failure. In dyskeratosis congenita (DKQ, the clinical features of TBDs stem from the depletion of crucial stem cell populations in highly proliferative tissues, resulting from abnormal telomerase function. Due to the wide spectrum of clinical presentations and lack of a conclusive laboratory test it may be challenging to reach a clinical diagnosis, especially if patients lack the pathognomonic clinical features of TBDs. Methods: Clinical sequencing was performed on a cohort of patients presenting with variable immune phenotypes lacking molecular diagnoses. Hypothesis-free whole-exome sequencing (WES) was selected in the absence of compelling diagnostic hints in patients with variable immunological and haematological conditions. Results: In four patients belonging to three families, we have detected five novel variants in known TBD-causing genes (DKC1, TERT and RTEL1). In addition to the molecular findings, they all presented shortened blood cell telomeres. These findings are consistent with the displayed TBD phenotypes, addressing towards the molecular diagnosis and subsequent clinical follow-up of the patients. Conclusions: Our results strongly support the utility of WES-based approaches for routine genetic diagnostics of TBD patients with heterogeneous or atypical clinical presentation who otherwise might remain undiagnosed.
  • Trotta, Luca; Norberg, Anna; Taskinen, Mervi; Béziat, Vivien; Degerman, Sofie; Wartiovaara-Kautto, Ulla; Välimaa, Hannamari; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Seppänen, Mikko; Saarela, Janna; Koskenvuo, Minna; Martelius, Timi (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background The telomere biology disorders (TBDs) include a range of multisystem diseases characterized by mucocutaneous symptoms and bone marrow failure. In dyskeratosis congenita (DKC), the clinical features of TBDs stem from the depletion of crucial stem cell populations in highly proliferative tissues, resulting from abnormal telomerase function. Due to the wide spectrum of clinical presentations and lack of a conclusive laboratory test it may be challenging to reach a clinical diagnosis, especially if patients lack the pathognomonic clinical features of TBDs. Methods Clinical sequencing was performed on a cohort of patients presenting with variable immune phenotypes lacking molecular diagnoses. Hypothesis-free whole-exome sequencing (WES) was selected in the absence of compelling diagnostic hints in patients with variable immunological and haematological conditions. Results In four patients belonging to three families, we have detected five novel variants in known TBD-causing genes (DKC1, TERT and RTEL1). In addition to the molecular findings, they all presented shortened blood cell telomeres. These findings are consistent with the displayed TBD phenotypes, addressing towards the molecular diagnosis and subsequent clinical follow-up of the patients. Conclusions Our results strongly support the utility of WES-based approaches for routine genetic diagnostics of TBD patients with heterogeneous or atypical clinical presentation who otherwise might remain undiagnosed.
  • Almeida, Joao R.; Pinho, Armando J.; Oliveira, Jose L.; Fajarda, Olga; Pratas, Diogo (2020)
    Next-generation sequencing triggered the production of a massive volume of publicly available data and the development of new specialised tools. These tools are dispersed over different frameworks, making the management and analyses of the data a challenging task. Additionally, new targeted tools are needed, given the dynamics and specificities of the field. We present GTO, a comprehensive toolkit designed to unify pipelines in genomic and proteomic research, which combines specialised tools for analysis, simulation, compression, development, visualisation, and transformation of the data. This toolkit combines novel tools with a modular architecture, being an excellent platform for experimental scientists, as well as a useful resource for teaching bioinformatics enquiry to students in life sciences. GTO is implemented in C language and is available, under the MIT license, at https://bioinformatics.ua.pt/gto. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Söderhäll, Cilla; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Kere, Juha (2019)
    Background Standard RNAseq methods using bulk RNA and recent single-cell RNAseq methods use DNA barcodes to identify samples and cells, and the barcoded cDNAs are pooled into a library pool before high throughput sequencing. In cases of single-cell and low-input RNAseq methods, the library is further amplified by PCR after the pooling. Preparation of hundreds or more samples for a large study often requires multiple library pools. However, sometimes correlation between expression profiles among the libraries is low and batch effect biases make integration of data between library pools difficult. Results We investigated 166 technical replicates in 14 RNAseq libraries made using the STRT method. The patterns of the library biases differed by genes, and uneven library yields were associated with library biases. The former bias was corrected using the NBGLM-LBC algorithm, which we present in the current study. The latter bias could not be corrected directly, but could be solved by omitting libraries with particularly low yields. A simulation experiment suggested that the library bias correction using NBGLM-LBC requires a consistent sample layout. The NBGLM-LBC correction method was applied to an expression profile for a cohort study of childhood acute respiratory illness, and the library biases were resolved. Conclusions The R source code for the library bias correction named NBGLM-LBC is available at and . This method is applicable to correct the library biases in various studies that use highly multiplexed sequencing-based profiling methods with a consistent sample layout with samples to be compared (e.g., "cases" and "controls") equally distributed in each library.
  • Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Söderhäll, Cilla; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Kere, Juha (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Standard RNAseq methods using bulk RNA and recent single-cell RNAseq methods use DNA barcodes to identify samples and cells, and the barcoded cDNAs are pooled into a library pool before high throughput sequencing. In cases of single-cell and low-input RNAseq methods, the library is further amplified by PCR after the pooling. Preparation of hundreds or more samples for a large study often requires multiple library pools. However, sometimes correlation between expression profiles among the libraries is low and batch effect biases make integration of data between library pools difficult. Results We investigated 166 technical replicates in 14 RNAseq libraries made using the STRT method. The patterns of the library biases differed by genes, and uneven library yields were associated with library biases. The former bias was corrected using the NBGLM-LBC algorithm, which we present in the current study. The latter bias could not be corrected directly, but could be solved by omitting libraries with particularly low yields. A simulation experiment suggested that the library bias correction using NBGLM-LBC requires a consistent sample layout. The NBGLM-LBC correction method was applied to an expression profile for a cohort study of childhood acute respiratory illness, and the library biases were resolved. Conclusions The R source code for the library bias correction named NBGLM-LBC is available at https://shka.github.io/NBGLM-LBC and https://shka.bitbucket.io/NBGLM-LBC . This method is applicable to correct the library biases in various studies that use highly multiplexed sequencing-based profiling methods with a consistent sample layout with samples to be compared (e.g., “cases” and “controls”) equally distributed in each library.
  • Ritari, Jarmo; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Lahti, Leo; de Vos, Willem M. (2015)
    Background: Current sequencing technology enables taxonomic profiling of microbial ecosystems at high resolution and depth by using the 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker. Taxonomic assignation of newly acquired data is based on sequence comparisons with comprehensive reference databases to find consensus taxonomy for representative sequences. Nevertheless, even with well-characterised ecosystems like the human intestinal microbiota it is challenging to assign genus and species level taxonomy to 16S rRNA amplicon reads. A part of the explanation may lie in the sheer size of the search space where competition from a multitude of highly similar sequences may not allow reliable assignation at low taxonomic levels. However, when studying a particular environment such as the human intestine, it can be argued that a reference database comprising only sequences that are native to the environment would be sufficient, effectively reducing the search space. Results: We constructed a 16S rRNA gene database based on high-quality sequences specific for human intestinal microbiota, resulting in curated data set consisting of 2473 unique prokaryotic species-like groups and their taxonomic lineages, and compared its performance against the Greengenes and Silva databases. The results showed that regardless of used assignment algorithm, our database improved taxonomic assignation of 16S rRNA sequencing data by enabling significantly higher species and genus level assignation rate while preserving taxonomic diversity and demanding less computational resources. Conclusion: The curated human intestinal 16S rRNA gene taxonomic database of about 2500 species-like groups described here provides a practical solution for significantly improved taxonomic assignment for phylogenetic studies of the human intestinal microbiota.
