Browsing by Subject "Nickel"

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  • Puumi, Jukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    An overview on utilization of dual nickel/photocatalyst protocols to conduct aryl-heteroatom cross-coupling reactions is presented. Basic concepts of photocatalysis, including different relaxation pathways, the difference of singlet and triplet states, and parameters used to predict reactivity are first disclosed. The general components used in dual nickel/photocatalyst protocols are presented followed by the discussion on reactivity trends. The reactivity trends are compared with other common aryl-heteroatom cross-coupling protocols (Buchwald-Hartwig-, Ullmann- and Chan-Lam couplings) illustrating the general advantages and disadvantages of each cross-coupling method. The scope of different dual nickel/photocatalyst protocols are then explored, concentrating on cross-coupling of amines, alcohols/thiols and carboxylic acids. The developments in mechanistic understanding on the dual nickel/photocatalyst aryl-heteroatom cross-couplings in recent years are reviewed. It is concluded that photocatalytic single electron transfer-based cycles, proposed for a number of coupling protocols, are very unlikely to take place. It is made clear that, based on the current knowledge, two principle mechanism are reasonable: energy transfer or thermal Ni(I)/Ni(III) cycles. Problems concerning energy transfer mechanisms are also discussed. Finally, applicability of dual nickel/photocatalyst aryl-heteroatom cross-coupling for industrially significant transformations is briefly discussed.
  • Widdowson, Anna; Coad, Joseph Paul; Alves, Eduardo; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Catarino, Norberto; Corregidor, Victoria; Heinola, Kalle; Krat, Stepan; Makepeace, C.; Matthews, Guy F.; Mayer, Matej; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Sertoli, Marco (2019)
    Post mortem analysis shows that mid and high atomic number metallic impurities are present in deposits on JET plasma facing components with the highest amount of Ni and W, and therefore the largest sink, being found at the top of the inner divertor. Sources are defined as “continuous” or “specific”, in that “continuous” sources arise from ongoing erosion from plasma facing surfaces and “specific” are linked with specific events which decrease over time until they no longer act as a source. This contribution evaluates the sinks and estimates sources, and the balance gives an indication of the dominating processes. Charge exchange neutral erosion is found to be the main source of nickel, whereas erosion of divertor plasma facing components is the main source of tungsten. Specific sources are shown to have little influence over the global mid- and high-Z impurity concentrations in deposits.
  • Meouche, Walid; Laatikainen, Katri; Margaillan, Andre; Silvonen, Timka; Siren, Heli; Sainio, Tuomo; Beurroies, Isabelle; Denoyel, Renaud; Branger, Catherine (2017)
    Ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) for nickel were synthesized by inverse suspension copoly-merization of vinylbenzyl iminodiacetic acid (VbIDA) with ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) in the presence of nickel(II) ions with various porogen solvents to study their impact on the IIPs properties. They were prepared with mixtures of acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), 50/50%v/v, for IIP-A/D and 2-methoxyethanol and DMSO, 50/50%v/v, for IIP-M/D. The structure and properties of these polymers were compared with those of IIP-D previously prepared with pure DMSO as porogen solvent. Although IIP-A/D and IIP-M/D were less porous than IIP-D, they presented better nickel adsorption properties and selectivity towards Zn2+, Co2+ and Pb2+. This is assumed to be the result of the stabilization of the ligand-metal complex during the polymerization process. Moreover, the nickel binding capacities of the prepared IIPs in competitive conditions are remarkably high (184 mu mol/g for IIP-D, 170 mu mol/g for IIP-A/D and 174 mu mol/g for IIP-M/D). The impact of the VbIDA chelating monomer was highlighted by comparing the adsorption properties of a copolymer of methyl methacrylate (MMA) and EDMA with NIP-D. It was proved that the methacrylic polymer matrix has low binding properties. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.