  • ESCV Network Next-Generation Seque; Xavier Lopez-Labrador, F.; Brown, Julianne R.; Fischer, Nicole; Auvinen, Eeva; de Vries, Jutte J. C. (2021)
    Metagenomic high-throughput sequencing (mHTS) is a hypothesis-free, universal pathogen detection technique for determination of the DNA/RNA sequences in a variety of sample types and infectious syndromes. mHTS is still in its early stages of translating into clinical application. To support the development, implementation and standardization of mHTS procedures for virus diagnostics, the European Society for Clinical Virology (ESCV) Network on Next-Generation Sequencing (ENNGS) has been established. The aim of ENNGS is to bring together professionals involved in mHTS for viral diagnostics to share methodologies and experiences, and to develop application recommendations. This manuscript aims to provide practical recommendations for the wet lab procedures necessary for implementation of mHTS for virus diagnostics and to give recommendations for development and validation of laboratory methods, including mHTS quality assurance, control and quality assessment protocols.
  • Avela, Kristiina; Salonen-Kajander, Riitta; Laitinen, Arja; Ramsden, Simon; Barton, Stephanie; Rudanko, Sirkka-Liisa (2019)
    Purpose To study the genetic aetiology and phenotypes of retinal degeneration (RD) in Finnish children born during 1993-2009. Methods Children with retinal degeneration (N = 68) were investigated during 2012-2014 with a targeted gene analysis or a next-generation sequencing (NGS) based gene panel. Also, a full clinical ophthalmological examination was performed. Results The cohort covered 44% (68/153) of the Finnish children with inherited RD born 1993-2009. X-linked retinoschisis, retinitis pigmentosa, Leber congenital amaurosis and cone-rod dystrophy were the most common clinical diagnoses in the study group. Pathogenic mutations were found in 17 retinal genes. The molecular genetic aetiology was identified in 77% of the patients (in 77% of the families) analysed by NGS method. Several founder mutations were detected including three novel founder mutations c.148delG in TULP1, c.2314C>R (p.Gln772Ter) in RPGRIP1 and c.533G>A (Trp178Ter) in TYR. We also confirmed the previous tentative finding of c.2944 + 1delG in GYCU2D being the most frequent cause of Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) in Finland. Conclusions Globally, RD is genetically heterogeneous with over 260 disease genes reported so far. This was shown not to be the case in Finland, where the genetic aetiology of RD is caused by a small group of genes, due to several founder mutations that are enriched in the population. We found that X-chromosomal retinoschisis constitutes the major group in Finnish paediatric RD population and is almost exclusively caused by two founder mutations. Several other founder mutations were detected including three novel founder mutations. All in all, the genetic aetiology of 77% of families was identified which is higher than previously reported from other populations, likely due to the specific genomic constitution of the Finns.
  • Taheri, Sima; Abdullah, Thohirah Lee; Jain, Shri Mohan; Sahebi, Mahbod; Azizi, Parisa (2017)
    Induced mutations have been used effectively for plant improvement. Physical and chemical mutagens induce a high frequency of genome variation. Recently, developed screening methods have allowed the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the identification of traits that are difficult to identify at the molecular level by conventional breeding. With the assistance of reverse genetic techniques, sequence variation information can be linked to traits to investigate gene function. Targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) is a high-throughput technique to identify single nucleotide mutations in a specific region of a gene of interest with a powerful detection method resulted from chemical-induced mutagenesis. The main advantage of TILLING as a reverse genetics strategy is that it can be applied to any species, regardless of genome size and ploidy level. However, TILLING requires laborious and time-consuming steps, and a lack of complete genome sequence information for many crop species has slowed the development of suitable TILLING targets. Another method, high-resolution melting (HRM), which has assisted TILLING in mutation detection, is faster, simpler and less expensive with non-enzymatic screening system. Currently, the sequencing of crop genomes has completely changed our vision and interpretation of genome organization and evolution. Impressive progress in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has paved the way for the detection and exploitation of genetic variation in a given DNA or RNA molecule. This review discusses the applications of TILLING in combination with HRM and NGS technologies for screening of induced mutations and discovering SNPs in mutation breeding programs.